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Chapter 2

The Flower

Class 6 - Concise Biology Selina


Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1

In a germinating seed, the roots develop from:

  1. Radicle
  2. Plumule
  3. Tegmen
  4. Hilum

Answer

Radicle

Reason — In germinating seed, the radicle grows downward and develops the root.

Question 2

In a germinating seed , the shoot develops from

  1. Radicle
  2. Plumule
  3. Tegmen
  4. Hilum

Answer

Plumule

Reason — In a germinating seed, the plumule grows upward and develops into the shoot.

Question 3

Which one of the following is a monocotyledonous seed ?

  1. Bean
  2. Pea
  3. Maize
  4. Gram

Answer

Maize

Reason — Maize is a monocotyledonous seed while others are dicotyledonous seed.

Question 4

If the cotyledons are pushed above the soil, then such type of germination is called:

  1. Epigeal
  2. Hypogeal
  3. Perigeal
  4. Progeal

Answer

Epigeal

Reason — In epigeal germination the cotyledons and the plumule comes out from the soil.

Question 5

If the cotyledons remain under the soil, then such type of germination is called:

  1. Epigeal
  2. Hypogeal
  3. Perigeal
  4. Progeal

Answer

Hypogeal

Reason — In hypogeal germination only plumule comes out of the soil to form leaves.

Question 6

Pollen is produced in the :

  1. Filament
  2. Style
  3. Pistil
  4. Anther

Answer

Anther

Reason — Anther is the part of the stamen where pollen is produced.

Question 7

Reproductive whorls of a flower are:

  1. Stamens and Carpels
  2. Sepals and Petals
  3. Sepals and Stamens
  4. Petals and Carpels

Answer

Stamen and Carpels

Reason — Stamen is a male reproductive part and Carpel is female reproductive part of the flower.

Question 8

Which one of the following is a false fruit?

  1. Tomato
  2. Apple
  3. Potato
  4. Pea

Answer

Apple

Reason — In apple, the main fleshy part of the fruit is formed from the thalamus, not from ovary, so it is known as false fruit.

Question 9

In a seed, food is a generally stored in:

  1. Radicle
  2. Plumule
  3. Fruit
  4. Cotyledons or Endosperms

Answer

Cotyledons or Endosperm

Reason — Cotyledons or Endosperms stores nutrients which are required by the development of embryo during seedlings.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1

Given below is a longitudinal section of a bean seed. Label the parts marked 1 to 5 and write their functions.

Given below is a longitudinal section of a bean seed. Label the parts marked 1 to 5 and write their functions. The Flower, Concise Biology Solutions ICSE Class 6.

Answer

The parts marked 1 to 5 are:

  1. Testa
  2. Plumule
  3. Radicle
  4. Micropyle
  5. Cotyledon

Their functions are as follows:

  1. Testa — It protects the seed from insect and bacteria as well as from mechanical injury.
  2. Plumule — It develops into the shoot.
  3. Radicle — It develops into the root.
  4. Micropyle — It absorbs and allows the entry of as much water as is required for germination.
  5. Cotyledons — They contain stored food material which is used by the seedlings for growth.

Question 2

Name the following:

  1. A seed which shows hypogeal germination.
  2. A monocot seed.
  3. A dicot seed.
  4. A seed which shows epigeal germination.

Answer

  1. Pea seed
  2. Maize grain
  3. Bean seed
  4. Papaya seed

Question 3(a)

Differentiate between Radicle and Plumule

Answer

Differences between Radicle and Plumule are:

RadiclePlumule
The radicle grows downward.The plumule grows upward.
The radicle develops into root.The plumule develops into shoot.

Question 3(b)

Differentiate between Hilum and Micropyle

Answer

Differences between Hilum and Micropyle are:

HilumMicropyle
Hilum is a scar which is present on the inner concave side of the seed.Micropyle is a small pore which is present above the hilum.
Hilum is the place where the seed was attached to the fruit wall.Micropyle absorbs and allows the entry of as much water as is required for germination.

Question 3(c)

Differentiate between Testa and tegmen

Answer

Differences between Testa and Tegmen are:

TestaTegmen
Testa is the protective outer covering of the seed coat.Tegmen is the protective inner part of the seed coat.
Testa is smooth, thicker and impermeable.Tegmen is thin and membranous.
Testa protects the seed from insect, bacteria as well as mechanical injury.Tegmen protects the embryo from dehydration and mechanical damages.

Question 4

Give two main functions of a fruit.

