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Term 2 — Chapter 3

Industries

Class 7 - Around the World Geography Solutions


Get Set

Question 1

Match the names of these companies with the products they manufacture.

Sl.
No.
Column AColumn B
1.Bombay Dyeingautomobiles
2.Maruti SuzukiIT services
3.Wiproelectrical equipment
4.Havellsdairy products
5.Amultextiles

Answer

Sl.
No.
Column AColumn B
1.Bombay Dyeingtextiles
2.Maruti Suzukiautomobiles
3.WiproIT services
4.Havellselectrical equipment
5.Amuldairy products

Quick Quiz 1

Question 1

The ............... Revolution led to the growth and development of modern factories.

Answer

The Industrial Revolution led to the growth and development of modern factories.

Question 2

The development in agriculture is a mark of the economic growth and progress of a country. True or False?

Answer

False

Corrected statement — The development in manufacturing industries is a mark of the economic growth and progress of a country.

Question 3

Name the types of industries on the basis of size.

Answer

The types of industries on the basis of size are:

  1. Cottage industries
  2. Small-scale industries
  3. Large-scale industries

Question 4

Sugar industry is an example of (cottage/agro-based) industry.

Answer

Sugar industry is an example of agro-based industry.

Question 5

Define joint sector industry.

Answer

Industries that are owned and managed jointly by private firms and government agencies are called joint sector industries.

Quick Quiz 2

Question 1

Mention two factors responsible for the establishment of an industry.

Answer

Two factors responsible for the establishment of an industry are:

  1. Availability of large areas of level land
  2. Regular and assured supply of raw materials

Question 2

(Santa Clara /Pittsburgh) is an iron and steel-producing centre.

Answer

Pittsburgh is an iron and steel-producing centre.

Question 3

Name two countries that produce sugar from sugar beet.

Answer

Two countries that produce sugar from sugar beet are Russia and the USA.

Question 4

A ............... is a place in a harbour where ships are constructed.

Answer

A shipyard is a place in a harbour where ships are constructed.

Question 5

The Dogger Bank fishing ground is located in the North-East Pacific region. True or False?

Answer

False

Corrected statement — The Dogger Bank fishing ground is located in the North Sea(North-East Atlantic region).

Tick the correct answers

Question 1

Which of these industries is a small-scale industry?

  1. petrochemical
  2. machine parts
  3. iron and steel
  4. handloom

Answer

handloom

Question 2

Which of these industries is not classified on the basis of ownership?

  1. cooperative
  2. private
  3. public
  4. agro-based

Answer

agro-based

Question 3

Which of these cities is called the 'Cottonopolis of India'?

  1. Mumbai
  2. Surat
  3. Kancheepuram
  4. Burhanpur

Answer

Mumbai

Question 4

Which of these countries has the largest automobile industry in the world?

  1. South Korea
  2. Germany
  3. the USA
  4. Japan

Answer

the USA

Question 5

Which of these wastes from industries causes soil pollution?

  1. smoke
  2. carbon monoxide
  3. fly ash
  4. oil spill

Answer

fly ash

Fill in the blanks

Question 1

Paper is manufactured from ............... .

Answer

Paper is manufactured from wood pulp.

Question 2

Manufacturing fish oil is an example of ...............-based industry.

Answer

Manufacturing fish oil is an example of marine-based industry.

Question 3

Jamshedpur is an ...............-producing centre.

Answer

Jamshedpur is an iron-producing centre.

Question 4

The computer programs are called ............... .

Answer

The computer programs are called software.

Question 5

............... pollution is caused due to operating of heavy machines.

Answer

Noise pollution is caused due to operating of heavy machines.

Write two examples of each

Question 1

Large-scale industries

Answer

  1. Iron and Steel mills
  2. Textile mills

Question 2

Pastoral-based industries

Answer

  1. Woollen textiles
  2. Leather goods

Question 3

Centres of IT industry in India

Answer

  1. Bengaluru
  2. Hyderabad

Question 4

Fishing grounds in North-East Atlantic

Answer

  1. The Dogger Bank
  2. The Great Fisher Bank

Question 5

Pollutants released into air

Answer

  1. Carbon monoxide
  2. Sulphur dioxide

Give reasons for the following

Question 1

Iron and steel industry is a heavy industry.

Answer

Iron and steel industry is a heavy industry as it uses bulky raw materials such as iron ore and coal in large quantities and its finished products are also heavy.

Question 2

Bengaluru is known as the 'Silicon Valley of India'.

