Complete the following
Two religions which emerged during the medieval period.
Two parts into which history of Medieval India is divided.
(a) Early Medieval Period
(b) Late Medieval Period
Any two classes of people comprising middle class of Jewish society.
Any two authors of the Gospels.
(a) St. John
(b) St. Mark
Two Roman Emperors who patronised Christianity.
Fill in the blanks
The medieval period in Europe stretched from 600 CE to 1500 CE
Herod was known as the Client King.
The two sects of the Jews were Pharisees and Sadducees.
Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Israel.
Theodosius declared Christianity as the State religion.
Charlemagne established the Holy Roman Empire in the ninth century CE.
Answer the following questions
Which period of History is known as the Medieval Age? Mention two changes that took place in the Medieval Age.
The period between 600 CE to 1500 CE is known as the medieval age.
Two changes that took place in the Medieval Age were:
- Emergence and spread of Christianity.
- Emergence and spread of Islam.
Explain briefly the socio-political conditions prevalent in Palestine before the birth of jesus.
In the middle of first century BCE, Palestine, the homeland of the Jews, was conquered by Romans, who established a two-tiered system of government there, whereby Roman overseers and Jewish leaders exercised control in the name of Rome. The Romans, practised 'one country, two system' policy, whereby all the people had religious and political freedom but a strict control was maintained.
The Jewish religious and governing system was divided between two sects — the Pharisees (the people's party) and the Sadducees (the wealthy and conservative leaders). The upper class was made up of the temple priests and priestly aristocracy. The Middle class comprised traders and merchants, artisans and craftsman. The Lower class was made of labourers (weavers, stone carriers, slaves etc.).
For a Jewish village, the hub was the market place and shops, the Synagogue was a central meeting place and the seat of the local Jewish government. The Jewish people believed in one God who was invisible and cannot be portrayed. The Jewish tradition was centered on the Sabbath, which was considered to be a day of rest and worship.
Who was Jesus Christ? What did he preach about love?
Jesus Christ was born to Mary and Joseph, at Bethlehem in Judea (Israel). He is the founder of Christianity. Christians believe Jesus Christ was the Son of God who was sent on earth to save the world.
In his teachings, Jesus Christ gave importance to love, brotherhood and compassion. He asked his followers to love all men, even their enemies. He preached 'love your neighbours as yourself' i.e., love everyone including your enemies.
Why is Cross considered as a holy symbol by the Christians? What is meant by Resurrection of Jesus?
Jesus was sentenced to death on a Cross. From then onwards, Cross became a holy symbol for Christians as it reminds about God's love for them. It is believed to represent Jesus' victory over sin and death.
After Crucifixion, Jesus' body was removed from the cross and placed in a sealed tomb. On the third day, his disciples found the tomb empty. According to the Christian religious belief, Jesus rose again from the dead. This is called Resurrection of Jesus. It is celebrated as Easter Sunday.
Explain briefly the role of Constantine in spreading Christianity.
It is believed that Roman Emperor Constantine saw a vision of Cross and it helped him to win a major battle. After that he embraced Christianity, constructed new Churches and encouraged Christian priests. He shifted his capital from Rome to Constantinople, the site of the ancient city of Byzantium, which was named after him.