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Section A — Chapter 2

Growth of Nationalism

Class 10 - Total History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

Explain the term 'Nationalism'.

Answer

Nationalism refers to the feeling of oneness and common consciousness that emerges when people living in a common territory share the same historical, political and cultural background, have the same cultural values and consider themselves as one nation.

Question 2

Why was the feeling of 'Nationalism' lacking among the Indians before the arrival of the British?

Answer

Though India had a long history going back to many centuries, it was never a one nation and comprised many kingdoms. There were, however, times when vast portions of the Indian subcontinent came under the rule of one empire. But the loyalty of the people was towards a particular King or kingdom. The modern feeling of nationalism was lacking among them.

It emerged during the British rule mainly as a reaction to the British rule and the clash of interests of the Indian people with those of the British.

Question 3

State two reasons for the development of nationalism in the late 19th century.

Answer

Two reasons for the development of nationalism in the late 19th century are-

  1. Economic exploitation of India by the British
  2. Repressive Colonial policies of the British

Question 4

Give any two examples to indicate that the British followed the policy of economic exploitation in India.

Answer

Two examples to indicate that the British followed the policy of economic exploitation in India are-

  1. The Peasants were the main victims of British colonial policies. The government took away a large part of their produce in the form of land revenue and other taxes. These exorbitant taxes led the peasants into the clutches of landlords and moneylenders.
  2. The British economic policies were against the interests of Indian trade and industry. The English East India Company used its political power to destroy Indian handicrafts and industry. India became a source of raw materials for the industries of Britain and a market for its finished products. This policy crippled the artisans and the craftsmen as they were devoid of their sources of livelihood.

Question 5

Give two reasons for industrial stagnation during the British rule in India.

Answer

Two reasons for industrial stagnation during the British rule in India are-

  1. Raw materials were exported to Britain and hence India rapidly declined as a manufacturing and an industrial sector.
  2. The British by following the policy of 'Free Trade' destroyed the Indian textile and handicraft industries.

Question 6

What role did the Press play in the National Movement?

Answer

Large number of newspapers were started in the later half of the 19th century. Some of the prominent newspaper were the Amrit Bazar Patrika, The Bengali, The Tribune, The Pioneer, The Times of India, The Hindu and The Statesman in English. These newspapers played a significant role in developing a strong national sentiment among the Indians in the following manner:

  1. It was through the press that the message of patriotism and modern liberal ideals of liberty, freedom, equality, home rule and independence, spread among the people.
  2. The press carried on daily criticism of the unjust policies of the British Government in India and exposed the true nature of British rule in India.
  3. It made possible the exchange of views among different social groups from different parts of the country and to organise political movements.
  4. It made Indians aware of what was happening in the world. This awareness helped them to understand the political and social development of the outside world and shape their own policies and programmes.

Question 7

Who passed the Vernacular Press Act in 1878? Why was it passed?

Answer

Lord Lytton introduced the Vernacular Press Act in 1878.

The Vernacular Press Act tried to control the press and forbade vernacular papers to publish any material that might excite feelings of dissatisfaction against the British Government. This act was not applicable to English newspapers.

Question 8

Who repealed the Vernacular Press Act in 1882? What impact did the Act have on Indians?

Answer

The Vernacular Press Act was repealed by Lord Ripon in 1882.

It left deep scars of dissatisfaction and discontentment among the Indian people.

Question 9

Name any two prominent newspapers of the 19th century which played a significant role in arousing national sentiment among the Indians.

Answer

Two prominent newspapers of the 19th century which played a significant role in arousing national sentiment among the Indians are-

  1. Samwad Kaumudi
  2. Amrit Bazar Patrika

Question 10

State any two issues that the socio-religious reform movements worked for.

Answer

Two issues that the socio-religious reform movements worked for are-

  1. Sati pratha
  2. Child marriage

Question 11

Name any two socio-religious reformers who prepared the ground for national movement.

