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Chapter 7

Classification of the Living World

Class 7 - Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar


Check your progress 1

Question 1

............... makes the study of living organisms systematic and simple.

Answer

Classification makes the study of living organisms systematic and simple.

Question 2

Classification gives an idea about the ............... of organisms from simpler to more complex ones.

Answer

Classification gives an idea about the evolution of organisms from simpler to more complex ones.

Question 3

The Greek philosopher, ............... was the first to classify animals.

Answer

The Greek philosopher, Aristotle was the first to classify animals.

Question 4

Linnaeus classified all living organisms in two separate ............... .

Answer

Linnaeus classified all living organisms in two separate Kingdoms.

Question 5

In Linnaeus’ general plan of classification, a class has a number of ............... .

Answer

In Linnaeus’ general plan of classification, a class has a number of Orders.

Question 6

The members of a genus are much more similar than those of a ............... .

Answer

The members of a genus are much more similar than those of a Family.

Question 7

Each genus is divided into ............... .

Answer

Each genus is divided into Species.

Check your progress 2

Question 1

Who suggested the five-kingdom classification?

Answer

R. H. Whittaker suggested the five-kingdom classification.

Question 2

Name one rod-shaped bacteria.

Answer

Lactobaccilus is rod-shaped bacteria.

Question 3

Name a bacterium that lives in the root nodules of the leguminous plants.

Answer

Azotobacter is a bacterium that lives in the root nodules of the leguminous plants.

Question 4

What are finger-like projections in Amoeba known as?

Answer

Finger-like projections in Amoeba are known as pseudopodia.

Question 5

What is the other name given to multiple fission?

Answer

Sporulation is the other name given to multiple fission.

Tick the most appropriate answer

Question 1

The binomial system of naming organisms was given by

  1. Carolus Linnaeus.
  2. Charles Darwin.
  3. Gregor Mendel.
  4. Carl Moyer.

Answer

Carolus Linnaeus

Reason — The binomial system of naming organisms was given by Carolus Linnaeus which consists of Genera and species.

Question 2

The largest unit of classification is

  1. phylum
  2. kingdom
  3. species
  4. genus

Answer

kingdom

Reason — The largest unit of classification is Kingdom. Living organisms have been classified into five kingdoms.

Question 3

The smallest unit of classification is

  1. phylum
  2. family
  3. species
  4. genus

Answer

species

Reason — The smallest unit of classification is species.

Question 4

According to the five-kingdom classification, the correct sequence is (from simplest to complex)

  1. Protista, Fungi, Monera, Plantae, Animalia
  2. Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
  3. Monera, Fungi, Protista, Plantae, Animalia
  4. Monera, Protista, Fungi, Animalia, Plantae

Answer

Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

Reason — Monera are unicellular prokaryotes, Protista are unicellular eukaryotes, Fungi are multicellular heterotrophs, Plants are multicellular autotrophs and animals are multicellular and motile.

Question 5

All organisms belonging to Kingdom Monera have

  1. a single cell without nucleus
  2. a single cell with nucleus
  3. many cells without nucleus
  4. many cells with nucleus

Answer

a single cell without nucleus

Reason — Organisms of Kingdom Monera are unicellular prokaryotes.

Question 6

All organisms belonging to Kingdom Protista have

  1. a single cell without nucleus
  2. a single cell with nucleus
  3. many cells without nucleus
  4. many cells with nucleus

Answer

a single cell with nucleus

Reason — Organisms of Kingdom Protista are unicellular eukaryotes.

Question 7

Which of the following is found in plant cells but not in animal cells?

  1. cell wall
  2. chromosomes
  3. cell membrane
  4. none of these

Answer

cell wall

Reason — Cell wall is only present in plants and some bacteria.

Fill in the blanks

Question 1

Groups of similar genera are grouped together into a ............... .

Answer

Groups of similar genera are grouped together into a Family.

Question 2

Closely-related species resembling each other are grouped into a ............... .

Answer

Closely-related species resembling each other are grouped into a Genera.

Question 3

Kingdom Monera contains prokaryotic, ............... organisms.

Answer

Kingdom Monera contains prokaryotic, unicellular organisms.

Question 4

The organisms belonging to Kingdom ............... have chlorophyll.

Answer

The organisms belonging to Kingdom Plantae have chlorophyll.

Question 5

Kingdom ............... includes all organisms that are multicellular and heterotrophic.

Answer

Kingdom animalia includes all organisms that are multicellular and heterotrophic.

Write true or false. Correct the false statements.

Question 1

R. H. Whittaker divided the living world into five kingdoms.

Answer

True

Question 2

Rod-shaped bacteria are called cocci

Answer

False

Corrected statement — Rod-shaped bacteria are called bacilli.

