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Section A — Chapter 4

Second Phase of the Indian National Movement

Class 10 - Total History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

Why is October 16, 1905 regarded as an important day in the history of Indian National Movement?

Answer

October 16, 1905 is regarded as an important day in the history of Indian National Movement because the partition of Bengal came into effect on this day.

Question 2

Who composed the Bande Mataram? State the reaction of the masses to the proclamation of the Partition of Bengal.

Answer

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee composed the Bande Mataram.

The reaction of the masses to the proclamation of the Partition of Bengal was as follows:

  1. The leaders of the protest movement declared it a day of national mourning throughout Bengal.
  2. It was observed as a day of fasting.
  3. There was strike in Kolkata.
  4. People walked barefooted and bathed in the Ganga in the early morning hours.
  5. The streets of Kolkata were full of the cries of 'Bande Mataram' which became the theme song of the national movement.
  6. Rabindranath Tagore composed the patriotic song, 'Amar Sonar Bangla' (My Golden Bengal), for the occasion which was sung by huge crowds parading the streets.
  7. The ceremony of Raksha Bandhan was celebrated in a new way. Hindus and Muslims tied rakhis on one another's wrists as the symbol of unbreakable unity of the Bengalis and the two halves of Bengal.
  8. In the afternoon, there was a great demonstration when the veteran leader Ananda Mohan Bose laid the foundation of a Federation Hall to mark the indestructible unity of Bengal. All gathered there took the vow to follow Swadeshi.

Question 3

Name any two prominent leaders of Anti-Partition agitation of Bengal. Name the song composed by Rabindranath Tagore during the Anti-partition agitation.

Answer

Two prominent leaders of Anti-Partition agitation of Bengal are Surendranath Banerjee and Bipin Chandra Pal.

Rabindranath Tagore composed the patriotic song, 'Amar Sonar Bangla' (My Golden Bengal), during the Anti-partition agitation which was sung by huge crowds parading the streets.

Question 4

Who were Assertive Nationalists? Why were they so called?

Answer

In the second phase of the national movement, there emerged a new and a younger group of leaders within the Congress who did not agree with the methods and ideology of the Early Nationalist leaders. These 'angry young men' stood for complete Swaraj to be achieved by more self-reliant methods. They also wanted to have a mass-base for their movement. This group of leaders came to be known as Assertive Nationalists.

They were so called because they had a different outlook that advocated active resistance to British imperialism. They condemned the British rule in India and held it responsible for the country's downfall. They called upon the people of India to make sacrifices for the sake of their country.

Question 5

Name three prominent Assertive Nationalist leaders. What was the aim of the Assertive Nationalists as far as the national movement was concerned?

Answer

The three prominent Assertive Nationalist leaders are Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal. They are famous as the Lal-Bal-Pal trio.

The main aim of the Assertive Nationalists was the immediate attainment of 'Swaraj'. This means complete independence and not just self-government as in the colonies of Australia, New Zealand, etc.

Question 6

How did the Assertive Nationalists expand the social base of the national movement?

Answer

The Assertive Nationalists expanded the social base of the national movement by adopting the following methods-

  1. Swadeshi and boycott — Economic boycott of British goods and use of Swadeshi was designed to encourage Indian industries and provide the people with more opportunities for employment.
  2. National Education — The national leaders advocated national universities that were free from government control. A large number of national schools were established in East Bengal.
  3. Passive Resistance — The Assertive leaders believed in adopting the policy of non-violent resistance and vigorous political action to achieve their aims. They asked the people to refuse to cooperate with the government and to boycott government service, courts, schools and colleges.
  4. Other methods — Besides the above said methods, the other methods included revivalism, personal sacrifices and mass involvement.

Question 7

What were the two methods adopted by the Assertive Nationalists in the freedom struggle?

Answer

The two methods adopted by the Assertive Nationalists in the freedom struggle were-

  1. Swadeshi and boycott — Economic boycott of British goods and use of Swadeshi was designed to encourage Indian industries and provide the people with more opportunities for employment.
  2. National Education — The national leaders advocated national universities that were free from government control. A large number of national schools were established in East Bengal.

