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Section B — Chapter 16

The Non-Aligned Movement

Class 10 - APC Modern History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

What is meant by Non-Alignment?

Answer

Non-Alignment means that nations which are non-aligned judge each issue on its own merits and do not toe the line of one or other super power.

Question 2

Name any two Architects (Founding Fathers) of the Non-Aligned Movement.

Answer

Two Architects (Founding Fathers) of the Non-Aligned Movement were Jawaharlal Nehru and Marshal Josip Tito.

Question 3

When and where was the first Non-Aligned Summit held?

Answer

The first Non-Aligned Summit was held in September, 1961 at Belgrade in former Yugoslavia.

Question 4

Mention any two principles of Panchsheel.

Answer

Two principles of Panchsheel are:

  1. Mutual respect for one another's territorial integrity.
  2. Mutual non-agression.

Question 5

Mention any two objectives of the Non-Aligned Movement.

Answer

Two objectives of the Non-Aligned Movement are:

  1. Abolition of Imperialism and Colonialism — The NAM believed in the self-determination, equality and freedom of all nations.
  2. Maintenance of International Peace — Non-Aligned nations worked for the maintenance of international peace and security. The course adopted by them was best designed to avoid war.

Question 6

Why did Nehru want India to follow the Non-Aligned Policy?

Answer

Nehru wanted India to follow the Non-Aligned Policy because he believed that India should not become Super Powers' playthings.

Question 7

Mention any two facts to suggest that Nehru played a key role in shaping and strengthening the Non-Aligned Movement.

Answer

Two facts to suggest that Nehru played a key role in shaping and strengthening the Non-Aligned Movement are:

  1. He coined and used the term 'Non-aligned' for the first time. He was the architect of India's foreign policy of non-alignment.
  2. He enunciated the five principles of Panchsheel, along with Zhou Enalai.

Question 8

Where was the 16th NAM Summit held? What was its theme?

Answer

The 16th NAM Summit was held at Tehran in Iran.

The theme of the Summit was 'Lasting Peace Through Joint Global Governance'.

Structured Questions

Question 1

With reference to the Non-Aligned movement answer the following questions:

(a) What is meant by the Non-Aligned movement?

(b) Mention the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence (Panchsheel) adopted at the Bandung conference.

(c) In the context of Panchsheel what does Co-existence mean?

Answer

(a) The Non-Aligned movement means that nations which are non-aligned judge each issue on its own merits and do not toe the line of one or other super power. It was a means to stay away from cold war. It does not mean submission to what is considered as evil, instead it is a positive approach to problems that confront nations.

(b) The Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existing (Panchsheel) adopted at the Bandung conference are:

  1. Mutual respect for one another's territorial integrity.
  2. Mutual non-agression.
  3. Non-interference in one another's internal affairs.
  4. Equality and working for each other's benefit.
  5. Peaceful Co-existence.

(c) In the context of Panchsheel, Co-existence means that "all nations and systems of government should exist side by side". In other words, no nation has a right to impose its system of governance or economic and social policies on other nations.

Question 2

With reference to the pioneers and objectives of the Non-aligned Movement answer the following questions:

(a) Who were the architects (founding fathers) of the Non-aligned Movement?

(b) Mention any four objectives of the Non-aligned Movement.

Answer

(a) The architects (founding fathers) of the Non-aligned Movement were Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Marshal Josip Tito of former Yugoslavia, Abdel Nasser of Eygpt and Sukarno of Indonesia.

(b) Four objectives of the Non-aligned Movement are:

  1. Abolition of Imperialism and Colonialism — The NAM believed in the self-determination, equality and freedom of all nations.
  2. Maintenance of International Peace — Non-Aligned nations worked for the maintenance of international peace and security. The course adopted by them was best designed to prevent war.
  3. An End to Racism — Non-Aligned Movement rejects racism and all forms of racial discrimination.
  4. Helping the United Nations — The NAM stressed the need to strengthen the United Nations to carry on its functions effectively.

Question 3

With reference to Nehru's role in the Non-Aligned Movement answer the following questions:

(a) How did Nehru define Non-Alignment?

(b) What was Nehru's contribution to deliberations of the Belgrade Conference in 1961?

(c) Give two examples when Nehru actually condemned aggression.

(d) How did Nehru's leadership help India establish itself as a powerful force in world affairs?

Answer

(a) Nehru defined Non-Alignment as "Non-alignment does not mean passivity of mind or action. It does not mean submission to what we consider evil. It is a positive and dynamic approach to such problems that confront us."

(b) The first NAM Summit was held at Belgrade. It issued a 'Statement on the Danger of War and Appeal for Peace'. Nehru was largely responsible for the adoption of the said Statement. He laid emphasis on negotiations for peace and disarmament.

(c) Two examples when Nehru actually condemned aggression are:

  1. During the Korean crisis (1950), Nehru as the Prime Minister of India, strongly condemned North Korean aggression against South Korea.
  2. India condemned the Anglo-French action in Egypt on the Suez Canal issue.

(d) India under Nehru's leadership pursued a policy which stood for (a) friendship and cooperation with all nations, and (b) peace in the world. It helped reduce tension in the world. Nehru did not seek to gain advantage by playing one power bloc against another. Also, he is remembered for his honesty. Nehru pleaded for Disarmament as the only means of preserving peace in the world.

Question 4

Persons shown here played a very important part in the founding of the Non-Aligned Movement. In this context answer the following questions:

Persons shown here played a very important part in the founding of the Non-Aligned Movement. Identify the persons. Name the countries they belonged to. Mention any three features of the Non-Aligned Movement. The Non-Aligned Movement, Apc Modern History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Identify the persons.

(b) Name the countries they belonged to.

(c) Mention any three features of the Non-Aligned Movement.

Answer

(a) The persons shown are

  • A → Abdel Nasser
  • B → Jawaharlal Nehru
  • C → Marshal Josip Tito

(b) Jawaharlal Nehru was from India, Marshal Josip Tito of erstwhile Yugoslavia and Abdel Nasser of Egypt.

(c) Following are the features of Non-Aligned Movement:

  1. Non-alignment does not mean Isolation — The non-aligned nations were not disinterested in World politics. They rather tried to strengthen ties of peace and friendship with all nations.
  2. Non-alignment neither means Neutrality — The non-aligned nations do not intervene on the side of one country against another but aim at resolving the crisis.
  3. Non-aligned nations maintained that they were not a bloc — They constituted a group of like-minded nations having similar aims and objectives.
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