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Section A — Chapter 6

Mahatma Gandhi and the National Movement

Class 10 - Total History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

Which period of Indian history is known as the Gandhian era and why?

Answer

Mahatma Gandhi completely dominated the Indian National Movement from 1915 to 1948. That is why, this period is known as the Gandhian era in Indian history.

Question 2

Define Satyagraha. How does it differ from Passive Resistance?

Answer

To Gandhiji, satyagraha was a moral force born of truth and non-violence. It meant to be fearless, truthful as well as peaceful, suffering willingly while refusing to submit to what is wrong. But even while resisting evil, it would not involve hatred towards the evil-doer.

Satyagraha differs from passive resistance as passive resistance does not exclude the use of physical force for the purpose of gaining one's end, whereas Satyagraha excludes the use of violence.

Question 3

How did Gandhiji involve Indian masses in the National Movement?

Answer

Gandhiji involved Indian masses in the national movement by unifying the people of the country. He took up the causes of the common people of the country. For example, he took up the issues faced by the indigo farmers in Champaran, then he fought for the demands of mill workers in Ahmedabad and also tried to resolve the issues faced by the farmers of Kheda.

People began to believe so much into him that he came to be known as the Mahatma. He was able to move people with his speeches. He started the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking salt laws. He chose salt because it was used by each section of the society. It was because of his charismatic leadership that he was able to draw masses into the national movement.

Question 4

Where did Mahatma Gandhi use his first experiment in Satyagraha? Why did he do so?

Answer

Gandhiji's first great experiment in Satyagraha was accomplished in 1917 in Champaran, Bihar. The indigo cultivators of Champaran were greatly exploited by European planters. They were bound by law to grow indigo on 3/20th (the tinkathia system) of their land and sell it to the British planters at prices fixed by them. They invited Gandhiji to take up their cause but the district authorities banned his entry to the district. He offered satyagraha as a result of which an inquiry was conducted into the conditions of the peasants. This helped in giving the indigo cultivators some relief.

Question 5

Why did Gandhiji launch satyagraha at Ahmedabad in 1918? What was the outcome of Gandhiji's satyagraha at Ahmedabad?

Answer

Gandhiji led the mill-workers of Ahmedabad in a strike against the mill-owners who had refused to pay them higher wages. When the workers seemed to weaken, he provided support to them by undertaking a fast (hunger strike). Afraid of the consequences, the mill-owners agreed on the fourth day of Gandhiji's fast to give a 35 per cent increase in wages.

Question 6

What was the Rowlatt Act of 1919?

Answer

The Rowlatt Act authorised the Government to imprison any person without trial and convict him in a court. It implied:

  1. Arrest of a person without warrant.
  2. In camera trial (trial in seclusion).
  3. Restrictions on movements of individuals.
  4. Suspension of the Right of Habeas Corpus.

Question 7

What was Gandhiji's reaction to the Rowlatt Act of 1919?

Answer

Gandhiji appealed to the Viceroy to withhold his consent to the Rowlatt Act. However his appeal was ignored. He started 'Satyagraha' as a challenge to the government.

Question 8

Name the leaders of the Khilafat Movement launched in India to champion the cause of the Caliph of Turkey.

Answer

The leaders of the Khilafat Movement launched in India to champion the cause of the Caliph of Turkey were-

  1. Mohammad Ali
  2. Shaukat Ali

Question 9

How did the Khilafat Movement come to an end?

Answer

The Khilafat Movement died a natural death when in November 1922 Mustafa Kemal Pasha deposed the Sultan of Turkey and showed no concern for the holy places of Islam. He finally abolished the Caliphate and separated the State from religion. Mustafa modernised education, agriculture and industry. He developed Turkey on secular and progressive lines.

Question 10

Name three events which disillusioned Gandhiji and turned him into a non-cooperator from a cooperator with the British government.

Answer

The three events which disillusioned Gandhiji and turned him into a non-cooperator from a cooperator with the British government were-

  1. Passing of the Rowlatt Act, 1919
  2. The Jallianwala Bagh tragedy
  3. The Khilafat wrongs

Question 11

What were the steps taken by the people as a part of the Khilafat Non-Cooperation Movement?