Answer

Two socio-religious reformers who prepared the ground for national movement are-

  1. Raja Rammohan Roy
  2. Jyotiba Phule

Question 12

Name the organisation founded by Jyotiba Phule. Why did he establish this organisation?

Answer

Jyotiba Phule founded the Satya Shodhak Samaj in 1873.

He established this organisation with the aim of securing social justice for the weaker sections of society.

Question 13

What was the objective of the Ilbert Bill? Why was it not passed?

Answer

The objective of the Ilbert Bill was to provide for the trial of British or European persons by Indians. By this Act, the British tried to introduce equality between British and Indian judges in India.

This Bill was not passed because it was resented by the British and they started a Defence Association to defend their special privileges. This reaction provoked counter-agitation by educated Indians. The government ultimately withdrew the Bill.

Question 14

Mention two main objectives of the Indian Association.

Answer

Two main objectives of the Indian Association are-

  1. Creation of a strong body of public opinion.
  2. Integration of Indian people on the basis of common political interests.

Question 15

Mention the regional association that each nationalist was associated with:

(a) Surendranath Banerjee

(b) Dadabhai Naoroji

Answer

(a) Surendranath Banerjee headed the Indian Association in 1876.

(b) Dadabhai Naoroji founded the East India Association in London in 1866.

Question 16

When and by whom was the Indian National Congress established?

Answer

In 1884, A.O. Hume, in consultation with the Indian leaders, laid the foundation of Indian National Congress.

Question 17

Where, when and under whose presidentship was the second session of the Congress held?

Answer

The second session of the Congress was held at Kolkata in 1886, under the Presidentship of Dadabhai Naoroji.

Structured Questions

Question 1

Various factors led to the rise and growth of nationalism in India in the 19th century. In this context, explain the role of each of the following:

(a) Socio-religious reform movements.

(b) Repressive Colonial Policies.

(c) The Press

Answer

(a) Socio-religious reform movements:

  1. The socio-religious reform movements of the 19th century were great pioneers of Indian nationalism.
  2. The impact of Western education, which led to a rational, humanitarian and scientific approach to life, made the educated Indians realise the need to reform their religion and society.
  3. They felt that the path to progress lay in the acceptance of the best of the East and the West.
  4. The result was the birth of socio-religious reform movements touching almost every segment of Indian society.
  5. In the social sphere, these movements worked for the abolition of caste system, child marriage, dowry system, purdah system, sati and infanticide.
  6. They launched a crusade against social and legal inequalities.
  7. In the religious sphere, these reform movements combated religious superstitions, attacked idolatry, polytheism and hereditary priesthood.
  8. These movements fought for individual liberty and social equality.

(b) Repressive Colonial Policies:

  1. The nature of the British Colonial rule over India helped the growth of national sentiment among the Indians.
  2. The British had conquered India to promote their own interests and therefore, followed such repressive policies so as to make India subservient to the needs of Britain.
  3. These policies became the major barrier to India's economic, social, cultural, intellectual and political development.
  4. Some of these repressive policies, especially those followed by Lord Lytton, Viceroy of India from 1876 to 1880 acted as a catalyst for the growth of nationalist movement in India.

(c) The Press

Large number of newspapers were started in the later half of the 19th century. Some of the prominent newspaper were the Amrit Bazar Patrika, The Bengali, The Tribune, The Pioneer, The Times of India, The Hindu and The Statesman in English. These newspapers played a significant role in developing a strong national sentiment among the Indians in the following manner:

  1. It was through the press that the message of patriotism and modern liberal ideals of liberty, freedom, equality, home rule and independence, spread among the people.
  2. The press carried on daily criticism of the unjust policies of the British Government in India and exposed the true nature of British rule in India.
  3. It made possible the exchange of views among different social groups from different parts of the country and to organise political movements.
  4. It made Indians aware of what was happening in the world. This awareness helped them to understand the political and social development of the outside world and shape their own policies and programmes.

Question 2

With reference to Nationalism and the birth of the Indian National Congress, explain each of the following:

(a) Vernacular Press Act, 1878.

(b) State any three objectives of the Indian National Congress.