Question 3

Protists are single-celled organisms without a nucleus.

Answer

False

Corrected statement — Protists are single-celled organisms with a nucleus.

Question 4

Organisms belonging to Kingdom Fungi do not have chlorophyll.

Answer

True

Question 5

Yeasts contain chlorophyll and can make their own food.

Answer

False

Corrected statement — Yeasts do not contain chlorophyll. They are saprophytic i.e., they feed on dead decaying organic matter.

Question 6

Bread mould reproduces by binary fission and multiple fission.

Answer

False

Corrected statement — Bread mould reproduces by spore formation, budding and fragmentation.

Question 7

Plants contain chlorophyll.

Answer

True

Differentiate between

Question 1

Fungi and Plantae

Answer

Sl.
No.
FungiPlantae
1.Fungi are heterotrophs.Plantae are autotrophs.
2.Chlorophyll is absent.Chlorophyll is present.
3.Cell wall is made up of chitin.Cell wall is made up of cellulose.
4.Reproduce by spore formation, budding and fragmentation.Reproduction is by seed or by vegetative parts.

Question 2

Monera and Protista

Answer

Sl.
No.
MoneraProtista
1.Monera are simplest and primitive organisms.Protista are comparatively evolved.
2.Monera are unicellular without defined nucleus.Protista are unicellular with defined nucleus.
3.Complex cell organelles are absent.Complex organelles are present.
4.Monera are mostly non-movable. However, a few have flagella for movement.Protista can move from place to place with the help of cilia, flagella or pseudopodia.

Question 3

Bacteria and Fungi

Answer

Sl.
No.
BacteriaFungi
1.Bacteria are prokaryotic.Fungi are eukaryotic.
2.Bacteria are unicellular.Fungi are both unicellular and multicellular.
3.Cell wall is made up of peptidoglycan.Cell wall is made up of chitin.
4.Bacteria reproduce by asexual methods (binary fission).Fungi reproduce by both sexual and asexual methods.

Find the odd one out. Give reasons.

Question 1

Bacteria, Paramecium, Amoeba, Euglena

Answer

Bacteria

Reason — Bacteria is classified under kingdom Monera while others are classified under kingdom Protista.

Question 2

Yeast, Mushroom, Amoeba, Bread mould

Answer

Amoeba

Reason — Amoeba is classified under kingdom Protista while others are classified under kingdom Fungi.

Question 3

Blue green algae, Rhizopus, Mucor

Answer

Blue green algae

Reason — Blue green algae is classified under kingdom Monera while Rhizopus and Mucor are classified under kingdom Fungi.

Answer the following questions in short

Question 1

Define classification.

Answer

The scientific way of identifying, naming and grouping of living organisms based on similarities and differences is known as (biological) classification.

Question 2

Write two advantages of classification.

Answer

Two advantages of classification are:

  1. It makes the study of living organisms systematic and simple.
  2. It highlights the relationship between different organisms.

Question 3

What are protozoa?

Answer

Protozoa is a phylum of unicellular, eukaryotic organisms. They are classified under kingdom Protista.

Question 4

Write one characteristic feature of kingdom plantae.

Answer

Kingdom Plantae consists of all green plants. They perform photosynthesis with the help of chlorophyll present in the chloroplasts of their cells.

Question 5

What are cryptogams?

Answer

Cryptogams are those plants that do not produce flowers and seeds. They do not have special male and female reproductive units to produce seeds.

Answer the following questions in detail

Question 1

Who proposed the five-kingdom classification? What are the five kingdoms? Name one organism that belongs to each of these kingdoms.

Answer

The five-kingdom classification was proposed by R. H. Whittaker.

The five kingdoms with example are :

Sl.
No.
KingdomExample
1.MoneraBacteria (Escherichia coli)
2.ProtistaAmoeba
3.FungiPenicillium
4.PlantaeEucalyptus
5.AnimaliaFrog

Question 2

Write two important characteristics of each of the five kingdoms.

Answer

  1. Kingdom Monera
    1. They are unicellular and prokaryotic organisms.
    2. Their mode of nutrition is mainly autotrophic and sometimes heterotrophic.
  2. Kingdom Protista
    1. They are unicellular and eukaryotic organisms.
    2. Some show plant characters, for example Algae is autotrophs with cell wall and chloroplast; while others show animal like characters, for example Paramecium is motile with flagella.
  3. Kingdom Fungi
    1. They are eukaryotic and heterotrophic (without chlorophyll) organisms.
    2. Their cells have a cell wall made of tough, complex sugar called chitin.
  4. Kingdom Plantae
    1. They are multicellular organisms. They can prepare their own food by photosynthesis. Hence, they are autotrophic.
    2. The cell wall of plant cells is made of cellulose.
  5. Kingdom Animalia
    1. They are multicellular and heterotrophic organism.
    2. They do not have cell wall but contain cell membrane.