Question 8

Mention any one reason for the rise of Assertive Nationalism. Why did the educated Indians turn against the British?

Answer

One reason for the rise of Assertive Nationalism was the recognition of the true nature of the British Rule. The Assertive Nationalists felt that the British rule was responsible for the economic ruin of India and her growing poverty.

The educated Indians turned against the British because a large number of educated Indians were employed in the administration on low salaries, while many others faced unemployment. Their grievances made them look critically at the nature of the British rule. These educated low paid or unemployed Indians became the followers of Assertive Nationalism.

Question 9

List any two international events that shattered the myth of European superiority.

Answer

Two international events that shattered the myth of European superiority are-

  1. For the first time, Japan, an Asian country, defeated Russia.
  2. Italian forces were defeated by the Abyssinians in Ethiopia.

Question 10

Mention any two measures that show that Lord Curzon's policies were repressive.

Answer

Two measures that show that Lord Curzon's policies were repressive are-

  1. The Act of 1898 which made it an offence to provoke people against the British.
  2. The Calcutta Corporation Act (1899) which reduced the strength of elected members from India, thereby giving the British a majority.

Question 11

Who is known as the 'Father of Assertive Nationalism'? To which state did he belong?

Answer

Bal Gangadhar Tilak is known as the 'Father of the Assertive Nationalism'.

He was born in Maharashtra.

Question 12

Name the two books written by Bal Gangadhar Tilak.

Answer

Two books written by Bal Gangadhar Tilak are-

  1. The Gita Rahasya
  2. The Arctic Home of the Vedas

Question 13

What efforts did Tilak make to instil the spirit of nationalism in Indians?

Answer

Bal Gangadhar Tilak made the following efforts to instil the spirit of nationalism in Indians-

  1. In 1893, Tilak started using the traditional religious Ganapati festival to propagate nationalist ideas through songs and speeches.
  2. In 1895, he glorified Shivaji and started the Shivaji festival to encourage young Maharashtrians.
  3. He started two newspapers — Mahratta and Kesari, which soon became the mouthpieces of his ideas. Through these newspapers he preached nationalism and taught the people to be courageous and self-reliant.
  4. He wrote two well-known books—the Gita Rahasya and The Arctic Home of the Vedas.

Question 14

When and why did Tilak leave the Indian National Congress?

Answer

Bal Gangadhar Tilak left the Indian National Congress in 1907 after there was a split in the Congress.

Tilak left the Indian National Congress because he did not agree with the methods and ideology of the Early Nationalist leaders. He stood for complete Swaraj to be achieved by more self-reliant methods. He also wanted to have a mass-base for their movement. He condemned the British rule in India and held it responsible for the country's downfall.

Question 15

Why did Tilak revive Ganapati and Shivaji festivals?

Answer

In 1893, Bal Gangadhar Tilak started using the traditional religious Ganapati festival to propagate nationalist ideas through songs and speeches. In 1895, he glorified Shivaji and started the Shivaji festival to encourage young Maharashtrians.

Question 16

Mention any two achievements of the Assertive Nationalists.

Answer

Two achievements of the Assertive Nationalists were-

  1. These leaders were able to inculcate national pride by extolling India's past. Tilak revived the Ganapati and Shivaji festivals to arouse national sentiments. Through his writings in Mahratta and the Kesari, Tilak preached nationalism.
  2. They gave new slogans to the Indian nationalist movement like 'non-cooperation, passive resistance, mass agitation, and self-reliance'.

Structured Questions

Question 1

One of Lord Curzon's administrative measures that resulted in a strong resentment from the masses was the Partition of Bengal in 1905. In this context, answer the following questions:

(a) What was Lord Curzon's argument in favour of the Partition of Bengal? How did the nationalists interpret Lord Curzon's motives?

(b) How did the people react to the Partition of Bengal?

