Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?
- Intensive cultivation
- Over irrigation
In which one of the following states is terrace cultivation practised?
- Plains of Uttar Pradesh
In which of the following states black soil is predominantly found?
- Uttar Pradesh
Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.
The three states having black soil are:
- Madhya Pradesh
Cotton is mainly grown in black soil.
What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil?
Three main features of alluvial soil are:
- They contain various proportions of sand, silt and clay.
- They are deposited by rivers.
- They are very fertile and contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime.
What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?
The steps that can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas are:
- Contour Ploughing — Ploughing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes, decreasing the erosion.
- Terrace Cultivation — Steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces to restrict erosion.
- Plantation — Plantation of trees on barren hilly areas reduces soil erosion and land slides.
Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?
The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capability and culture and traditions etc.
Following is the land use pattern of India according to data of ministry of Agriculture, 2017:
- Net sown area — 45.5 %
- Forest area — 23.3 %
- Barren land — 5.5 %
- Area under non-agricultural uses — 8.7 %
- Current fallow — 4.9 %
- Culturable waste land — 4.0 %
- Permanent pastures — 3.3 %
The pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one state to another. It is over 80% of the total area in Punjab and Haryana and less than 10% in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman Nicobar Islands. Forest area in the country is far lower than the desired 33% of geographical area.
The land under forest has not considerably increased since 1960-61 because of deforestation, urban developments and land use for other enterprises.
How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?
Technical and economic development has significantly increased resource consumption in several ways. Firstly, advancements in technology have led to increased resource extraction and production efficiency. This efficiency has made it easier and more cost-effective to extract and process resources, leading to higher consumption rates.
Secondly, economic development has fueled consumerism and a culture of constant growth, which encourages people and businesses to buy and consume more products and services. For fulfilling those demands even more resources are exploited. Moreover, the development of new technologies, such as smartphones and electric vehicles, has led to a surge in demand for rare minerals and metals that are being searched and extracted with the help of technology.