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Section A — Chapter 3

First Phase of the Indian National Movement

Class 10 - Total History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

Which period of the national movement is known as the period of the 'Early Nationalists'. Name any two leaders of the Congress who are known as 'Early Nationalists'.

Answer

The period of the national movement from the year 1885 to 1907 is known as the period of the 'Early Nationalists'.

Two leaders of the Congress who are known as 'Early Nationalists' are-

  1. W.C. Bonnerjee
  2. Dadabhai Naoroji

Question 2

Mention two reasons for the Early Nationalists' faith in the British sense of justice.

Answer

Two reasons for the Early Nationalists' faith in the British sense of justice were-

  1. They were of the opinion that the British would help Indians govern themselves according to western standards.
  2. They believed that continuation of the British connection with India was in the interest of both England and India.

Question 3

What were the two methods adopted by the Early Nationalists in the freedom struggle?

Answer

The two methods adopted by the Early Nationalists in the freedom struggle were-

  1. Constitutional and peaceful methods
  2. Three P's - Petitions, Prayers and Protests

Question 4

What was the belief of the Early Nationalists regarding the British rule in India?

Answer

The Early Nationalists believed the following regarding the British rule in India-

  1. The Early Nationalists had faith in the sense of justice, fair play, honesty and integrity of the British.
  2. It was their hope that the British would grant 'Home Rule' to Indians. They relied on the solemn pledges made by the British government.
  3. They believed that the British rule had many benefits. For example, it aided in cleansing social ills like sati, untouchability and child marriage.
  4. They were of the opinion that Britain would help Indians govern themselves according to western standards.

Question 5

What according to the Early Nationalists was an obstacle in India's progress? What kind of self government did the Early Nationalists demand?

Answer

According to the Early Nationalists, the main obstacle in India's progress was social and economic backwardness of Indians and not the British colonial rule.

The Early Nationalists demanded Self-government or Swaraj within the British empire like the self-governing colonies of Canada and Australia.

Question 6

State any two issues opposed by the Early Nationalists in the field of civil liberties.

Answer

Two issues opposed by the Early Nationalists in the field of civil liberties were-

  1. Removal of the restrictions imposed by the British Government on the freedom of speech, and the freedom of the press.
  2. Abolition of the Preventive Detention Act and restoration of individual liberties.

Question 7

Mention any two demands of the Early Nationalists that aimed at improving the lot of the peasants.

Answer

Two demands of the Early Nationalists that aimed at improving the lot of the peasants were-

  1. Reduction in land revenue and protection of peasants against unjust demands of the zamindars.
  2. Reduction in expenditure on the army and the money thus saved to be spent on welfare activities such as health and education.

Question 8

Mention any two constitutional demands made by the Early Nationalists.

Answer

Two constitutional demands made by the Early Nationalists were-

  1. Abolition of India Council.
  2. Expansion of the Legislative Council and Legislative Assemblies — both at the Centre and in the Provinces.

Question 9

Name any two economic issues raised by the Early Nationalists.

Answer

Two economic issues raised by the Early Nationalists were-

  1. Reduction in land revenue and protection of peasants against unjust demands of the zamindars.
  2. Reduction in expenditure on the army and the money thus saved to be spent on welfare activities such as health and education.

Question 10

What did the Early Nationalists demand for the industrial growth of India?

Answer

The Early Nationalists demanded industrial growth through trade protection. That means that a heavy tax should be imposed on imported goods and the government should give loans for the development of iron, coal, paper and sugar industries in India.

Question 11

Mention any two achievements of the Early Nationalists.

Answer

Two achievements of the Early Nationalists were-

  1. The Early Nationalists trained people in politics by popularising the ideas of democracy, civil liberties, secularism and nationalism.
  2. The Early Nationalists did pioneering work by exposing the true nature of the British rule in India. They made people realise the economic content and character of British imperialism. By doing so, they weakened the foundations of the British rule in India.

Question 12

Mention any two shortcomings of the Early Nationalists.

Answer

Two shortcomings of the Early Nationalists were-

  1. The methods used by the Early Nationalists of passing resolutions and sending petitions were criticised as inadequate. They depended on the generosity of the British instead of relying on their own strength and challenging the imperialist might.
  2. They failed to realise that British and Indian interests clashed with each other. Britain was using India's resources to increase its wealth.

Question 13

Who is known as India's unofficial ambassador and why?

Answer

Dadabhai Naoroji is known as India's unofficial ambassador because during his stay in England, he fought for the cause of his country.

Question 14

Who is the author of 'Poverty and Un-British Rule in India'? Name the first Indian who passed the Indian Civil Service Examination.