(c) What was the impact of the Anti-Partition Movement?

Answer

(a) Lord Curzon stated that the main motive for the Partition of Bengal, was administrative necessity. The government said that the province of Bengal was too big to be efficiently administered by a single provincial government.

The Indian nationalists clearly saw the design behind the Partition and condemned it.

  1. They saw that it was a deliberate attempt to divide the Bengalis on religious and territorial grounds and thereby, disrupt and weaken nationalism in Bengal.
  2. They felt that administrative efficiency could have been better secured by separating Hindi-speaking Bihar and the Odiya-speaking Odisha from the Bengali-speaking part of the province.
  3. Moreover, the manner in which the announcement of partition was made without any regard for the public opinion, hurt the sentiments of sensitive Bengalis.

(b) People started a strong movement against the partition, known as the Anti-partition Movement.

  1. The Partition of Bengal led to a mighty upsurge which brought people and political leaders together.
  2. The Indian National Congress and the nationalists of Bengal opposed the partition. Within Bengal, different sections of the population — zamindars, merchants, lawyers, students and women — rose up in opposition to the partition of their province.
  3. Many protest meetings were held by eminent leaders like Surendranath Banerjee, Krishna Kumar Mitra, P.C. Ray, B.C. Pal and Ananda Mohan Bose.
  4. The Early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists cooperated with one another during the course of the movement.
  5. The leaders condemned partition through newspapers like Bengali, Hitabadi and Sanjibani. They declared it a day of national mourning throughout Bengal.
  6. There was strike in Kolkata.
  7. The streets of Kolkata were full of the cries of 'Bande Mataram' which became the theme song of the national movement.
  8. Rabindranath Tagore composed the patriotic song, 'Amar Sonar Bangla' (My Golden Bengal), for the occasion which was sung by huge crowds parading the streets.
  9. The ceremony of Raksha Bandhan was celebrated in a new way. Hindus and Muslims tied rakhis on one another's wrists as the symbol of unbreakable unity of the Bengalis and the two halves of Bengal.
  10. In the afternoon, there was a great demonstration when the veteran leader Ananda Mohan Bose laid the foundation of a Federation Hall to mark the indestructible unity of Bengal. All gathered there took the vow to follow Swadeshi.

(c) The Anti-Partition Movement had the following impact:

  1. The Partition of Bengal along with the Anti-Partition Movement accelerated the Nationalist Movement by spreading it among the general masses. The people rose in unity to resist, to suffer and to sacrifice.
  2. Swadeshi and Boycott were used as weapons of political agitation and a training in self-sufficiency for the attainment of Swaraj. British goods were burnt at public places and shops selling them were picketed. The spirit of Swadeshi spread to almost every walk of life — industries, education, culture, literature, etc.
  3. The people lost their faith in the fair play and justice of the British. Lord Curzon refused to concede to the demands of annulling the partition.
  4. The Anti-Partition agitation backfired the plans of Lord Curzon. It gave added strength to the National Movement. The methods adopted by the Early Nationalists lost their appeal and gave an opportunity to the Assertive Nationalists to lead the National Movement.

The Partition of Bengal was revoked in 1911. A new scheme of partition of Bengal was implemented on linguistic rather than on religious grounds. Hindi, Oriya and Assamese speaking areas were separated from Bengal to form separate administrative units. The administrative capital of British India was shifted from Kolkata to Delhi in 1911.

Question 2

With reference to the Surat Split of 1907, answer the following questions:

(a) What were the issues on which the two wings of the Congress had differences of opinion? How did the British exploit the differences between the Early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists?

(b) What was the effect of the split between the two wings of the Congress on the National Movement?

(c) Why did the Assertive Nationalists adopt the policy of non-cooperation with the British Government? Name the assertive nationalist leader who organised akharas and lathi clubs. Why were these organised?