Answer

The steps taken by the people as a part of the Khilafat Non-Cooperation Movement were as follows-

  1. People resigned from government services
  2. Shops selling foreign goods were picketed
  3. Students boycotted schools and colleges
  4. 'Hartals' and demonstrations were held.

In 1921, the Khilafat Committee appealed to all the Muslims not to join the police and armed forces and not to pay taxes.

Question 12

Name the three components of the constructive programme adopted by Gandhiji after the suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Answer

The three components of the constructive programme adopted by Gandhiji after the suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement were-

  1. Removal of untouchability
  2. Hindu-Muslim unity
  3. The popularisation of Swadeshi and Khadi

Question 13

Why was the Simon Commission boycotted everywhere in India? Name the national leader who succumbed to the lathi charge during the protest movement against the Simon Commission.

Answer

The Simon Commission was boycotted everywhere in India because the Commission was composed of seven British members of Parliament. It had no Indian member. This was seen as a violation of the principle of self-determination and a deliberate insult to the self-respect of the Indians.

Lala Lajpat Rai succumbed to the lathi charge during the protest movement against the Simon Commission.

Question 14

Why is the Congress Session held at Lahore in 1929 significant in India's Freedom Movement?

Answer

The Congress Session held at Lahore in 1929 is significant in India's Freedom Movement because the Congress passed a resolution declaring Poorna Swaraj (complete independence) to be its objective for the first time.

Question 15

What did the programme of Civil Disobedience Movement consist of?

Answer

The programme of Civil Disobedience Movement involved

  1. Defiance of Salt Laws
  2. Boycott of liquor
  3. Boycott of foreign cloth and British goods of all kinds
  4. Non-payment of taxes and revenues

Question 16

Why did Mahatma Gandhi start his historic march to Dandi?

Answer

Mahatma Gandhi started his historic march to Dandi to attack the Salt Law according to which the government had the monopoly to manufacture and sell salt.

Question 17

How was the Civil Disobedience Movement different from the Non-Cooperation Movement?

Answer

Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement because the former involved non-payment of taxes and land-revenue as well as violation of laws of different kinds in addition to Non-Cooperation activities.

Question 18

Who took the leadership of the Civil Disobedience Movement in the extreme north-western part of the country? What was he popularly known as and what was the name of the organisation formed by him?

Answer

Abdul Ghaffar Khan took the leadership of the Civil Disobedience Movement in the extreme north-western part of the country.

He was popularly known as Frontier Gandhi.

The name of the organisation formed by him was Khudai Khidmatgars.

Question 19

Why did Mahatma Gandhi suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1931?

Answer

Since the satyagraha could not be suppressed, the Government, through Tej Bahadur Sapru and Jayakar, started negotiations with Gandhiji in jail. This resulted in the signing of a pact by Gandhiji and Lord Irwin, the Viceroy, in March 1931. Hence, the Civil Disobedience Movement was suspended as one of the provisions of the pact.

Question 20

Mention any two terms (provisions) of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.

Answer

According to the terms (provisions) of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, the government agreed to:

  1. Withdraw all ordinances and end prosecutions.
  2. Release all political prisoners, except those guilty of violence.

Question 21

What made Gandhiji withdraw the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1934?

Answer

The Congress passed a resolution for the renewal of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Government resorted to repression, issued Ordinances and assumed special powers. The Congress was declared illegal. Congress leaders were arrested and their properties were seized. Communalism was fanned. Gradually the Civil Disobedience Movement lost its force. So, Gandhiji withdrew the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1934.

Structured Questions

Question 1

Gandhiji introduced new ideas in politics and adopted new methods to give a new direction to the political movement. In this context, answer the following questions:

(a) What was Gandhiji's doctrine of Satyagraha?

(b) Explain briefly Gandhiji's Social Ideals.

(c) Which mass struggle was launched by him on non-violent lines in 1920? Explain in brief the programmes of such a campaign.

Answer

(a) Gandhiji's doctrine of Satyagraha was an effective method of the National Movement.