(c) Role of Dadabhai Naoroji.

Answer

(a) Vernacular Press Act, 1878:

  1. Lord Lytton introduced the Vernacular Press Act in 1878
  2. The Vernacular Press Act forbade vernacular papers to publish any material that might excite feelings of dissatisfaction against the British Government.
  3. This Act was not applicable to English newspapers.

(b) Three objectives of the Indian National Congress were-

  1. To promote friendly relations between nationalist political workers from different parts of the country.
  2. To develop and consolidate the feelings of national unity irrespective of caste, religion or province.
  3. To formulate popular demands and present them before the government.

(c) Dadabhai Naoroji played a significant role in the rise of Nationalism and the birth of the Indian National Congress.

  1. The East India Association was founded in London in 1866 by Dadabhai Naoroji.
  2. The Association provided information on all Indian subjects to British citizens and Members of Parliament.
  3. It voiced the grievances of Indians and suggested remedial measures.
  4. Dadabhai Naoroji, the Grand Old Man of India, was of the opinion that the British were basically just and good.
  5. He wanted to place the true state of affairs in India before the people of England so that the problems of the Indians may be resolved.
  6. The association had its branches in Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.
  7. Later, he supported the formation of Indian National Congress.
  8. The second session of the Congress was held at Kolkata in 1886, under the Presidentship of Dadabhai Naoroji.

Question 3

The establishment of the Indian National Congress was a significant event in the development of national movement in India. In this context:

(a) What was the name of the Indian National Congress before it got this name? Who gave it its present name? Where was it established and who was its founder?

(b) Why did Lord Dufferin favour the formation of the Indian National Congress?

(c) What was the nature of the political associations formed before the Indian National Congress was established? Name any two associations which acted as the forerunners of the Indian National Congress.

Answer

(a) At the time of its foundation, Indian National Congress was called Indian National Union. On the suggestion of Dadabhai Naoroji the name of the Union was changed to the Indian National Congress.

In 1884, A.O. Hume, in consultation with the Indian leaders, laid the foundation of Indian National Congress at Mumbai on December 28, 1885.

(b) The Viceroy, Lord Dufferin, favoured the formation of the Indian National Congress because he wanted it to act as a 'safety-valve' for popular discontent, thereby, safeguarding the British interest in India.

(c) By the second half of the 19th century, there emerged a consciousness among the Indians that the British were exercising control over the resources of India and the lives of its people and until this control was ended, India could not be a sovereign nation. This consciousness led to the formation of a number of political associations led by English-educated professionals.

  1. Though many of these associations were formed in specific parts of the country, they had common goals for all the people of India.
  2. They did not work for any one religion, community or class.
  3. The first political association to be started in India was the 'Landholders' Society in Kolkata in 1838.
  4. Many public associations were started in different parts of India like Bengal British India Society, British Indian Association, East India Association, the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, London Indian Society and Indian Association. These associations served as a base for the formation of the Congress — an all India political organisation.

Picture Study

Question 1

(a) Identify the person in the given picture. Name the organisation formed by him. State any two beliefs of this organisation with regard to upliftment of women.

Identify the person in the given picture. Name the organisation formed by him. State any two beliefs of this organisation with regard to religion. Growth of Nationalism, Total History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(b) Mention his contribution to the growth of Indian National movement.

(c) How did the socio-religious reform movements of the 19th century act as pioneers of Indian Nationalism?

Answer

(a) The person in the given picture is Jyotiba Phule. In 1873, he founded the Satya Shodhak Samaj.

Two beliefs of this organisation with regard to upliftment of women were —

  1. Jyotiba Phule and his organisation considered women superior to men and to maintain it he wanted to provide education to women.
  2. Jyotiba Phule and his organisation pioneered the widow remarriage movement in Maharashtra and started a private orphanage for the widows.