Answer

(a) The issues on which the two wings of the Congress had differences of opinion were-

  1. The Assertive Nationalists wanted to extend the Swadeshi and boycott to the rest of India and make it a vehicle for a full-fledged political mass struggle leading to Swaraj. The Early Nationalists, however, did not approve it for the whole of India and wanted it to be confined to Bengal only.
  2. There was also a disagreement over the candidature of the next President. The Assertive Nationalists proposed the name of Lala Lajpat Rai as President of the Surat Session. The Early Nationalists proposed the name of Rashbehari Ghosh. When the session at Surat began in December 1907 there was utter confusion.

The British exploited the differences between the Early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists. The British adopted a policy of 'concession and repression' — concession for the Early Nationalists as well as the Muslims and repression to the Assertive Nationalists.

(b) The split in the Congress was unfortunate because it gave an opportunity to the British to exploit the situation to their advantage.

  1. They adopted a policy of 'concession and repression' — concession for the Early Nationalists as well as the Muslims and repression to the Assertive Nationalists.
  2. The Surat Split weakened the national movement.
  3. The Early Nationalists, however, were largely able to capture the Congress organisation and in the Allahabad convention, held in April 1908, the split was formalised.

(c) The Assertive Nationalists adopted the policy of non-cooperation with the British Government due to the following reasons:

  1. The main focus of the Assertive Nationalists was to get a larger share for Indians in the administration of their country and to end Britain's economic exploitation of India.
  2. They believed that these objectives could not be realised without pressure tactics and some sort of direct action.
  3. Hence, they adopted the policy of non-cooperation and resistance to unjust acts of the British government.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak was the first nationalist leader who sought close contact with the masses. With this objective and to inculcate courage, self-defence and patriotism, he organised many akharas and lathi clubs where physical training was imparted.

Question 3

In the second phase of the national movement, there emerged a new younger group of leaders within the Congress who did not agree with the old leadership. In this context, answer the following questions:

(a) Differentiate between the Early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists in their objectives and achievements, stating one objective and two achievements of each wing of the Congress.

(b) Name the Assertive leader known as the forerunner of Gandhiji. Why is the person known as the forerunner of Gandhiji?

(c) Explain how the repressive policies of Lord Curzon and influence of International events led to the Assertive nationalism.

Answer

(a) The difference between the Early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists in their objectives is as follows-

Early NationalistsAssertive Nationalists
Their main objective was to attain a self-government like the British occupied colonies did. They did not want British to leave India.Their main objective was the immediate attainment of 'Swaraj' through more self-reliant methods. They wanted British to leave India.

The difference between the Early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists regarding their achievements is as follows-

Early NationalistsAssertive Nationalists
They trained Indians in the art of political work.They inculcated national pride among the Indians by extolling India's past.
They pressurized the British Government to introduce certain reforms like the appointment of Public Service Commission, 1886, holding ICS examination simultaneously in London and India and appointment of the Welby Commission on Indian Expenditure.They promoted self-reliance through Swadeshi and Boycott movements.

(b) Bal Gangadhar Tilak is known as the forerunner of Mahatma Gandhi in a number of ways.

  1. Tilak's idea of Swaraj was akin to Mahatma Gandhi's idea of complete independence.
  2. Tilak sought close contact with the masses as Mahatma Gandhi did.
  3. Tilak preached the idea of Swadeshi, Boycott and Prohibition. These ideas were preached and followed by Mahatma Gandhi later on.
  4. Tilak had to suffer several terms of imprisonment for the sake of the country, an example followed by Mahatma Gandhi and other nationalist leaders.

(c) Lord Curzon refused to recognise India as a nation. He was not in favour of giving freedom to India because he believed that the English were destined to rule over India. Therefore, he took several repressive measures to crush Indian Nationalism. These measures included —

  1. The Act of 1898 which made it an offence to provoke people against the British
  2. The Calcutta Corporation Act (1899) which reduced the strength of elected members from India, thereby giving the British a majority
  3. The Official Secrets Act
  4. The Indian Universities Act of 1904 which imposed strict official control over the Indian universities because Curzon considered them as the centres of nationalism.