Answer

Dadabhai Naoroji is the author of 'Poverty and Un-British Rule in India'.

Surendranath Banerjee was the first Indian who passed the Indian Civil Service Examination.

Question 15

Against which two Acts did Surendranath Banerjee start an agitation?

Answer

Surendranath Banerjee started an agitation against the Licence Act and the Vernacular Press Act.

Question 16

List briefly any two causes that Gopal Krishna Gokhale supported.

Answer

Two causes that Gopal Krishna Gokhale supported were-

  1. Reduction in salt duty and the abolition of excise duty on cotton goods.
  2. Reduction in land revenue.

Structured Questions

Question 1

The period from 1885 to 1905 was dominated by the Early Nationalists. In this context, answer the following questions:

(a) To which segment of society they belonged? What were their demands?

(b) What methods did they adopt?

(c) How did the Early Nationalists help in the growth of nationalism in India?

Answer

(a) The members of the early nationalists were drawn from the educated middle class consisting of professionals like lawyers, barristers, teachers and officials, who drew inspiration from Western thought. Many of them were educated in England and felt that the British intended to be just to Indians but they were unaware of the true state of affairs in India.

The demands of the Early Nationalists were as follows:

  1. A larger share of Indians in the governance of the country
  2. Reduction in taxes and government expenditure
  3. Economic growth through trade protection
  4. Indianisation of services
  5. Complete separation of the executive and the judiciary
  6. Employment of Indians in higher grades
  7. Protection of civil rights

(b) The methods adopted by Early Nationalists were as follows:

  1. The Early Nationalists believed in the policy of constitutional agitation within the legal framework, and slow orderly political progress.
  2. To educate people in India in modern politics, to arouse national political consciousness and to create a united public opinion, they relied on the following methods:
    1. They held meetings where speeches were made and resolutions for popular demands were passed.
    2. They made use of the press to criticise government policies.
    3. They sent memorandums and petitions to government officials and the British Parliament. These petitions were carefully drafted with facts and arguments. Though these petitions were addressed to the government, their real aim was to educate the Indian people.
  3. To influence the British government and the British public, they followed the following methods:
    1. They made use of three P's i.e. Petitions, Prayers and Protests. They sent petitions, requests and letters of protest to the British government to look into the problems of the Indians.
    2. A British Committee of the Indian National Congress was set up in London in 1889, which published a weekly journal, India, to present India's case before the British public.
    3. Deputations of Indian leaders were sent to Britain. These political leaders carried on active propaganda in Britain.

(c) The Early Nationalists helped in the growth of nationalism in India in the following ways-

  1. Nationalists created national awakening among people that they belonged to one common country — India. This made Indians conscious of the bonds of common political, economic and cultural interests that united them.
  2. They trained people in politics by popularising the ideas of democracy, civil liberties, secularism and nationalism.
  3. They did pioneering work by exposing the true nature of the British rule in India. They made people realise the economic content and character of British imperialism. By doing so, they weakened the foundations of the British rule in India.
  4. Their political and economic programmes established the truth that India must be ruled in the interest of the Indians.
  5. The efforts of the Early Nationalists led to the following reforms:
    1. The appointment of a Public Service Commission in 1886
    2. A resolution of the House of Commons (1893) for simultaneous examination for the I.C.S. in London and India
    3. Appointment of the Welby Commission on Indian Expenditure (1895)
    4. The Indian Councils Act of 1892.

These achievements of the Early Nationalists served as a base for the national movement in later years.

Question 2

The Early Nationalists were practical and wanted to win freedom by a gradual process. In this context, answer the following:

(a) How did they expose the true nature of British rule in India?

(b) What was the attitude of the Early Nationalists towards the British? Why did they develop such an attitude?

(c) What were the reasons for the partial failure of their methods.

Answer

(a) The Early Nationalists played an important role in exposing the true nature of British rule in India. They did so in the following ways-

  1. Dadabhai Naoroji's views on Indian economy are given in his work entitled 'Poverty and Un-British Rule in India'. His famous 'Drain Theory' explained how India's wealth was being 'drained' to England through various ways.
  2. Resolutions on Self-government, Boycott, Swadeshi and National Education were passed by the Congress under Dadabhai's Presidentship.
  3. The Early nationalists criticised the British rule in newspapers, journals and magazines. They wrote and edited newspapers criticising the unjust policies of British.
  4. Surendranath Banerjee started agitation against the License Act, Arms Act and the Vernacular Press Act which aimed at curbing the nationalist activities of the people. Through these works, he made people aware of the colonial mindset of the British.