(b) The contributions of Jyotiba Phule to the growth of Indian National movement were:

  1. He worked for the upliftment of women. To provide them education, he along with his wife Savitribai Phule started one of the first girls school in Pune.'
  2. He pioneered widow remarriage and started a private orphanage for the widows.
  3. He considered the caste system prevalent in India as an epitome of slavery. In his famous book, 'Ghulamgiri', he described the hardships and distress felt by the lower castes.
  4. In 1873, he founded the Satya Shodhak Samaj with the aim of securing social justice for the weaker sections of society.

(c) The socio-religious reform movements of the 19th century were great pioneers of Indian nationalism in the following ways:

  1. The impact of Western education, which led to a rational, humanitarian and scientific approach to life, made the educated Indians realise the need to reform their religion and society.
  2. The reformers condemned untouchability and the caste system. The ideas of brotherhood and equality attracted the so called lower castes.
  3. The reformers taught people not to ignore the importance of women, who could participate in the national movement.
  4. In the social sphere, these movements worked for the abolition of caste system, child marriage, dowry system, purdah system, sati and infanticide.
  5. In the religious sphere, these reform movements combated religious superstitions, attacked idolatry, polytheism and hereditary priesthood.
  6. The reform movements created a consciousness of a new society devoid of privileges based on caste, creed or religion.
  7. They protested against the British domination of India. Swami Dayanand Saraswati and Swami Vivekananda proclaimed the superiority of Indian culture and civilisation. Swami Dayanand Saraswati was the first to use the word 'Swaraj' and to raise the slogan 'India for the Indians'.

Thinking Skills

Question 1

Imagine you are a weaver employed in a traditional loom weaving sarees. List the difficulties that you are facing in the second half of the 19th century.

Answer

The economic exploitation at the hands of the British made my life very difficult as a weaver in the second half of the 19th century. Some of the difficulties I faced were:

  1. Heavy duties were imposed on Indian silk and cotton textiles in Britain. On the other hand, the cheaper machine-made products were imported from Britain almost duty free. This destroyed the handloom industry forcing me into unemployment.
  2. The disappearance of my traditional patrons and buyers — the princes, chieftains and zamindars pushed me further into poverty.
  3. Due to British economic policies, India became a source of raw material for the British industries and a market for its finished products. This destroyed the Artisans and Craftsmen like me.

Question 2

Imagine you are a member of Brahmo Samaj. Elaborate what convinced you to join the Brahmo Samaj and how you were influenced by Raja Rammohan Roy.

Answer

The factors that convinced me to join the Brahmo Samaj and the views of Raja Rammohan Roy that influenced me were:

  1. The belief of Brahmo Samaj in Monotheism (worship of one God) and its emphasis on prayer, meditation, charity, morality and strengthening of bonds of unity between men of all religions and creeds.
  2. All the work Raja Rammohan Roy did to prevent discrimination based on the caste system, abolition of sati and purdah system, condemnation of polygamy and child marriage, advocacy of widow remarriage greatly influenced me.

Question 3

Imagine you are living in the second half of the 19th century in a city. State how you feel about the British and what was responsible for creating such an attitude.

Answer

I was living in a city and was employed in a factory owned by an Englishmen. I felt exploited at the hands of the British as I had to work very long hours without any proper rest or leaves. I was paid poorly, I barely survived on my meager income in the city even though the I worked long and hard to make a living. I felt that the British were getting rich at my expense. I started to understand that my condition will improve only if we are able to free our country from the British rule.

Question 4

Suppose you were a student living in the second half of the 19th century. State how your routine of reading a newspaper everyday created strong national sentiments against the British.

Answer

As a student, my routine of reading a newspaper daily helped to create strong national sentiments against the British in the following ways:

  1. The newspaper helped me to understand about patriotism and modern liberal ideals of liberty, freedom, equality, home rule and independence.
  2. The daily criticism of the unjust policies of the British Government in India helped in exposing the true nature of British rule to me.
  3. Through the newspaper, I could develop and exchange my views with different social groups all over India and know how I could participate and organise political movements.
  4. The newspaper made me aware about the political and social development of the outside world. This helped me to develop my owns views about our policies and programmes.
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