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Section B — Chapter 14

United Nations Organisation: Origin, Objectives and the Principal Organs

Class 10 - APC Modern History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

What is United Nations Organisation?

Answer

The United Nations Organisation is an international organisation which was established to maintain world peace and secure the economic, social and political conditions. It includes almost all sovereign States of the world.

Question 2

Name the International Organisation which was set up after the tragedy of the First World War.

Answer

The International Organisation which was set up after the tragedy of the First World War was 'The League of Nations'.

Question 3

By whom was the name 'United Nations' devised? How many countries signed the UN Charter on 26th June, 1945?

Answer

The Name United Nations was devised by President Franklin D Roosevelt.

The UN Charter was signed by 50 nations on 26th June, 1945.

Question 4

How many countries are regarded to be the Original Members of the United Nations? Is India also one of the Original Members of the United Nations?

Answer

51 countries are considered as Original Members of the United Nations. India is one of the 51 original members of the United Nations.

Question 5

When did the United Nations formally come into existence?

Or

Which Day is celebrated as the UN Day every year?

Answer

October 24th is celebrated as the UN Day throughout the world as it came into existence on 24th october, 1945.

Question 6

Who can become the Member of the United Nations?

Answer

The membership is open to all peace-loving States which accept the obligations contained in the UN Charter.

Question 7

Mention any two objectives or purposes (aims) of the United Nations.

Answer

Two objectives or purposes (aims) of the United Nations are:

  1. To save succeeding generations from the "scourge of War".
  2. To maintain international peace and security and to take effective measures for removal of threats to the peace.

Question 8

Name the four Principal Organs of the United Nations.

Answer

The four Principal Organs of the United Nations are:

  1. The General Assembly
  2. The Security Council
  3. The International court of justice
  4. Economic and Social Council.

Question 9

Who constitute the UN General Assembly?

Answer

All the members of the United Nations are Members of the General Assembly. Each member shall not have more than five representatives in the General Assembly.

Question 10

Give two main functions of the UN General Assembly.

Answer

Two main functions of the UN General Assembly are:

  1. Discuss any question relating to peace and security.
  2. Regulates the working of other organs and agencies of United Nations.

Question 11

Mention two electoral functions of the UN General Assembly.

Answer

Two electoral functions of the UN General Assembly are:

  1. The assembly elects the non-permanent members of the Security Council and the members of the Economic and Social Council.
  2. It appoints the Secretary-General upon the recommendations of the Security Council.

Question 12

Name the Executive Organ (Enforcement Wing) of the United Nations.

Answer

The Security Council is the Executive Organ (Enforcement Wing) of the United Nations.

Question 13

What is the main responsibility of the UN Security Council?

Answer

The main responsibility of the UN Security Council is to maintain international peace and security.

Question 14

Name the five Permanent Members of the Security Council.

Answer

The five Permanent Members of the Security Council are:

  1. France
  2. China
  3. Britain
  4. Russia
  5. The United States of America.

Question 15

How are Non-permanent Members of the Security Council elected?

Answer

Non-permanent Members of the Security Council are elected by two-thirds majority for a two-year term.

Question 16

What is the term of office of the non-permanent members of the Security Council? Is a retiring Member eligible for immediate re-election?

Answer

The term of office of the non-permanent members of the Security Council is two years. A retiring Member is not eligible for immediate re-election.

Question 17

Mention any two functions of the Security Council.

Answer

Two functions of the Security Council are:

  1. It may investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction.
  2. It may resort to military action if needed.

Question 18

Name the judicial organ of the United Nations.

Answer

The International Court of Justice is the judicial organ of the United Nations.

Question 19

How can a state which is not a member of the United Nations become a party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice?

Answer

A state which is not a member of the United Nations may become a party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice on conditions to be determined by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

Question 20

Where is the permanent seat of International Court of Justice located?

Answer

The permanent seat of International Court of Justice is located at the Hague in the Netherlands.

Question 21

Mention the functions of the International Court of Justice as regards its Compulsory Jurisdiction.

Answer

The International Court of Justice has Compulsory Jurisdiction in the following areas:

  1. Against the background that a large number of treaties provide that disputes are submitted to the Court.
  2. Disputes pertaining to the interpretation of international law.
  3. Reparation, i.e., compensation to be made for the breach of an international obligation.

Question 22

What is the Advisory role of the International Court of Justice?

Answer

The General Assembly, the Security Council and other organs of the United Nations may request the Court to give an advisory opinion on any legal question. Between 1946 to 2005, the court gave advisory opinion in 25 cases. Two examples of such as cases are — (i) payment for injuries suffered in the service of the United Nations. (ii) Territorial status of Namibia and Western Sahara.

Question 23

What happens if a party to a case disregards the decision of the International Court of Justice?

Answer

If a party to a case disregards the decision of the International Court of Justice then the other party may have recourse to the Security Council. The Council decides upon measures to be taken to give effect to the judgement.

Structured Questions

Question 1

The United Nations was established to be an effective Peace-keeping International Organisation. In this context, explain any four of its objectives and purposes.

Answer

The four objectives and purposes of the United Nations are as follows:

  1. To save succeeding generations from the "scourge of war". The United Nations was established after the world saw two world wars which left a legacy of misery. There was increased suspicions and arms race due to the wars. So, it is very important to save the world from wars and destruction.
  2. To maintain international peace and security and to take effective measures for removal of threats to the peace. The United Nations aims to take collective measures to suppress acts of aggression or other breaches of peace. It promotes solving disputes peacefully by negotiations instead of using armed forces.
  3. To develop friendly relations among nations and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems. The United Nations encourages respect of human rights and for fundamental freedoms among member nations. It promotes principle of equal rights and self-determination of people.
  4. To establish conditions under which justice and respect for "international law" and "international treaties" can be maintained. Through its International Court of Justice, the United Nations aims to create a framework to settle the disputes arising under them in a peaceful manner.