Answer

Bengaluru is known as the 'Silicon Valley of India' because it is the largest centre of IT industry in India.

Answer these questions

Question 1

Define manufacturing and industry.

Answer

Manufacturing — The processing of raw materials into finished products such as cotton into cloth, sugarcane into sugar, wood pulp into paper, mineral oil into petrochemicals is called manufacturing.

Industry — Any economic activity which is associated with the production of goods is called an industry. For example, extraction of minerals, production of goods and provision of services.

Question 2

Classify industries on the basis of their size and ownership.

Answer

On the basis of size

  1. Cottage industries — The cottage industries utilize local raw materials and basic tools and equipment. These industries are mostly found in rural areas. The products are mainly for sale in the local markets. Labour is supplied by the members of the family. Farmers or craftsmen in their free time make goods such as ropes, baskets and handloom cloth.
  2. Small-scale industries — They use power-driven machines. Raw materials are obtained from outside and goods are sold through traders. They are generally owned by an individual and employ less number of labourers. They produce cloth, paper goods, toys, furniture, machine parts, electrical goods, utensils and leather goods.
  3. Large-scale industries — They use heavy power-driven machines, huge capital investment, thousands of labourers and a complex management system. They bring in raw materials from far-off places and send the finished products to distant markets. Iron and steel mills, textile mills, transport equipment and petrochemicals are examples of large-scale industries.

On the basis of ownership

  1. Private sector industries — They are owned and managed by an individual or a group of individuals. Reliance Industries Limited, Tata Steel and Hindustan Motors are private sector industries.
  2. Public sector industries — They are owned and managed by the central or state governments or their agencies. Bhilai Steel Plant and Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited are examples of public sector industries.
  3. Joint sector industries — They are owned and managed jointly by private firms and government agencies. Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Limited, Punjab National Bank and Oil India Limited are joint sector industries.
  4. Cooperative sector industries — They are owned and managed by a group of people. Generally the members are the producers of raw materials. Examples of such industries are handloom, food processing and dairy products.
  5. Multinational corporations — They are set up in collaboration with foreign investors. They are owned and managed by members of two or more countries. For example, Maruti Suzuki India Limited.

Question 3

Distinguish between mineral-based and forest-based industries.

Answer

Sl.
No.
Mineral-based industriesForest-based industries
1.Mineral-based industries obtain raw materials from rocks and minerals.Forest-based industries obtain raw materials from plants.
2.Iron and steel, aluminium and cement are mineral-based industries.Paper, cardboard, rayon, lac, resin are forest-based industries.

Question 4

What are the factors responsible for the establishment of an industry?

Answer

The factors responsible for the establishment of an industry are:

  1. Availability of large areas of level land
  2. Regular and assured supply of raw materials
  3. Cheap and adequate power supply
  4. Adequate supply of skilled labourers at reasonable wages
  5. An efficient network of transport at reasonable rates
  6. Nearness to market for quick sale of manufactured goods
  7. Some industries, such as paper, need large quantity of water. Thus, those industries are usually located near rivers, canals or lakes.
  8. Availability of capital from banks and the government
  9. Government policies

Question 5

Name two countries where iron and steel and cotton textile industries are well developed.

Answer

Iron-steel and cotton textile industries are well developed in the USA and Germany.

Question 6

What are the factors that have led to the growth of shipbuilding industry since the Second World War? Name three centres of shipbuilding in India.

Answer

The factors that have led to the growth of shipbuilding industry since the Second World War are:

  • The development of iron and steel industry.
  • The availability of skilled labourers

The three centres of shipbuilding in India are Kolkata, Kochi and Mumbai.

Question 7

Where are the commercial fishing grounds of the world located? Name two fishes caught in the North-East Pacific region.

Answer

The commercial fishing grounds of the world are located in the cool, shallow waters of the temperate region in the northern hemisphere.

Two fishes caught in the North-East Pacific region are Salmon and halibut.

Question 8

Write two examples of highly-polluting industries. What preventive measures can be taken to control industrial pollution?

Answer

Two examples of highly-polluting industries are cement industry and Iron-steel industry.

Following are the preventive measures that can be taken to control industrial pollution:

  1. The industrial wastes should be properly treated in waste treatment plants before they are discharged.
  2. More trees should be planted as trees reduce dust, smoke and other pollutants from the air.
  3. The government should take strict actions against those industries which discharge higher amount of pollutants into the environment than the level prescribed by the central or state Pollution Control Boards.
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