  1. The term Satyagraha is made up of two Sanskrit words—Satya (truth) and Agraha (insistence to hold fast).
  2. To Gandhiji, satyagraha was a moral force born of truth and non-violence.
  3. It meant to be fearless, truthful as well as peaceful, suffering willingly while refusing to submit to what is wrong.
  4. But even while resisting evil, it would not involve hatred towards the evil-doer.
  5. Gandhiji's Satyagraha Movement was directed against the British system of exploitation and not the British people individually or collectively.
  6. Gandhiji made a distinction between Satyagraha and passive resistance.
  7. Passive resistance does not exclude the use of physical force for the purpose of gaining one's end, whereas Satyagraha excludes the use of violence.

(b) Gandhiji's Social Ideals:

Gandhiji's whole philosophy was based on non-violence.

  1. According to Gandhiji, it is the weapon of strong, mighty and powerful individuals.
  2. He was of the opinion that neither an individual nor a country could gain anything by using violent methods.
  3. He launched many movements for gaining freedom but none of them was violent.
  4. During the non-cooperation movement, he suspended the movement when it was at its zenith just because of Chauri Chaura incident in which 22 British policemen were burnt alive.

(c) Gandhiji launched the Non-Cooperation Movement on non-violent lines in 1920. The movement included the following programmes:

Boycott programmes

  1. Boycott of government schools, colleges and courts.
  2. Boycott of foreign goods.
  3. Boycott of elections to be held for the Councils as suggested by the reforms of 1919.
  4. Resignation from nominated seats in local bodies.
  5. Surrender of titles and honorary offices.
  6. Refusal to attend government functions.

Swadeshi programmes

  1. Popularisation of Swadeshi and Khadi by reviving hand-spinning and hand-weaving.
  2. Establishment of national schools and colleges and private arbitration courts known as panchayats all over India.
  3. Development of unity between Hindus and Muslims.
  4. Removal of untouchability and other measures for Harijan welfare.
  5. Emancipation and upliftment of women.

Question 2

The Simon Commission was appointed in November 1927 by the British Government. Subsequently the Civil Disobedience Movement began. In this context answer the following questions:

(a) Why was the Simon Commission appointed by the British Government? Why did the Congress boycott the Commission?

(b) The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched by Gandhiji with his famous Dandi March on March 12, 1930. Mention the significance of this historic event.

(c) Why did Gandhiji suspend Civil Disobedience Movement in 1931 and later called it off?

Answer

(a) In November 1927, the British Government appointed the Indian Statutory Commission, popularly known as the Simon Commission, to investigate the need for further constitutional reforms. The Commission was composed of seven British members of Parliament.

The commission had no Indian member. This was seen as a violation of the principle of self-determination and a deliberate insult to the self-respect of the Indians. Hence, at its Madras session in 1927, presided over by Dr. Ansari, the National Congress decided to boycott the commission 'at every stage and in every form'.

(b) Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement with his famous Dandi March.

  1. On 12th March, Mahatma Gandhi began the historic march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, a village on the Gujarat sea coast.
  2. A number of people followed him.
  3. On the morning of 6th April, Gandhiji violated the Salt Law at Dandi by picking up some salt left by the sea waves.
  4. According to the Salt Law, the government had the monopoly to manufacture and sell salt.
  5. He had selected to attack the Salt Laws because the salt-tax affected all sections of society, especially the poor.
  6. Gandhiji's breaking of the Salt Laws marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

(c) Since the satyagraha could not be suppressed, the Government, through Tej Bahadur Sapru and Jayakar, started negotiations with Gandhiji in jail.

  1. This resulted in the signing of a pact by Gandhiji and Lord Irwin, the Viceroy, in March 1931.
  2. This is known as the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.
  3. According to the terms of the pact, the Congress consented to suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1931.
  4. The Great Depression of 1930s in the world had hit the farmers in India.
  5. Gandhiji sought an interview with Viceroy Willingdon. The interview was refused.
  6. The Congress passed a resolution for the renewal of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  7. Government resorted to repression, issued Ordinances and assumed special powers.
  8. The Congress was declared illegal.
  9. Congress leaders were arrested and their properties were seized. Communalism was fanned.
  10. Gradually the Civil Disobedience Movement lost its force and Congress called it off in 1934.

