The interval between two sessions of the Parliament should not be more than ................ .
- Two months
- Three months
- Four months
- Six months
The maximum composition of the Lok Sabha is:
|Lok Sabha member term
|Rajya Sabha member term
- 1 year
- 2 years
- 4 years
- 6 years
The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the ............... .
- Lok Sabha
- Rajya Sabha
- Prime Minister
A house has 350 members, on a given day 25 members are present. For which of the following reasons does the Speaker adjourn the session for the day?
- Indiscipline in the house
- Lack of quorum
- Business of the day is over
- There are no questions to admit
Lack of quorum
When a case comes from a Subordinate Court, the High Court deals with it under ................ .
- Revisory Jurisdiction
- Advisory Jurisdiction
- Original Jurisdiction
- Appellate Jurisdiction
Which of these was NOT an aim of the Indian National Congress?
- To train and organise public opinion in the country.
- To promote friendly relations between nationalists political workers.
- To make the world aware of the true nature of the British.
- To formulate popular demands and present them before the government.
To make the world aware of the true nature of the British.
................. announced that the successors of Bahadur Shah could not use imperial titles.
- Lord Canning
- Lord Wellesley
- Lord Dalhousie
- Lord Ripon
Which of these is not a repressive policy of Lord Lytton?
- Arms Act
- Ilbert Bill
- Vernacular Press Act
- Grand Delhi Durbar
Jyotiba Phule : Satya Shodak Samaj :: Raja Rammohan Roy : ...............
- Arya Samaj
- Brahmo Samaj
- Satya Shodak Samaj
- Prarthana Samaj
The Khilafat Movement was started in India by ............... .
- Ali Brothers
- Mahatma Gandhi
- Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan
The Non-Cooperation Movement was suspended due to the ................ .
- Gandhi-Irwin pact
- Chauri-Chaura Incident
- Cripps Mission
- Rowlatt Act
Which of the following clauses was Not part of the Indian Independence Act of 1947?
- There would be a Governor General for each Dominion.
- The country would be divided into two Dominions.
- The British Parliament had legislative control over India.
- There would be a division of army and assets.
The British Parliament had legislative control over India.
Which of the following is a common ideology of Fascism and Nazism?
- To believe in democracy
- To encourage political systems
- To uphold One party and one leader
- To support communism
To uphold One party and one leader
Hitler attacked Poland because he wanted to ................ .
- seize the coal mines
- militarise the Rhine valley
- regain the Danzing port
- control the trade
regain the Danzing port
Identify the founders of Non Aligned Movement.
- Nasser, Tito, Nehru
- Nasser, Nehru, Stalin
- Churchill, Stalin, Tito
- Tito, Sukarno, Roosevelt
Nasser, Tito, Nehru
Mr. Koushal is 26 years of age. Which House of Parliament can he be a member of? Why?
Mr. Koushal can become the member of Lok Sabha as his age is more than 25 years, which is the minimum age to be qualified for membership of Lok Sabha. He is not eligible for Rajya Sabha membership as his age is less than 30 years.
Ms. Anita wants to approach the Lok Adalat regarding a case. Mention any two advantages she will have by taking her case to the Lok Adalat.
Two advantages Ms. Anita will have by taking her case to the Lok Adalat are as follows:
- Ms. Anita will get speedy justice as Lok Adalats deliver fast judgement.
- Ms. Anita will get inexpensive justice as she will save on the costs involved in court procedures.
Mention any two ways in which the British ill-treated the Indian soldiers.
Two ways in which the British ill-treated the Indian soldiers are:
- Bleak prospects of promotion — All higher positions in employment were reserved for the British, irrespective of their performance. Indian Sepoys could not rise above the rank of a Subedar.
- Lower Salaries — The wages of the Indian Sepoys were inadequate to support their families. On the other hand, the British soldiers received more than eight times the salary of the Indian soldiers.
State any two objectives of the Muslim League.
Two objectives of the Muslim League are as follows:
- To promote among the Muslims of India, support for the British government and to remove any misconceptions regarding the intention of the government in relation to Indian Muslims.