Question 2

The General Assembly is a kind of Parliament of Nations. In this context, explain briefly:

(a) Its composition

(b) Four of its functions

(c) Importance of 'Uniting for Peace Resolution' of 1950 in maintaining peace

Answer

(a) Composition of the General assembly — All members of the United Nations are members of the General Assembly. Each member shall have not more than five representatives in the General Assembly. However, each State has one vote. The Assembly must meet once a year in September. In addition, the Special Sessions may be convened by the Secretary-General at the request of Security Council or of a majority of the members of the United Nations.

(b) Four functions of General Assembly are:

  1. Deliberative Functions — The Assembly may discuss any question relating to peace and security. It has the power to make recommendations for the purpose of promoting international cooperation in political field as well as in the economic, social, culture and health fields.
  2. Supervisory Functions — The General Assembly regulates the working of other organs and agencies of the United Nations. It receives and considers reports from the Security Council and other organs of the United Nations.
  3. Financial Functions — The General Assembly considers and approves the budget of the United Nations.
  4. Electoral Functions — The Assembly elects the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the members of the Economic and Social Council, members of International Court of Justice and appoints the Secretary-General upon the recommendations of the Security Council.

(c) With the adoption of 'Uniting for Peace Resolution' in 1950 the position of the Assembly has been considerably strengthened. If the Security Council is unable to reach a decision, because of lack of unanimity among the Permanent Members, the General Assembly can deal with the problem. It can make recommendations for 'collective measures' including the use of armed forces in case of aggression or breach of peace.

Question 3

The Security Council is a permanently functioning organ of the United Nations. In this context, describe the following:

(a) Its Membership

(b) Four of its Functions

(c) Veto power exercisable by its Permanent Members

Answer

(a) The Security Council consists of fifteen members, five being permanent members representing the 'Big Five' — China, France, Russia, Britain and the United States of America. The ten non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly by two-third majority for a two-year term. A retiring member is not eligible for immediate re-election.

(b) Four functions of the Security Council are:

  1. Investigatory Role — The Security Council may investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction. It may recommend appropriate methods of adjusting such disputes.
  2. Pacific Settlement of Disputes — The Security Council will ask the parties to a dispute to seek a solution by negotiation, mediation, arbitration or other peaceful means, such as a judicial settlement.
  3. Measures not involving the use of force — To call on members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression.
  4. Admission of New Members — New members are admitted by a two-thirds vote of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

(c) The negative vote of a permanent member is called a veto. The Council is powerless to act if any of the five permanent members uses the veto power. However abstinence from voting does not amount to a negative vote or veto.

Question 4

The International Court of Justice is the principal Judicial Organ of the United Nations. In this context, explain the following:

(a) Its Composition

(b) Its Compulsory Jurisdiction

(c) Its Voluntary Jurisdiction

(d) Its Advisory Function

Answer

(a) Composition of the International Court of Justice is as follows:

  1. It is composed of 15 judges elected to nine-year terms of office by the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council sitting independently of each other.
  2. It may not include more than one judge from any nationality.
  3. Elections are held every three years for one-third of the seats, and retiring judges may be re-elected.
  4. The Court elects its President and Vice-President for a three-year term. They may, when their term expires, be re-elected.
  5. The Court has the power to appoint its Registrar.

(b) The International Court of Justice has Compulsory Jurisdiction in the following areas:

  1. Against the background that a large number of treaties provide that disputes are submitted to the Court.
  2. Disputes pertaining to the interpretation of international law.
  3. Reparation, i.e., compensation to be made for the breach of an international obligation.

(c) Voluntary Jurisdiction — The Court is competent to entertain a dispute if the states concerned agree to take the issue to it.

(d) Advisory Function — The advisory procedure of the International Court of Justice is open solely to international organisations.

  1. The only bodies at present authorised to request advisory opinions of the Court are five organs of the United Nations and 16 specialised agencies of the United Nations family.
  2. Between 1946 to 2005, the Court has given 25 Advisory Opinions, concerning reparation for injuries suffered in the service of the United Nations, territorial status of South-West Africa and Western Sahara, etc.

Question 5

Study the picture given here and answer the questions that follow:

Identify the Organisation that has it as its Emblem. What is the colour and design of its Flag? Where are the headquarters of this Organisation located? Name the Judicial Organ of this Organisation and explain its Composition. How are the Judges of this court appointed? United Nations Organisation: Origin, Objectives and the Principal Organs, Apc Modern History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Identify the Organisation that has it as its Emblem. What is the colour and design of its Flag?

(b) Where are the headquarters of this Organisation located?

(c) Name the Judicial Organ of this Organisation and explain its Composition.

Or

How are the Judges of this court appointed?

Answer

(a) The given picture is the emblem of the United Nations Organisation.

The flag is light blue in colour and portrayed in white in its centre is the UN Emblem, a polar map of the world embraced by twin olive branches.

(b) The United Nations Organisation has its headquarters in New York City, USA.

(C) The Judicial Organ of this Organisation is the International Court of Justice.
The Court consists of 15 judges. The Security Council and the General Assembly each separately chooses fifteen judges. Of these, those 15 persons who are chosen by a majority vote in both bodies are elected the judges of the court. It may not include more than one judge from any nationality.

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