All these measures created resentment in India.

Assertive nationalism was inspired by the examples of international events.

  1. For the first time, Japan, an Asian country, defeated Russia.
  2. Italian forces were defeated by the Abyssinians in Ethiopia.
  3. In South Africa, the Boers fought for three years (1899-1902) against the British Empire.
  4. In Ireland people were waging a full-scale Home Rule agitation.

These events broke the myth of the invincibility of the Europeans. The Assertive Nationalists felt that the united masses could throw out the British yoke.

Question 4

With reference to the growth of Nationalism:

(a) Mention two associations which served as the forerunners (precursors) of the Indian National Congress. Who were the founders of the two associations?

(b) Differentiate between the methods adopted by the Early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists.

(c) State two contributions each of Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Lala Lajpat Rai.

Answer

(a) Two associations which served as the forerunners (precursors) of the Indian National Congress were-

  1. East India Association — It was founded at London in 1866 by Dadabhai Naoroji.
  2. Indian National Conference — It was founded at Kolkata in 1883 by Surendranath Banerjea.

(b) The difference between the methods adopted by the Early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists are as follows-

Early NationalistsAssertive Nationalists
The Early Nationalists wanted to achieve self-government and they strove for autonomy within the Empire and not for absolute independence.The Assertive Nationalists aimed at nothing short of Swaraj as it existed in the United Kingdom.
They believed in constitutional methods and worked within the framework of the law.They were assertive in their approach.
They held good positions under the British government.They denounced British rule and defied it.
They had faith in the British sense of justice and fair play.They rejected British rule and held it responsible for poverty of the Indian people.
They received their support from the intelligentsia.They drew their support from the masses.
They were inspired by the ideas of western philosophers.They drew their inspiration from India's past.

(c) Two contributions of Gopal Krishna Gokhale are-

  1. Servants of India Society — He set up the Servants of India Society in 1905 to train national leaders who would dedicate themselves to the service fo India.
  2. Persuaded the British for reforms — He criticised the government on issues such as incurring huge expenditure on the British army, adopting the policy of racial discrimination and imposing production tax on cotton.

Two contributions of Lala Lajpat Rai are-

  1. An Educationist and a Forceful Writer — Lala Lajpat Rai was a prolific writer. When he was in the USA, he started a monthly magazine 'Young India' to spread the message of the right of India to attain Swaraj. His publications included: The Call to Young India, England's Debt to India and The Political Future of India.
  2. A Social Reformer — He was instrumental in the expansion of D.A.V. College at Lahore in 1886. He opened orphanages, hospitals and schools. He set up Servants of the Peoples Society for the welfare of the downtrodden and outcastes.

Question 5

Tilak said 'Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it'. In this context, describe:

(a) State any three of his political beliefs.

(b) State the means he employed to arouse nationalistic passions.

(c) In what ways was he the forerunner of Gandhiji?

Answer

(a) Bal Gangadhar Tilak had the following political beliefs-

  1. He was convinced that political rights could be achieved by aggressively demanding them.
  2. His entry in the Indian political scene was marked by a shift from petitions to demand for political rights.
  3. He was the first nationalist leader who sought close contact with the masses. With this objective and to inculcate courage, self-defence and patriotism, he organised many akharas and lathi clubs where physical training was imparted.

(b) Tilak employed the following means to arouse nationalistic passions-

  1. In 1893, Tilak started using the traditional religious Ganapati festival to propagate nationalist ideas through songs and speeches.
  2. In 1895, he glorified Shivaji and started the Shivaji festival to encourage young Maharashtrians.
  3. He started two newspapers — Mahratta and Kesari, which soon became the mouthpieces of his ideas. Through these newspapers he preached nationalism and taught the people to be courageous and self-reliant.
  4. He wrote two well-known books—the Gita Rahasya and The Arctic Home of the Vedas.

(c) Bal Gangadhar Tilak is known as the forerunner of Mahatma Gandhi in a number of ways.