- To protect and advance the political rights of the Muslims and to represent their needs and aspirations to the government in mild and moderate language.
What are the causes of the Quit India Movement?
The causes of the Quit India Movement are as follows:
- Failure of Cripp's Mission — In 1942, the failure of the Cripps' Mission left no further meeting ground between the British Government and the Congress.
- Japanese Threat — The Japanese Army had attacked Burma (Myanmar) and was marching towards Assam. The threat of Japanese invasion of India convinced the Indian leaders that for India's safety the British should withdraw from India immediately.
Mention any two objectives of the Indian National Army.
Two objectives of the Indian National Army were:
- To organise an armed revolution and to fight the British army with modern arms.
- Since it was not possible for the Indians to organise an armed revolution from their homeland, this task must be assigned to the Indians living abroad, particularly on Indians living in East Asia.
Mention any two objectives of the United Nations Organisation.
Two objectives of the United Nations Organisation are as follows:
- To maintain international peace and security, to take collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to peace, to suppress acts of aggression or other breaches of peace.
- To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of people.
PART II — SECTION A (CIVICS)
The Legislature makes the laws which govern the country. With reference to the Union Legislature answer the following questions:
(i) What is the maximum composition of the Rajya Sabha? Why is it called a Permanent House?
(ii) Mention any three exclusive powers of the Rajya Sabha.
(iii) Mention any four legislative powers of the Parliament.
(i) The maximum composition of the Rajya Sabha can be 250 members.
The Rajya Sabha is a permanent House as it cannot be dissolved like the Lok Sabha. Each member of the Rajya Sabha is elected for a period of six years. One-third of the total members of the House retire after every two years. Members can be re-elected if they so desire and if their electors support them.
(ii) Three exclusive powers of Rajya Sabha are-
- Though the Parliament cannot, in normal times, make laws on a states subject, the Constitution states that under Article 249, the Rajya Sabha may, by resolution adopted by two-thirds majority empower the Parliament should make laws with respect to a matter in the State List. The Lok Sabha has no authority to assert itself in such matters.
- The other special power enjoyed by the Rajya Sabha is that it may declare that the creation of new All-India Services be made in the national interest. Thereupon Parliament may create new services.
- If the Lok Sabha is dissolved before or after the declaration of a National Emergency, the Rajya Sabha becomes the sole de facto and de jure Parliament, i.e., it takes over the functions of the Parliament. It cannot be dissolved.
(iii) Four legislative powers of the Parliament are as follows:
- The Parliament has exclusive powers to make laws on all the subjects mentioned in the Union List, including important subjects like Defence, Banking, Communications etc.
- Along with the State Legislative Assemblies, the Parliament can make laws on the subjects listed in the Concurrent List, for example, education, forests, adoption, succession etc.
- The Parliament possesses residuary powers i.e., it can make laws with respect to all those matters which are not mentioned in any of the three lists - Union List, State List and Concurrent List.
- During the period of Emergency due to total breakdown of the Constitutional machinery in a State, the Parliament becomes the legislature in the State concerned and assumes all powers, including the financial powers of passing a State budget.
The President of India is the nominal head of the Union Administration. With reference to the President, answer the following questions:
(i) What is the term of the President? Give two reasons for the indirect election of the President.
(ii) Name the three kinds of emergencies which the President can declare.
(iii) State any four legislative powers of the President.
(i) The President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he/she enters upon his/her office. He/She shall continue to hold office, notwithstanding the expiry of his/her term, until his/her successor takes charge.
The President is elected by indirect elections because of the following reasons:
- If the President were to be elected directly by the people, he could become a rival centre of power to the Council of Ministers. This would be against the parliamentary system with ministerial responsibility.
- Since the membership in the two Houses of Parliament was likely to be dominated by one party, election of the President merely by a majority of members of the Union Parliament could make him a nominee of the ruling party like the Prime Minister. Such a President could not represent the constituent States of the Union.
