Fill in the blanks
We follow ............... system to measure distances in India.
We follow S.I. system to measure distances in India.
The conventional signs and symbols are also known as a ............... .
The conventional signs and symbols are also known as a legend.
The ocean account for ............... % of the earth.
The ocean account for 71 % of the earth.
Natural gas occurs in association with ............... .
Natural gas occurs in association with Petroleum.
A plateau surrounded by mountain ranges ............... .
A plateau surrounded by mountain ranges intermontane plateau.
Tick the right word
Which of the following is a marginal sea?
- Caspian sea
- Aral sea
- Bering sea
- Red sea
In plantation farming farmers grow
The old faithful geyser is located in
- Residual Mountains
- Fold Mountains
- Block Mountains
- Volcanic Ranges
The four cardinal directions are
Answer in one word
A naturally occuring chemical compound usually of crystalline form
A rock containing large quantity of a single mineral.
Long and deep gorges, typically one with a river flowing through it.
The Temperate Grasslands of North America.
A representation of the Earth or a portion of the Earth drawn to scale on flat surface.
Define the following terms (any two)
R.F. — The numerical fraction method that show the ratio between the distance on the map to the distance on the ground.
Globe — A model of the earth, representing the three-dimensional spherical shape of the earth in miniature form. It is not drawn to scale.
Delta — A triangular raised area formed by the deposition of silt at the mouth of the river is called Delta.
Sketch — A rough drawing, drawn without scale that is used to give an idea of the location with the help of a drawing and arrows to show directions is called sketch.
Magnetic compass — A Magnetic compass is a device that shows the cardinal directions used for navigation and geographic orientation. It is also called Mariner's compass as it is mostly used by sailors.
(i) Draw a neat diagram to show the formation of a Delta.
(ii) Draw a neat diagram to show eight cardinal points.
(i) Diagram showing formation of a Delta is given below:
(ii) Diagram showing eight cardinal points is given below:
Why is a map more useful than a globe? Give reasons for your answer.
Map is more useful than a globe because:
- A map is more accurate than a globe and provides more precise information as maps are drawn to scale whereas a globe is not drawn to scale.
- A globe represents the relative shapes and sizes of the continents, countries and oceans of the entire earth in 3D whereas maps can be of different types like Large Scale maps, Small scale maps, Physical Maps, Political Maps, Thematic maps, etc. helping us to accurately find location of a country, distance, direction and distribution of crops, etc.
- All details of a place cannot be shown on globe while it can be easily shown on a map.
What is the significance of colour in map reading?
The colours in the map help us to identify the features of that place easily. As these colours are universally accepted, hence they do not cause any confusion to the map reader. For example, blue colour is used to show water bodies, red colour is used to denote settlements and so on.
What type of mountain is Mt. Kilimanjaro?
Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa is a volcanic mountain.
What do you mean by water cycle? Explain with the help of a neat diagram.
The continuous interchange of water between the oceans, atmosphere and land is called Hydrological cycle or Water cycle. It connects all the three realms of the earth: lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.
The differential heating of the earth by the sun causes water to evaporate. The atmospheric blanket around the earth does not allow water vapour to escape. When the water vapour comes in contact with the cooler layers of atmosphere, it condenses to form clouds and falls back on the earth in the form of rain, snow or hail. This water flows into rivers or goes underground or back into the oceans. This circulation of water in different forms is called water cycle.
What is subsistence farming? State two features of this type of farming.
Subsistence farming is a type of farming that aims to cultivate crops for consumption by the farmer and his family. The farmer has a small piece of land on which he and his family works. Two features of this type of farming are:
- It is characterised by the use of simple techniques, family labour and a poor standard of living.
- Any surplus crop could be exchanged for goods or stored for future use in times of poor harvest.
Define Green Revolution.
Green Revolution refers to the global increase in agricultural productivity that was brought by introduction of chemical fertilizers, synthetic herbicides and pesticides, high-yield crops, and the method of multiple cropping.
State the importance of copper in the industrial development.
Copper is in great demand in the industrial field because of its high ductility, and high thermal and electrical conductivity. Following are the important uses of copper:
- It is mainly used in electrical machinery, automobile industry, stainless steel and telephones.
- Copper is also used in railway equipment industry and other engineering works.
- The nickel-copper alloy (morel metal) is very tough and resists corrosion and is largely used as a material for construction in the chemical industry.
State any three uses of uranium.
Three uses of uranium are:
- Nuclear defence system and nuclear generation of electricity.
- Nuclear medicine and x-ray machines
- Atomic dating and electronic instrument
What is the extent of South America?
South America lies between 13° N latitude to 55° S and 35° W to 81° W longitude. The major part of South America is in Southern Hemisphere and only a small part lies in Northern Hemisphere.
State the characteristics features of Andes mountain range. (any 3)
The characteristic features of Andes mountain range are:
- It is the longest mountain system of the world. Their average height is about 4000 m above sea level.
- It is an unbroken stretch of young fold mountains which flank the Pacific coast from Caribbean Sea to Cape Horn.
- It has two parallel ranges from western and eastern sides.
Name the major physical divisions of South America.
The major physical divisions of South America are:
- Western Mountains — Andes
- The Western Coastal Strip
- The Central Plains
- The Eastern Highlands
- The Islands
Why are prairies known as the “granaries of the world”?
The Prairies are known as the 'Granaries of the World' because it is fertile area which produces large quantity of Wheat.
Who invented the Continental Drift Theory?
The Continental Drift theory was invented by Antonio Snider.
Differentiate between the following:
(a) Extensive farming and intensive farming
(b) Food crops and cash crops
(c) Mineral and ore
(a) Differences between Extensive farming and Intensive farming are given below:
|Extensive farming||Intensive farming|
|1.||Extensive farming is done on larger area of land.||Intensive farming is done on smaller land holdings.|
|2.||Land may be left fallow for a year or two to enable it to regain its fertility.||Land is not left fallow and more than one crop are taken in an year.|
|3.||Extensive farming is followed in area were more land is available and population is less.||Intensive farming is done in densely populated areas.|
|4.||Less labour is employed.||More domestic labour is used.|
(b) Differences between Food crops and Cash crops are given below:
|Food crops||Cash crops|
|1.||Food crops are grown for consumption as food.||Cash crops are grown to serve as raw material for different industries.|
|2.||Generally intensive type of agriculture is practised.||They are grown mainly for export and grown by extensive farming.|
|3.||Example: Rice, Wheat, pulses||Example: Jute, sugarcane|
(c) Differences between Mineral and Ore are given below:
|1.||A mineral is an aggregate of two or more than two elements.||Ores are minerals that have a high concentration of a certain element typically a metal.|
|2.||All minerals are not ores.||All ores are minerals.|
Give reasons for the following:
(a) Southern ocean is not navigable.
(b) Young fold mountains have high peaks.
(c) Rift Valley has steep sides.
(a) Southern Ocean is not navigable because it remains frozen for the most part of the year.
(b) Young fold mountains have high and pointed peaks because they are younger and have not been much eroded by wind or water. On the contrary, old fold mountains have been subjected to the forces of denudation (such as weather, rivers, glaciers) for a longer geological period. Due to this prolonged erosion, they are lower in height and have round peaks.
(c) Rift valley have steep sides because they are formed as a linear depression or trough by the sinking of the intermediate crustal rocks between two or more parallel faults. Sudden rifting of tectonic plates leads to steep sides of Rift valley.