Name the following
Two Turkish rulers.
(a) Mahmud of Ghazni
(b) Muhammad Ghori
Two towns destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni.
Two court poets of Mahmud of Ghazni.
Two famous Rajput kingdoms.
(a) The Chauhans of Delhi
(b) Rathors of Kanauj
Two generals of Muhammad Ghori.
(a) Qutbud-din Aibak
(b) Bakhtiyar Khalji
Match the following
|Sl.No.||Column A||Column B|
|3.||Rathors||(c) Shah Namah|
|Sl.No.||Column A||Column B|
|1.||Firdausi||(c) Shah Namah|
Fill in the blanks
Mahmud of Ghazni was the son of Subuktagin.
Mahmud invaded India 17 times.
Mahmud looted the famous Somnath temple in Gujarat.
Muhammad Ghori was defeated by Prithviraj Chauhan in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191.
Bakhtiyar Khalji conquered Bengal and Bihar.
Answer the following
Who was Mahmud of Ghazni? Why did he invade India?
Mahmud of Ghazni was son and successor of Subuktagin, the king of Ghazni. He wanted to make Ghanzi the most powerful kingdom in the area. For this he required a large, well-equipped army which could be maintained by large amounts of money. Since he has heard of India's wealth, he decided to raid India and plunder her wealth. He did not want to establish direct rule in India.
Why did Mahmud of Ghazni attack temples?
The temples of India were famous for their fabulous riches. The treasure of temples were full of diamonds, rubies and pearls. Mahmud of Ghazni was interested in India's wealth to build a large, well-equipped army. He did not want to establish direct rule in India. For this reason, he targeted the wealthy temples of India and took away the riches to his homeland.
Who was Muhammad Ghori? Why did he come to India?
Muhammad Ghori was the ruler of a petty hill-state of Ghur in Afghanistan. He attacked the north-west frontier of India with the aim of conquering northern India. He made the first systematic attempt to found a Turko-Afghan empire in India.
Explain the results of the First and Second Battles of Tarain.
The Battles of Tarain were fought between Muhammad Ghori and Prithviraj Chauhan. In the first battle which was fought at Tarain in 1191, called the First Battle of Tarain, Muhammad Ghori was defeated by Prithviraj Chauhan. Muhammad Ghori was seriously wounded and escaped death narrowly. He went back to his country but again invaded India with a better and bigger army in 1192. This time, at the Second Battle of Tarain, he defeated Prithviraj Chauhan and occupied Delhi and Ajmer.
What was the impact of Turkish invasions of India?
The impacts of Turkish invasion of India were:
- Mahmud of Ghazni did not establish an empire in India. His raids opened the north-western gates of India to the foreigners.
- Many temples and statues of gods and goddesses were destroyed as a result of Mahmud of Ghazni's invasions.
- As a result of Turkish invasions, a number of colonies of Muslim traders sprang up in some of the towns in North India. These traders helped in promoting India's trade with the Central and West Asian countries and thus increasing the income of the state.
- With these invaders, a number of preachers called 'sufis' came to India. They preached the gospel of love, faith and dedication to one God. Their teachings influenced the local people and led to interaction between Islam and Hinduism and acted as a precursor to the beginning of composite culture in India.
- They paved the way for the establishment of Turko-Afghan Empire in India.
Study the picture and answer the following questions:
(a) Where is this temple located? Who invaded it?
(b) What did he loot from the temple?
(c) For which purpose did he use the wealth looted from India?
(d) What was the opinion of the Indians and his own countrymen about him?
(a) This temple is Somnath temple at Gujarat. It was invaded by Mahmud of Ghazni.
(b) Mahmud looted the treasures of the temples and gathered a huge booty of diamonds, rubies and pearls and took them to Ghazni.
(c) The wealth looted from India was used to maintain his large, well-equipped army. Besides that he also used it to create a splendid capital city at Ghazni. Mahmud built many buildings at Ghazni, the most famous of which was the 'Celestial Bride' — the great mosque surrounded by 3000 quarters for students and teachers. He also built libraries, a museum and a university.
(d) Mahmud of Ghazni was regarded by the Indians as an invader and plunderer. In his country, he was regarded as a just ruler.