(ii) The three kinds of emergencies which the President can declare are as follows:
- National or General Emergency
- Breakdown of Constitutional Machinery
- Financial Emergency
(iii) Four legislative powers of the President are as follows:
- Addresses Sessions of Parliament — The President addresses both Houses of Parliament assembled together for the first session after each General Election to the Lok Sabha and at the commencement of the first session of each year. In this address he lays emphasis on the internal and external policies of the Government. The President has the power to address either House of Parliament or their joint sitting at any time.
- Messages to Parliament — He has the power to send messages to either House of Parliament either in the regard to any pending Bill or to any other matter.
- Dissolve the Lok Sabha — He can dissolve the Lok Sabha and order fresh elections. Rajya Sabha is a permanent body, not subject to dissolution.
- Nomination of Members — The President nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha from among persons having special knowledge or practical experience in the matters of literature, science, art and social service.
An independent judiciary is a feature of federal governance. With reference to the Supreme Court, answer the following questions:
(i) Who appoints the judges of the Supreme Court? What is the composition of the Supreme Court?
(ii) Mention the three kinds of cases which come under the Appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
(iii) Explains the terms:
(a) Revisory Jurisdiction;
(b) Advisory Jurisdiction.
(i) A group of senior Supreme Court judges headed by the CJI would make recommendations to the President on who should be appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court. The CJI is required to consult the four senior most judges of the Supreme Court before making any recommendation to the President of India in this regard. This came to be known as the Collegium System which allows a college of persons (judges) to appoint judges.
The Supreme Court of India consists of a Chief Justice of India and not more than 33 other judges, until Parliament by law prescribes a larger number of judges.
(ii) Three kinds of cases which come under appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court are:
- Constitutional Cases — All matters irrespective of the nature, where a certificate is issued by a High Court that it involves an important point of law and needs interpretation of the Constitution, can be brought before the Supreme Court. If the High Court refuses to give a certificate on such a case the Supreme Court can grant special leave of appeal.
- Civil cases — Appeals in civil matters lie to the Supreme Court, if the High Court certifies:
- that the case involves a substantial question of law of general importance, and
- that the question needs to be decided by the Supreme Court
- Criminal Cases — Two types of appeals in criminal cases lie in the Supreme Court.
- Cases with the certificate of the High Court
- Cases without the certificate of the High Court. The certificate of the High Court is not required in a case:
- Where the High Court has reversed the judgement of acquittal given by the Lower Court and punished the accused with a death sentence.
- A case which is withdrawn by the High Court from a Subordinate Court and sentenced the accused to death.
(iii) (a) Revisory Jurisdiction — The Supreme Court under Article 137 is empowered to review any judgement or order made by it with a view to removing any mistake or error that might have crept in the judgement or order. This is because the Supreme Court is a court of record and its decisions are of evidentiary value and cannot be questioned in any court.
(b) Advisory Jurisdiction — The Supreme Court has advisory jurisdiction (to give its opinion) on any question of law or fact of public importance as may be referred to it for consideration by the President of India.
The Supreme Court may be required to express its opinion in two classes of matters, in an advisory capacity:
- Any question of law may be referred to the Supreme Court if the President considers that the question is of public importance and it is necessary to obtain the opinion of the Supreme Court. Such opinion of the Supreme Court is advisory and not binding on the Government nor is it executable as a judgement of the Supreme Court.
- Disputes arising out of pre-Constitution treaties and agreements which are excluded from original jurisdiction by Article 131.
PART II — SECTION B
The culmination of discontent against the British rule came with the Great Revolt of 1857. With reference to this, answer the following questions:
(i) What was Doctrine of Lapse? Name the queen who became a victim of this policy.
(ii) Mention any three economic causes of the Revolt.
(iii) Mention any four administrative changes made by the British after the Revolt.
(i) According to Doctrine of Lapse, if an Indian ruler died without a male heir his kingdom would come under the Company's territory in India.
The Queen of Jhansi, Rani Laxmi Bai became a victim of this policy.
(ii) Three economic causes of the Revolt were as follows:
- Decay of Cottage Industries and handicrafts — Heavy duties on Indian silk and cotton, disappearance of traditional patrons and buyers like the princes, chieftains and zamindars, decline of the traditional art of spinning and weaving lead to the decay of Cottage Industries and handicrafts making life of artisans miserable.