(b) The Early Nationalist leaders who led the Congress and the National Movement in its initial years were staunch believers in open-minded and 'moderate' politics. They believed in loyalty to the British Crown. They had the following attitude towards the British rule-

  1. The Early Nationalists had faith in the sense of justice, fair play, honesty and integrity of the British.
  2. It was their hope that the British would grant 'Home Rule' to Indians. They relied on the solemn pledges made by the British government.
  3. They believed that the British rule had many benefits. For example, it aided in cleansing social ills like sati, untouchability and child marriage.
  4. They were of the opinion that Britain would help Indians govern themselves according to western standards.
  5. They said that the main obstacle in India's progress was social and economic backwardness of Indians and not the British colonial rule.
  6. They relied on constitutional and peaceful methods to achieve their aims. They believed in patience and reconciliation rather than in violence and confrontation.

The Early Nationalists had such an attitude because they believed that continuation of the British connection with India was in the interest of both England and India.

(c) The reasons for the partial failure of the methods followed by the Early Nationalists were-

  1. The methods used by the Early Nationalists of passing resolutions and sending petitions depended on the generosity of the British instead of relying on their own strength and challenging the imperialist might.
  2. They failed to realise that British and Indian interests clashed with each other. Britain was using India's resources to increase its wealth.
  3. The Early Nationalists failed to draw the masses into the mainstream of the national movement. Their area of influence was limited to the urban educated Indians. In particular, their leadership was confined to professional groups such as lawyers, doctors, journalists and teachers.

Question 3

State Dadabhai Naoroji's contribution to India's freedom struggle under the following heads:

(a) His views about the nature of British imperialism.

(b) His achievement in strengthening Indian nationalism.

(c) His views on the cause of poverty in India.

Answer

(a) As an economic thinker, Dadabhai Naoroji came to the conclusion that the root cause for the economic ills of India was the exploitation of India by the British.

  1. He understood that the British were exploiting the resources of India for their own benefit.
  2. He founded the Bombay Association and edited the newspaper Rast Goftar.
  3. He started a magazine 'Dharma Marg Darshak' in which he criticised the unjust policies of the British.
  4. He started movements against Vernacular Press Act and the atrocious treatment of poor peasants by zamindars.

(b) Dadabhai Naoroji played a significant role in strengthening Indian nationalism. His role in the Congress was praiseworthy.

  1. He took an active part in the foundation of the Indian National Congress and was elected its President thrice, in 1886, 1893 and 1906 respectively.
  2. Resolutions on Self-government, Boycott, Swadeshi and National Education were passed by the Congress under his Presidentship.
  3. The credit for demanding Swaraj from the Congress platform for the first time (1906) goes to him.
  4. In his Presidential address, he said that the Congress wanted Self-government or Swaraj like that of the United Kingdom or the Colonies.

(c) Dadabhai Naoroji was an economic thinker.

  1. He came to the conclusion that the root cause for the economic ills of India was the exploitation of India by the British.
  2. Dadabhai's views on Indian economy are given in his work entitled 'Poverty and Un-British Rule in India'.
  3. His famous 'Drain Theory' explained how India's wealth was being 'drained' to England through various ways.

Question 4

Gopal Krishna Gokhale, the political mentor of Gandhiji, was one of the most popular Early Nationalist leaders. In this context, answer the following:

(a) State three policies of the imperial regime which were opposed by Gokhale.

(b) What role did he play as a member of Imperial Legislative Council?

(c) How did he try to arouse national awakening?

Answer

(a) Three policies of the imperial regime which were opposed by Gokhale were-

  1. Incurring huge expenditure on the British army
  2. Adopting the policy of racial discrimination in appointments to high posts
  3. Imposing production tax on cotton

(b) Gopal Krishna Gokhale's role as a member of Imperial Legislative Council-

  1. In 1902 Gokhale became the member of the Imperial Legislative Council. He pleaded in the Council for reduction in Salt Duty and the abolition of excise duty on cotton goods.
  2. His relentless efforts led to reduction in toll tax.
  3. He tried to introduce a bill with a view to make primary education compulsory but he could not achieve much success in it.
  4. Being an economist, he demanded radical changes in the fiscal policy and better jobs for the educated middle class.
  5. He impressed upon the government to reduce the land revenue.

(c) Gopal Krishna Gokhale tried to arouse national awakening in India in the following ways-

  1. He criticised the Government on issues such as incurring huge expenditure on the British army, adopting the policy of racial discrimination in appointments to high posts and imposing production tax on cotton.
  2. During his visit to England he tried to persuade the British statesmen not to give effect to the Partition of Bengal.
  3. Gokhale set up the Servants of India Society in 1905. The main aim of the Society was to train national leaders who would dedicate themselves to the service of India.
  4. He impressed upon the government to reduce the land revenue.