Answer

Two main functions of a fruit are:

  1. Fruit protects seed from the unfavourable environmental condition.
  2. Fruit stores food inside them.

Question 5

Match the columns:

Column AColumn B
a) Radicle(i) Shoot
b) Plumule(ii) Store food material
c) Cotyledon(iii) Root
d) Testa(iv) Absorb water needed for germination
e) Micropyle(v) Protection of seed

Answer

Column AColumn B
a) Radicle(iii) Root
b) Plumule(i) Shoot
c) Cotyledons(ii) Store food material
d) Testa(v) Protection of seed
e) Micropyle(iv) Absorb water needed for germination

Question 6

Radicle emerges out of the seed earlier than plumule. State one advantage served by this.

Answer

The Radicle emerges out of the seed earlier than the plumule and absorbs water and essential nutrients from the soil. This helps the plumule to grow and allows for photosynthesis to occur by providing raw materials.

Question 7

State whether the following statements are True or False.

  1. Some seeds have no cotyledons.
  2. Warmth is necessary for the germination of seed.
  3. All seed have two cotyledons.
  4. Oxygen is necessary for the germination of seed.

Answer

  1. False
    Reason — Seeds always have cotyledons. Seeds are of two types — monocotyledons having a single cotyledon and dicotyledons having two cotyledons.
  2. True
    Reason — Warmth or a suitable temperature is necessary for germination of seeds because enzymes are inactive at low temperatures and get destroyed at higher temperatures.
  3. False
    Reason — Seeds are of two types — monocotyledons having a single cotyledon and dicotyledons having two cotyledons.
  4. True
    Reason — Oxygen is required to oxidize the stored food and release energy required for the growth of the embryo.

Question 8

State one function of the following:

  1. Radicle
  2. Cotyledons
  3. Endosperm
  4. Micropyle

Answer

  1. Radicle is the part of the seed which develops into root.
  2. Cotyledons contain stored food material which is used by the seedling for growth.
  3. Endosperm stores food in the form of starch.
  4. Micropyle absorbs and allows the entry of as much water as is needed for germination.

Question 9

The three conditions necessary for germination of seeds are (tick the correct answer):

  1. Oxygen, suitable temperature and water.
  2. Good soil, water and air.
  3. Good soil, suitable temperature and light.
  4. Light, oxygen and temperature.
  5. Oxygen, carbon dioxide and light.

Answer

Oxygen, suitable temperature and water

Reason — Seeds need water for germination as most chemical reactions occur in water. Oxygen is required to oxidize the stored food and release energy required for the growth of the embryo. Suitable temperature is necessary for germination of seeds because enzymes are inactive at low temperatures and get destroyed at higher temperatures.

Question 10

Name the part of the seed from which the following are given out:

  1. Root
  2. Leaves

Answer

  1. Radicle
  2. Plumule

Question 11

In the spaces provided below, draw labelled diagrams to show the three stages in the germination of any seed you have observed.

Complete Seed

Radicle Emerged

Plumule Emerged

Answer

Labelled diagrams showing the three stages in the germination of any seed are shown below:

In the spaces provided below, draw labelled diagrams to show the three stages in the germination of any seed you have observed. Complete Seed. The Flower, Concise Biology Solutions ICSE Class 6.
In the spaces provided below, draw labelled diagrams to show the three stages in the germination of any seed you have observed. Radicle Emerged. The Flower, Concise Biology Solutions ICSE Class 6.
In the spaces provided below, draw labelled diagrams to show the three stages in the germination of any seed you have observed. Plumule Emerged. The Flower, Concise Biology Solutions ICSE Class 6.

Long Answer Questions

Question 1

What is meant by pollination? Name the two types of pollination.

Answer

Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anthers to the stigma of a flower. The two types of pollination are:

  1. Self pollination
  2. Cross pollination

Question 2

Imagine all the seeds produced by a plant happen to fall under the same plant and sprout into new plants. Mention any two problems that will be faced by the new plants.

Answer

The two main problems that will faced by the new plant are:

  1. New plants will lack space for their growth because comparatively large number of plants are growing at a particular place.
  2. The new plants will face competition among themselves to get nutrient from the soil which will hamper their growth and development.

Question 3

What is a flower? Draw a typical flower and label its different parts.

Answer

Flower is a specialized shoot in which the leaves are modified into floral structures. It is the reproductive organ of the plant.

Labelled diagram of a flower is shown below:

What is flower? Draw a typical flower and label its different parts. The Flower, Concise Biology Solutions ICSE Class 6.

Question 4

With the help of a suitable labelled diagram, describe the structure of a dicot seed.

Answer

Taking Bean seed as an example of a dicot seed, below is its labelled diagram:

With the help of a suitable labelled diagram, describe the structure of a dicot seed. The Flower, Concise Biology Solutions ICSE Class 6.