- Economic Decline of Peasantry — The peasantry bore the heavy burden of taxes to to provide money for the trade of the Company, for the cost of administration and the wars of British expansion in India. The economic decline of the peasants affected cultivation and led to many famines.
- Exploitation of Economic Resources — The British exploited the Indian resources for their own benefits. They made agricultural India an economic colony to serve the interests of industrial England.
(iii) The most significant result of the uprising of 1857 was the end of the rule of the East India Company and assumption of the Government of India directly by the Crown. This was done by the Government of India Act of 1858 which had the following provisions-
- It transferred the power to govern India from the East India Company to the British Crown.
- The Company's Board of Control and Court of Directors were abolished. The power was to be exercised by the Secretary of State for India, aided by a Council. The Secretary of State was a member of the British Cabinet and was responsible to the Parliament. Thus, the ultimate power over India remained with the British Parliament.
- Actual governance was to be carried on, as before, by the Governor-General who was also given the title of Viceroy or Crown's personal representative.
- Appointments to the Civil Service were to be made by open competition under rules made by the Secretary of State.
With reference to first and second phase of the Indian National Movement, answer the following:
(i) What was the objective of the Assertive Nationalists? Mention any two contributions of Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
(ii) Who partitioned Bengal? State any two actual reasons behind the Partition.
(iii) Mention any four methods used by the Early Nationalists.
(i) The main objective of the Assertive Nationalists was the immediate attainment of 'Swaraj'. This means complete independence and not just self government.
Two contributions of Bal Gangadhar Tilak were:
- Demand for Swaraj — Tilak was the first to openly declare the demand for Swaraj. "Swaraj is my birth right", he said, "and I shall have it".
- Established Home Rule League — Tilak set up a Home Rule League at Pune in 1916 to attain self-government within the British Empire by constitutional means.
(ii) Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal.
Two actual reasons behind the Partition of Bengal were:
- Bengal being the nerve centre of Indian nationalism posed as a significant threat to the British rule. So, the British hoped to stop the rising tide of nationalism by partitioning Bengal.
- The partition was meant to foster division on the basis of religion. East Bengal would be predominantly a Muslim majority state and West Bengal would have a Hindu majority.
(iii) Four methods adopted by Early Nationalists were as follows:
- To educate people in India in modern politics, they held meetings where speeches were made and resolutions for popular demands were passed.
- They made use of the press to criticise government policies
- They made use of three P's i.e. Petitions, Prayers and Protests. They sent petitions, requests and letters of protest to the British government to look into the problems of the Indians.
- A British Committee of the Indian National Congress was set up in London in 1889, which published a weekly journal, India, to present India's case before the British public.
The mass phase of the National Movement led to the freedom of India. With reference to this phase, answer the following questions:
(i) What were the causes of the Civil Disobedience Movement? Name the march which marked the beginning of this movement.
(ii) Mention any three causes of the Non-Cooperation Movement.
(iii) Mention any four clauses of the Mountbatten Plan.
(i) The causes of the Civil Disobedience Movement were as follows:
- Simon Commission — It was an all-British Commission appointed in November 1927 to investigate the need for further constitutional reforms in India. It had no Indian member. This was seen as a deliberate insult to the self-respect of the Indians.
- Demand for Poorna Swaraj — The British government did not accept the Nehru Report and the Congress passed the Poorna Swaraj resolution at its Lahore Session in 1929.
Dandi march marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement.
(ii) Three causes of the Non-Cooperation Movement are as follows:
- Rowlatt Act — The Rowlatt Act authorised the Government to imprison any person without trial and convict him in a court. It implied:
- Arrest of a person without warrant.
- In camera trial (trial in seclusion).
- Restrictions on movements of individuals.
- Suspension of the Right of Habeas Corpus.
- Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy — On 13 April 1919, General Dyer, the military Commander of Amritsar entered the Jallianwala Bagh with his troops, where a peaceful crowd had gathered. Without any warning, he ordered his troops to open fire at the unarmed crowd. About one thousand innocent demonstrators were killed and many more wounded.
