Name the following
Two Sultans who regarded themselves as a shadow of God on Earth.
(b) Alauddin Khalji
Two subdivisions of the provinces.
Two non-religious taxes imposed by the Sultans of Delhi.
Two mosques built by Aibak.
(a) Quwwat-ul-Islam at Delhi.
(b) Adhai-din-ka-jhopra at Ajmer.
Two towns (any) built by Firoz Shah Tughlaq.
Fill in the blanks
The rulers of Delhi Sultanate based their administration on the model of the Emperor of Iran.
Zawabit were the rules framed by the Delhi Sultans according to the needs of the state.
Khams was the one-fifth of booty captured in the war.
The audience hall where the Delhi Sultan used to hold their court was called Hazar Uslun.
Jizya was a tax imposed on non-muslims.
Answer the following
Explain briefly the importance of the office of Sultan during the Delhi Sultanate.
The Sultan's office was the most important one in Delhi Sultanate. Most of the Sultans regarded themselves as the representative of Caliph and included the name of Caliph in the Khutba and the Sikka but Sultans from the time of Balban called themselves as Naib-e-Khuda, i.e., Deputy of God and Zill-i-Illahi, i.e., the shadow of God. The sultan was vested with all the political, legal and military powers. He was responsible for the safety and security of the state. He was responsible for maintenance of law and justice. For this purpose, judges were appointed. The sultan acted as a court of appeal from the judges. A direct appeal could be made to the Sultan against any of his officials. Sultan was also the commander-in-chief of the military forces.
State the position of the nobles and the Ulema during the reign of the Khaljis and the Tughlaqs.
Position of the Ulema:
The Ulema, i.e., the religious leaders and theologians formed an important group in the sultanate. Many of them were appointed to high offices and granted revenue-free lands. Though they were consulted by the Sultans but they were not allowed to dictate the policy of the state. Many rulers like Alauddin Khalji framed their own laws (zawabit) according to the needs of the state along with the Muslim laws.
Position of the Nobles:
Following was the position of the nobles under various rulers of Delhi Sultanate:
- Illtutmish organised a group of powerful Turkish nobles, called 'Chalisa' or 'Corps of Forty Slaves' and distributed high offices among them.
- Balban stood forth as the champion of Turkish nobility. He refused to appoint on important posts anyone not belonging to a noble family. But he took stern measures to break the power of the Turkish nobles to enhance the power and prestige of the monarch.
- Jalaluddin Khalji tried to gain the goodwill of the nobility by following the policy of tolerance and avoiding giving harsh punishments.
- Alauddin Khalji reversed this policy and treated the nobles with utmost severity. He formulated a set of rules to prevent the nobles from conspiring against the Sultan.
- Muhammad bin Tughlaq gave high posts to even those people who did not belong to noble families. This policy was resented by the old noble families.
Hence it can be said that the relationship between the Sultan and the nobility during the reign of the Khaljis and the Tughlaqs changed according to the character and ability of the ruler.
Name the four important departments formed for effectively running the administration of the state during the Delhi Sultanate. State the functions of each department.
Four important departments formed for effectively running the administration of the state during the Delhi Sultanate were:
- Diwan-i-Wizarat — It was the revenue department dealing with income and expenditure of the state. It was the most important department of the Sultanate.
- Diwan-i-Arz — It was the military department dealing with recruitment of troops, payment of salaries and periodical inspection of the forces. Balban was the first to set up such a department in India.
- Diwan-i-Insha — It was the department of state correspondence. It dealt with all the correspondence between the ruler and the kings of other states, drafting of royal proclamations and letters to provincial governors and officers.
- Diwan-i-Risalat — This department dealt with religious matters, pious foundations and stipends to scholars and men of piety.
State three architectural features used by the Delhi Sultans in the construction of buildings.
The three architectural features used by the Delhi Sultans in the construction of buildings were:
- The Turkish rulers borrowed the architectural features like the Arch and the Dome from the Arab and used them in the construction of mosques and palaces.
- The Turks used geometrical and floral designs along with panels of inscriptions containing verses from the Holy Quran.
- The Turks also used Indian motifs such as bell, swastika and lotus in the construction of buildings.
Write short notes on the following:
(a) The Urdu language
(b) Amir Khusrau
(a) The Urdu language — With the establishment of Turkish empire in India, the court language in the areas controlled by the Turks became Persian, which in turn influenced many regional languages. Consequently, many Persian words came into their vocabulary and this mixture of Persian and Hindi led to the emergence of a new language – Urdu. The word 'Urdu' literally means 'camp'. Initially, it was spoken by the soldiers with different mother tongues but gradually became the most common spoken language in the town.
(b) Amir Khusrau — Amir Khusrau was the most notable Persian writer of his time. The theme of his works was often his love for India and the pride of being an Indian. He created an Indian style of Persian called Sabaq-i-Hindi. Some of his writings include the stories of the Sultans. For example, in Khazain-ul-Futuh, he talks of Alauddin Khalji’s southern campaigns; Miftah-ul-Futuh deals with Jalaluddin’s military exploits whereas Tughlaqnama talks of Jalaluddin Khalji’s rise to power.
Study the picture and answer the following questions:
(a) Name the building given in the picture. Where it is located?
(b) Who got it constructed? Name two other buildings constructed by this ruler.
(c) Write a short note on the art and architecture of Delhi Sultanate.
(a) The building given in the picture is Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque situated in New Delhi.
(b) Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque was constructed during the reign of Qutb-ud-din-Aibak. He also got constructed Adhai-din-ka-jhopra mosque at Ajmer. He started the construction fo Qutub Minar but died before it could be completed.
(c) Interaction of the Turks and Indians led to the assimilation of the features of the two cultures and gradually led to the emergence of a new enriched culture. The Turkish rulers constructed many buildings using the architectural features borrowed from the Arabs like the arch and the dome. They also used geometrical and floral designs along with panels of inscriptions containing verses from the Holy Quran and Indian motifs like bell, swastika and lotus. They added color to their buildings by using red sandstone along with yellow sandstone and marble.