Question 3

How are organisms of the Kingdom Monera different from those of Kingdom Protista?

Answer

Sl.
No.
MoneraProtista
1.Monera are simplest and primitive organisms.Protista are comparatively evolved.
2.Monera are unicellular without defined nucleus.Protista are unicellular with defined nucleus.
3.Complex cell organelles are absent.Complex organelles are present.
4.Monera are mostly non-movable. However, a few have flagella for movement.Protista can move from place to place with the help of cilia, flagella or pseudopodia.

Question 4

Write one characteristic feature of Kingdom Fungi. Why are they not a part of Kingdom Plantae?

Answer

One characteristic feature of kingdom fungi is that they are unicellular as well as multicellular and heterotrophs (either parasite or saprophyte).

Fungi are not a part of Kingdom Plantae because they are heterotrophs and plants are autotrophs. They do not have chloroplast and thus they cannot produce their own food.

Question 5

Give any two useful and harmful effects each of bacteria and fungi.

Answer

Useful effects of Bacteria

  1. Production of butter and cheese — Some bacteria such as Streptococcus and Lactobacillus are used to produce curd, butter and cheese.
  2. Production of vitamins — Many bacteria living in the intestine of humans synthesize vitamins such as vitamin B.

Harmful effects of Bacteria

  1. They cause diseases in plants. e.g. bacterial leaf blight of rice is caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Angular leaf spot in cotton is caused by Xanthomonas malvacearum.
  2. They cause diseases in humans. e.g. Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Diphtheria is caused by Corynebacterium diptheriae.

Useful effects of Fungi

  1. Fungi are called nature's scavengers. They decompose the dead, decaying bodies of plants and animals and their waste products. This also helps in making the soil fertile.
  2. Morels and some mushrooms are enjoyed as palatable food.

Harmful effects of Fungi

  1. Fungi can attack tissues of plants and animals and cause diseases. Mould spores can cause allergies in some people leading to sneezing, sniffling and other respiratory problems.
  2. Some fungi damage paper and paper products, leather and even clothes.

Question 6

Name any two bacteria and the diseases caused by them in a. plants b. human beings.

Answer

(a) Two disease causing bacteria in plants along with the disease caused by them are:

BacteriaDisease
Xanthomonas oryzaeBacterial leaf blight of rice
Xanthomonas malvacearumAngular leaf spot in cotton

(b) Two disease causing bacteria in animals along with the disease caused by them are:

BacteriaDisease
Vibrio choleraeCholera
Salmonella typhiTyphoid

Question 7

Distinguish between nitrogen fixation and nitrification. Name one bacterium capable of carrying out each of these processes.

Answer

Nitrogen fixation — The process of conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates is called Nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen fixation is done by bacteria present in root nodules of leguminous plants. For example, Rhizobium is found in root nodules of legumes and convert the atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates.

Nitrification — The process of conversion of ammonia into nitrates is called Nitrification. For example, Nitrosomonas converts ammonia into nitrates which is used by the plants.

Question 8

How does Amoeba reproduce asexually?

Answer

Asexual reproduction in amoeba takes place in two ways — binary fission and multiple fission.

Binary fission — A fully grown Amoeba multiplies by binary fission. In this process, one parent Amoeba divides into two daughter Amoebae. First, the nuclear membrane disappears and the nucleus becomes larger. The nucleus then divides into two daughter nuclei and the cytoplasm surrounds each nucleus. Then a plasma membrane is formed outside the cytoplasm. As a result, the two daughter Amoebae are formed, which start growing separately.

Multiple fission — Under unfavourable environmental conditions, Amoeba produces a thick wall around its body. This is called the cyst wall. The nucleus divides several times producing many nuclei. The cytoplasm then separates, creating multiple daughter cells inside the cyst. These daughter cells are called spores, so this process is also known as sporulation. Under favourable conditions, the cyst bursts open releasing the daughter cells that grow into independent amoeba.

Think and answer

Question 1

Why were bacteria placed in the plant kingdom according to the two-kingdom classification?

Answer

Bacteria were placed in the plant kingdom according to the two-kingdom classification because they have following characteristics resembling plants:

  1. They have cell wall.
  2. Some are autotrophic.
  3. They are usually non-movable.

Question 2

Why are viruses not classified into any of the kingdoms?

Answer

Viruses have very few characteristics of life. They behave like a link between living and non-living. When independent they behave like non-living and when in living cell, they behave like living. Also they are unique as they have no proper cellular structure and protoplasm. Hence, they are not classified into any of the kingdoms.

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