  1. Tilak's idea of Swaraj was akin to Mahatma Gandhi's idea of complete independence.
  2. Tilak sought close contact with the masses as Mahatma Gandhi did.
  3. Tilak preached the idea of Swadeshi, Boycott and Prohibition. These ideas were preached and followed by Mahatma Gandhi later on.
  4. Tilak had to suffer several terms of imprisonment for the sake of the country, an example followed by Mahatma Gandhi and other nationalist leaders.

Question 6

Bipin Chandra Pal was said to be 'One of the mightiest prophets of nationalism'. In this context:

(a) Mention his political aims.

(b) State his ideas on National Education.

(c) What remedies did he propose to eradicate India's poverty and unemployment?

Answer

(a) Bipin Chandra Pal started his political career as a social reformer attached to the Brahmo Samaj, visited a number of European countries and the United States of America.

  1. It was during these visits that he observed how people resisted foreign domination.
  2. In 1886 he joined the Indian National Congress.
  3. He belonged to the Assertive Nationalist group.
  4. He wanted complete independence from the British.
  5. As a journalist he worked for Bengal Public Opinion, The Tribune and New India to propagate his brand of nationalism.

(b) Bipin Chandra Pal wanted National Education to be the basis of the freedom movement.

  1. It would arouse nationalistic passions and become an effective instrument of social progress.
  2. Educating women, he believed, was the most effective way of elevating their position.

(c) Bipin Chandra Pal proposed the following remedies to eradicate India's poverty and unemployment-

  1. He stressed the need to develop indigenous industries in the country.
  2. He preached the use of Swadeshi and the Boycott of foreign goods to eradicate poverty and unemployment.
  3. To establish equality in society, he wanted to tax the rich more heavily than the poor
  4. He demanded forty-eight hours of work in a week and an increase in the wages.

Picture Study

Question 1

(a) Identify the persons 'A' and 'B' given below. To which section of the Congress did each belong and what were their ultimate objectives?

Identify the persons A and B given below. To which section of the Congress did each belong and what were their ultimate objectives. Second Phase of the Indian National Movement, Total History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.
Identify the persons A and B given below. To which section of the Congress did each belong and what were their ultimate objectives. Second Phase of the Indian National Movement, Total History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(b) Highlight three different methods of struggle adopted by each section of the Congress.

(c) State two contributions of persons 'A' and 'B' in the freedom struggle.

Answer

(a) The picture 'A' shows Dadabhai Naoroji and the picture 'B' shows Bal Gangadhar Tilak.

Dadabhai Naoroji belonged to the Early Nationalists section of the Congress and Bal Gangadhar Tilak belonged to the Assertive Nationalists section of the Congress.

Dadabhai Naoroji wanted to achieve self-government and strove for autonomy within the Empire and not for absolute independence while Bal Gangadhar Tilak aimed at nothing short of Swaraj (i.e., Complete Independence).

(b) Three different methods of struggle adopted by each section of the Congress were-

Early NationalistsAssertive Nationalists
They believed in constitutional methods and worked within the framework of the law.They were assertive in their approach.
They followed the method of three P's - petitions, prayers and protests.They followed the method of swadeshi, boycott, national education and passive resistance.
They sent memorandums and petitions to government officials and the British Parliament.They adopted the policy of non-cooperation, mass agitation and self reliance.

(c) Two contributions of Dadabhai Naoroji in the freedom struggle are as follows —

  1. India's Unofficial Ambassador — Dadabhai Naoroji spent a major part of his life in England fighting for the cause of his country. He founded London India Society and East India Association in London to further the cause of India in Britain.
  2. Exposed the Economic Ills of India — Through his works, 'Poverty and Un-British Rule in India' and his famous 'Drain Theory' he explained how India's wealth was being 'drained' to England through various ways.