The structure of a bean seed is described below:

  1. The bean seed is protected by a thin, greenish outermost covering called seed coat. It protects the seed from insects and bacteria as well as from mechanical injury.
  2. The seed coat is divided into two parts, the outer part is called Testa and inner part is called Tegmen. Tegmen is a thin membrane that lies under the Testa.
  3. On the inner concave side of the seed, there is a scar called Hilum which marks the place where the seed was attached to the fruit wall.
  4. Above the hilum is a small pore called Micropyle. The Micropyle absorbs and allows the entry of as much water as is required for germination.
  5. On removing the testa and tegmen from a soaked bean seed, the seed is made up of two fleshy seed leaves called the Cotyledons. They contain stored food material which is used by the seedling for growth.
  6. In between the two cotyledons is located the delicate embryo which consist of a Radicle and Plumule. The radical develops into a root, while the plumule develops into a shoot.

Question 5

Define germination? Name the two types of germination. Explain with example.

Answer

The process by which an embryo within the seed becomes active and grows into a young plant is called germination. The two types of germinations are:

  1. Epigeal Germination — Put some bean seeds in moist cotton placed in a petri dish. After about two days, the radicle grows downwards and develops the roots, while the plumule grows upwards and develops into the shoot. It is seen that the cotyledons are pulled above the surface of the ground. This type of germination in which the cotyledons are pushed above the soil is called Epigeal Germination.
  2. Hypogeal Germination - Soak some maize grains in water for about 24 hours. The stored food in the endosperm is used by the radicle and plumule for their growth. The radicle grows downward while the plumule grows upward and forms the first leaf. This type of germination is called hypogeal germination, as the cotyledons remains under the soil. The plumule only comes out of the soil to form leaves of the plant.

Question 6

What are the three conditions necessary for the germination of seeds?

Answer

For the germination of the seeds the three necessary conditions are:

  1. Water — All living things required water to carry out their life processes. Most chemical reactions occur in water. So seeds also need water during germination.
  2. Oxygen — Seed also needs air for the germination of seed. The oxygen present in the air is used to oxidize the stored food and thus release energy. The energy is required for the growth of the embryo.
  3. A Suitable Temperature — It is necessary for all chemical activities assisted by enzymes. Enzymes are inactive at low temperatures and get destroyed at higher temperatures. They act best between 35° and 40°C.

Question 7

Give the main differences between Hypogeal and Epigeal germination.

Answer

Differences between Hypogeal and Epigeal germination are:

HypogealEpigeal
The Cotyledons remains under the soil.The Cotyledons are pushed above the soil.
Epicotyl elongates faster than Hypocotyl, hence cotyledons remain below.Hypocotyl elongates faster than Epicotyl, hence cotyledons get pulled above.
Example - Maize, Rice.Example - Papaya, Bean.

Question 8

State the location of the following in a flower:

  1. Sepals
  2. Petals
  3. Anthers
  4. Stigma

Answer

  1. Sepals — Sepals are located in the Calyx which is the outermost whorl of the flower.
  2. Petals — Petals are located in the Corolla which is the second inner whorl of the flower.
  3. Anthers — Anthers are located at the tip of the stamens in the third whorl of the flower, inner to the petals.
  4. Stigma — Stigma is located in the fourth and innermost whorl of the flower, in the pistil at the tip of the style.

Question 9

Given below is the diagram of a typical flower. Label the parts marked by guidelines.

Given below is the diagram of a typical flower. Label the parts marked by guidelines. The Flower, Concise Biology Solutions ICSE Class 6.

Answer

Labelled diagram of the flower is shown below:

Given below is the diagram of a typical flower. Label the parts marked by guidelines. The Flower, Concise Biology Solutions ICSE Class 6.

Question 10(a)

Give the difference in function between Ovary and Ovule.

Answer

Difference in function between Ovary and Ovule is:

OvaryOvule
Ovary after fertilization turns into a fruit.Ovule after fertilization turns into a seed of a fruit.

Question 10(b)

Give the difference in function between Petals and Sepals.

Answer

Difference in function between Petals and Sepals is:

PetalsSepals
The petal makes the flower attractive and hence attract insects for pollination.The sepal encloses the inner parts of the flower to provide necessary protection to the growing bud.

Question 10(c)

Give the difference in function between Filament and Style.

Answer

Difference in function between Filament and Style are:

FilamentStyle
The filament bears anther at its tip which produce pollen grains. Pollen grains contain the male gametes.The style transfers the male gametes of the pollen grains into the ovary.
Filament comes under the male reproductive part of the flower.Style comes under the female reproductive part of the flower.

Question 10(d)

Give the difference in function between pollen grain and ovule.

Answer

Difference in function between pollen grain and ovule are:

Pollen grainOvule
It contains the male gametes.It contains the female gametes.
Pollen grains deliver male gametes from stamen of the flower to ovule.Ovule comes under the female reproductive part of the flower.
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