Picture Study

Question 1

(a) Identify the person in the picture and state what he is popularly known as.

(b) What was India's political goal according to Surendranath Banerjee? What were the methods he advocated to attain it?

(c) What was his contribution to India's freedom struggle?

Identify the person in the picture and state what he is popularly known as. What was India political goal according to Surendranath Banerjee? What were the methods he advocated to attain it? What was his contribution to India freedom struggle? First Phase of the Indian National Movement, Total History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

Answer

(a) The person shown in the picture is Surendranath Banerjee. He is popularly known as the 'Father of the Indian Nationalism'.

(b) India's political goal according to Surendranath Banerjee was self-government.

He advocated the use of constitutional methods for the attainment of India's goals. His famous saying was, "Opposition where necessary, co-operation when possible." He used the following methods to attain India's political goal-

  1. To fight against the wrong policies of the British, he founded the Indian Association in 1876.
  2. In order to create an all-India political organisation, Surendranath convened the Indian National Conference in 1883 at Kolkata. Surendranath Banerjee's Indian National Conference merged with the Indian National Congress in 1886 as both organisations had similar objectives.
  3. Banerjee edited a newspaper, Bengalee, which served as a powerful medium for mobilising public opinion. His book, Nation in the Making, gives an account of his political concern and his views about self-government.

(c) Surendranath Banerjee's contribution to India's freedom struggle is quite significant. He contributed to the Indian National Movement in the following ways-

  1. To fight against the wrong policies of the British, he founded the Indian Association in 1876.
  2. In order to create an all-India political organisation, Surendranath convened the Indian National Conference in 1883 at Kolkata. Surendranath Banerjee's Indian National Conference merged with the Indian National Congress in 1886 as both organisations had similar objectives.
  3. Banerjee edited a newspaper, Bengalee, which served as a powerful medium for mobilising public opinion. His book, Nation in the Making, gives an account of his political concern and his views about self-government.
  4. Banerjee started agitation against the Licence Act, Arms Act, Vernacular Press Act and against lowering the age from 21 to 19 years to appear in the I.C.S. Examination.
  5. He opposed the Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909 which introduced separate electorates for the Hindus and the Muslims.
  6. He also opposed the division of Bengal by Lord Curzon in 1905.

Thinking Skills

Question 1

Imagine that you got a chance to interview one of the Early Nationalist leaders. On the basis of interview, express your views on the Early Nationalist leader's beliefs as well as the methods used by him.

Answer

I interviewed Dadabhai Naoroji. Based on the interview, here are my views on his beliefs and methods:

  1. He had faith in the sense of justice, fair play, honesty and integrity of the British. He relied on the solemn pledges of the British and hoped that they would grant 'Home Rule' to Indians.
  2. He believed in constitutional and peaceful methods to achieve the aim of 'Home Rule'. He believed in patience and reconciliation rather than violence and confrontation.
  3. Through his works, 'Poverty and Un-British Rule in India' and his famous 'Drain Theory' he explained how India's wealth was being 'drained' to England through various ways.
  4. As a member of British parliament, he brought to the notice of the House, important matters related to India.
  5. He was India's unofficial ambassador to the Britain. He founded London India Society and East India Association in London to further the cause of India in Britain.

Question 2

If you could meet and interact with one Early Nationalist leader, whom would like to meet and why?

Answer

I would like to meet Gopal Krishna Gokhale. My reasons to meet him would be:

  1. Gokhale persuaded Gandhiji to come to India and join Indian public life and the national movement. Gandhiji accepted him as his political mentor. Gandhiji is the father of the nation. To meet the person who bought him to India and his political mentor would be a great honour.
  2. Gopal Krishna Gokhale was a contemporary to Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The methods of both Tilak and Gokhale were so different yet they had great respect for each other. I would like to learn from him how to work with people having so opposite views towards a larger aim like that of attaining independence.

Question 3

Suppose you want to present the demands of the people of your area to the MLA of your area. State which methods followed by the Early Nationalists you would choose and why?

Answer

The methods I would choose to present the demands of the people to the MLA would be:

  1. I would sent a letter containing the demands of the people along with the reason for each demand clearly explaining the problems faced by the people currently.
  2. I would request the MLA to visit my area, see the problems himself and interact with a few people to get a firsthand experience of the issues.
  3. After that, I would arrange for a meeting between the MLA and a select few people of the area at his/her office or residence to further persuade him/her to look into the demands.

I would choose these methods because in a democracy we resolve issues through dialogue within the constitutional framework following legitimate means.

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