Two contributions of Bal Gangadhar Tilak in the freedom struggle are as follows —

  1. Demand for Swaraj — Tilak was the first to openly declare the demand for Swaraj.
  2. Preached Nationalism — Tilak started Ganapati festival in 1893 and Shivaji festival in 1895 to propogate nationalist ideas through songs and speeches. He started two newspapers — Mahratta (English) and Kesari (Marathi). He wrote two well-known books — The Gita Rahasya and The Artic Home of the Vedas.

Thinking Skills

Question 1

Imagine you are a student, who witnessed the protest movement organised by the people of Bengal on October 16, 1905. How did the people react to the Partition of Bengal and what was its impact?

Answer

People started a strong movement against the partition, known as the Anti-partition Movement.

  1. The Partition of Bengal led to a mighty upsurge which brought people and political leaders together.
  2. The Indian National Congress and the nationalists of Bengal opposed the partition. Within Bengal, different sections of the population — zamindars, merchants, lawyers, students and women — rose up in opposition to the partition of their province.
  3. Many protest meetings were held by eminent leaders like Surendranath Banerjee, Krishna Kumar Mitra, P.C. Ray, B.C. Pal and Ananda Mohan Bose.
  4. The Early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists cooperated with one another during the course of the movement.
  5. The leaders condemned partition through newspapers like Bengali, Hitabadi and Sanjibani. They declared it a day of national mourning throughout Bengal.
  6. There was strike in Kolkata.
  7. The streets of Kolkata were full of the cries of 'Bande Mataram' which became the theme song of the national movement.
  8. Rabindranath Tagore composed the patriotic song, 'Amar Sonar Bangla' (My Golden Bengal), for the occasion which was sung by huge crowds parading the streets.
  9. The ceremony of Raksha Bandhan was celebrated in a new way. Hindus and Muslims tied rakhis on one another's wrists as the symbol of unbreakable unity of the Bengalis and the two halves of Bengal.
  10. In the afternoon, there was a great demonstration when the veteran leader Ananda Mohan Bose laid the foundation of a Federation Hall to mark the indestructible unity of Bengal. All gathered there took the vow to follow Swadeshi.

Question 2

Imagine that you met one of the Assertive Nationalists. After talking to him, you realised the difference in the methods adopted by them and the Early Nationalists. State three of these differences.

Answer

Three difference between the methods of Early Nationalists and Assertive Nationalists were:

Early NationalistsAssertive Nationalists
They believed in constitutional methods and worked within the framework of the law.They were assertive in their approach.
They followed the method of three P's - petitions, prayers and protests.They followed the method of swadeshi, boycott, national education and passive resistance.
They sent memorandums and petitions to government officials and the British Parliament.They adopted the policy of non-cooperation, mass agitation and self reliance.

Question 3

Suppose you are a follower of one of the Assertive Nationalist leaders. How would you justify the methods adopted by the Assertive Nationalists to achieve their goal of attainment of Swaraj?

Answer

I would justify the methods of Assertive Nationalists using the following points:

  1. The Early Nationalists failed to achieve anything substantial from the British Government using their methods of peaceful constitutional agitation.
  2. The famines from 1896 to 1900 and the inaction of the government while at the same time spending huge amount of money on the Silver Jubilee celebration of Queen Victoria's accession to throne justifies using more aggressive methods to attain Swaraj.
  3. International events like defeat of Russia by Japan, defeat of Italian forces by the Abyssinians, the three year fight of Boers against the British Empire, the full-scale Home Rule agitation of the people of Ireland, etc. showed that methods of Assertive Nationalists had more chances of success.
  4. The Partition of Bengal and the severe repressive methods adopted by Lord Curzon to supress the protests and agitation provided further evidence that more assertive methods were required for attainment of Swaraj.

Question 4

If you were asked to enact the role of one of the Assertive Nationalist leaders, on the occasion of Independence Day, whom would you choose and why?

Answer

I would enact the role of Bal Gandadhar Tilak as he was the first to openly declare the demand for Swaraj. His words "Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it" motivated the masses to join the National Movement and fight for India's independence. He is known as the 'Father of Assertive Nationalism'.

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