- Khilafat Movement — In the First World War, Turkey was defeated and the Ottoman Empire was divided. The Sultan of Turkey, who was the religious head of Muslims, was deprived of all authority. This upset the Muslims and they started Khilafat movement, under the leadership of Ali brothers.
(iii) Four clauses of the Mountbatten Plan were as follows:
- Partition — The country would be divided into two Dominions, i.e., India and Pakistan.
- Relations between the two new Dominions — It was for the two Dominions to decide what relations they would have with the British Commonwealth and with each other.
- A Boundary Commission — A Boundary Commission would be created to settle the boundaries of the two Dominions in case partition was decided upon.
- The Princely States — As regards the Princely States, the treaties with them would come to an end. They would be free to associate themselves with either of the Dominions or to remain independent.
Look at the picture and answer the following questions:
(i) Identify and briefly explain the incident given in the picture.
(ii) Mention any four conditions imposed on Germany in the Treaty of Versailles.
(iii) Name the organisation established to maintain peace after the First World War. Mention any three of its objectives.
(i) The picture shows the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the Crown Prince of Austria and his wife at Sarajevo, by Gavrilo Princep, an Austrian subject. It became the immediate cause of the First World War.
- The assassin, Gavrilo Princep was an Austrian subject, but Serbia was blamed for Archduke's assassination.
- Austria sent an ultimatum to Serbia with many demands.
- The Serbian government refused to accept some of the demands and Austria declared war on Serbia on 28 July, 1914.
(ii) Four conditions imposed on Germany in the Treaty of Versailles are as follows:
- The area of the Rhine Valley was to be demilitarised and the German territory west of Rhine was to be occupied by the Allied Troops for 15 years.
- Germany lost Alsace Lorraine to France; Eupen-et-Malmedy to Belgium, Schleswig to Denmark. Danzig became a Free Port in the Polish territory.
- Germany ceded parts of her pre-War territory to Denmark, Belgium, Poland, Czechoslovakia and France.
- The coal mines in the German area called Saar were ceded to France for 15 years and the area was to be governed by the League of Nations.
(iii) League of Nations was established to maintain peace after the First World War.
Three objectives of League of Nations were as follows:
- All the States of the world were prohibited from entering into any secret treaties and alliances.
- The member-States were not supposed to maintain huge armies, warships and destructive armaments.
- All States were to respect each other's independence.
The United Nations Organisation was established to maintain peace in the world. With reference to this organisation, answer the following questions:
(i) What is the composition of the Security Council?
(ii) Mention any three functions of the International Court of Justice.
(iii) What is the full form of UNESCO? Mention any three of its functions.
(i) The Security Council consists of 15 members.
- It has five permanent members —
- The United States of America
- The regional representation of the ten non-permanent members is:
- Afro-Asian countries — 5
- Latin American countries — 2
- West European and other countries — 2
- East European countries — 1.
- The ten non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly by a two-third majority for a term of two years.
- A retiring member is not eligible for immediate re-election.
- The Presidency of the Council rotates monthly, according to the English alphabetical listing of its member States.
(ii) Three functions of the International Court of Justice are:
- Voluntary Jurisdiction — The Court is competent to entertain a dispute if the States concerned agree to take the issue to it.
- Compulsory Jurisdiction — The International Court of Justice has compulsory Jurisdiction in the following areas:
- Against the background that a large number of treaties provide that disputes are submitted to the Court.
- Disputes pertaining to the interpretation of international law.
- Reparation, i.e., compensation to be made for the breach of an international obligation.
- Advisory Opinions — The advisory procedure of the International Court of Justice is open solely to international organisations. The only bodies at present authorised to request advisory opinions of the Court are five organs of the United Nations and 16 specialised agencies of the United Nations family.
(iii) The full form of UNESCO is United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation.
Three functions of UNESCO are-
- Removal of illiteracy by encouragement to adult education, distance-education and the open school system.
- It promotes basic research in fields like geology, mathematics, physics and oceanography.
- It assists developing countries to develop communication.