Picture Study

Question 1

Study the picture given here and answer the following questions:

What was symbolised by the Charkha and Khadi in the National Movement? What is meant by Swadeshi? Why did Gandhiji lay emphasis on Swadeshi? State how was the concept of Swadeshi promoted during the Non-Cooperation Movement? Mahatma Gandhi and the National Movement, Total History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) What was symbolised by the Charkha and Khadi in the National Movement?

(b) What is meant by Swadeshi? Why did Gandhiji lay emphasis on Swadeshi?

(c) State how was the concept of Swadeshi promoted during the Non-Cooperation Movement?

Answer

(a) Mahatma Gandhi saw the Charkha as a symbol of a human society that would not glorify machines and technology.

  1. The spinning wheel, moreover, could provide the poor with supplementary income and make them self-reliant.
  2. Khadi does not seek to destroy all machinery but it does regulate its use and check its weedy growth.
  3. It uses machinery for the service of the poorest in their own cottages.
  4. The wheel is itself an exquisite piece of machinery.

(b) Swadeshi means producing necessary items in one's own country and using them for one's use without being dependent on imported goods. Gandhiji believed that the use of Swadeshi goods would make us self-sufficient and eliminate our dependence on imported goods. Gandhiji emphasised manual labour and the use of the Charkha and Khadi. He popularised Swadeshi and Khadi by reviving hand spinning and hand weaving.

(c) The Non-Cooperation Movement involved Swadeshi programmes which included-

  1. Popularisation of Swadeshi and Khadi by reviving hand-spinning and hand-weaving.
  2. Establishment of national schools and colleges and private arbitration courts known as panchayats all over India.
  3. Development of unity between Hindus and Muslims.
  4. Removal of untouchability and other measures for Harijan welfare.
  5. Emancipation and upliftment of women.

Question 2

In 1930 Mahatma Gandhi's demands were rejected by the British, as a result of which he launched the Civil Disobedience Movement. In this context, explain the following:

Name the famous march undertaken by Gandhiji. Where did he begin this march? State two of its features. Any three features of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact as a consequence of this Movement. Explain briefly how did Mahatma Gandhi try to promote Hindu-Muslim unity from the Rowlatt Satyagraha to the Third Round Table conference. Mahatma Gandhi and the National Movement, Total History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Name the famous march undertaken by Gandhiji. Where did he begin this march? State two of its features.

(b) Any three features of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact as a consequence of this Movement.

(c) Explain briefly how did Mahatma Gandhi try to promote Hindu-Muslim unity from the Rowlatt Satyagraha to the Third Round Table conference.

Answer

(a) The famous march undertaken by Gandhiji was the Dandi March.

  1. On 12th March, Mahatma Gandhi began the historic march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, a village on the Gujarat sea coast.
  2. A number of people followed him.
  3. On the morning of 6th April, Gandhiji violated the Salt Law at Dandi by picking up some salt left by the sea waves.
  4. According to the Salt Law, the government had the monopoly to manufacture and sell salt.
  5. He had selected to attack the Salt Laws because the salt-tax affected all sections of society, especially the poor.
  6. Gandhiji's breaking of the Salt Laws marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

(b) According to the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, the government agreed to:

  1. Withdraw all ordinances and end prosecutions.
  2. Release all political prisoners, except those guilty of violence.
  3. Permit the free collection or manufacture of salt by persons near the seacoast.

(c) Mahatma Gandhi tried to promote Hindu-Muslim unity from the Rowlatt Satyagraha to the Third Round Table conference in the following ways-

  1. Rowlatt Satyagraha — An important feature of the Rowlatt Satyagraha was Hindu-Muslim unity. This was the call given by Mahatma Gandhi, who always saw a unified India belonging to the people of all religions. He wanted that Hindus and Muslims should support each other in any just cause.
  2. Khilafat movement — Gandhiji saw in the Khilafat Movement an opportunity for uniting Hindus and Muslims. He said that the Congress plea for Hindu-Muslim unity "would be an empty phrase if the Hindus hold aloof from the Muslims when their vital interests are at stake".
  3. Non-Cooperation Movement — It fostered Hindu-Muslim unity which could be seen in the merger of the Khilafat issue with this Movement. It provided an opportunity to the Congress to bring the urban Muslims into the National Movement by convincing them that the nation was equally concerned with the problems affecting them.
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