Fill in the blanks
A computer system coordinates between hardware and software.
A computer is an electronic data processing machine.
The CPU is considered to be the brain of a computer system.
Hardware and software are complementary to each other.
A byte is the smallest unit of memory which represents a character in a computer.
A set of computer programs with the help of which the system works, is known as software.
ROM (Read Only Memory) is also called as non-volatile memory.
A DVD is a silver-coloured disk with a diameter of 4.75 inches.
Secondary memory is known as an auxiliary memory of the computer system.
Ports are the connecting nodes to interface the peripheral devices with the processor.
Label the block diagram
Label the given block diagram to depict the basic organisation of a computer system
Name the following
Two application softwares
- MS Paint
- Microsoft Excel
Two system softwares
- Windows 10
Four major parts of a computer system
- Central Processing Unit
Two types of primary memory
- Random Access Memory
- Read Only Memory
Short Answer Questions
Define System Software.
System software is a set of one or more programs designed to control the operations of a computer system. They support the running of other softwares and communicate with the peripheral devices.
For example, operating system.
Define the term 'hardware' with an example.
Hardware refers to the machinery and to the various components and equipment of the computer system. It refers to all the physical devices of the computer system.
For example, monitor, keyboard etc.
Define software. How is it classified?
Software refers to a set of computer programs, procedures and associated documents that describe how the programs are to be used. It is a collection of programs that aim at enhancing the capabilities of the hardware.
Software are classified into two types:
- System software
- Application software
What is meant by the term 'memory'? What are its types?
Memory is the basic unit of a computer where it can store data and instructions.
Memory is of two types-
- Primary Memory
- Secondary Memory
Differentiate between the following
Hardware and Software
|It is required to store and run a software.||It refers to the programs that enable a computer to perform specific tasks.|
|Hardware starts functioning once a software is loaded.||Software is installed on the hardware to deliver its set of instructions.|
|Hardware is physical in nature.||Software is logical in nature.|
|There are more chances of failure in hardware devices.||Software does not have a failure rate and hence, is more reliable.|
|Hardware components can be seen and touched.||Software can be viewed at the time of execution/loading.|
System Software and Application Software
|System Software||Application Software|
|It is designed to control the operations of a computer system.||It is designed to carry out specific tasks such as creating documents etc.|
|These programs help in the running of other softwares.||These programs allow a computer to perform useful tasks beyond the running of the system itself.|
|For example- Windows 10||For example- MS Word|
Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM)
|Random Access Memory (RAM)||Read Only Memory (ROM)|
|Data or instructions can randomly be read as well as written onto it.||The stored information can only be read but new information cannot be written onto it.|
|Any information stored in it is lost when the power supply is switched-off.||The information in ROM remains intact even if the power supply is switched-off.|
Primary Memory and Secondary Memory
|Primary Memory||Secondary Memory|
|It is the main memory of the computer system.||It is the auxiliary memory from where stored data can be retrieved.|
|Data and instructions get erased as soon as the computer is switched off.||Data or instructions are stored for future use, even when the computer has been switched off.|
Long Answer Questions
Hardware and software are complementary to each other. Explain.
Hardware refers to all the visible devices which are assembled together to build a computer system. Software refers to the computer programs that are loaded into the computer system. The blending of software and hardware gives life to a computer system.
Though hardware is the physical part of a computer, it is nothing unless it has a software to control it. In a way, hardware is like a car without a driver. Software is a set of instructions that tells the hardware what to do and how to perform the requested actions.
Hence, both are essential to get the work done. Hardware and software are complementary to each other.
What is a modem? What are its types? Explain.
A modem is a device that modulates outgoing digital signals from a computer or other digital devices to analog signals. It also demodulates the incoming analog signals and converts them to digital signals for the digital device.
Modems are of three types-
Internal modem — These are attached to the internal slot of the motherboard. These are categorised as full duplex and half duplex which are used for fax and internet communications. They can also be used for data and voice communication.
External modem — It is a small box connected to the communication port of the computer. It works similar to the internal modem. The only difference is that it is placed outside the CPU box.
USB modem — It refers to any type of data/fax/voice modem device which can be connected to a computer using the USB port. It looks just like a USB flash drive but is smaller in size.
What is meant by the term 'ports'? Explain the different types of ports.
Ports are the connecting nodes to interface the peripheral devices with the processor. They act as a bridge between the external devices and the CPU for data communication.
The different types of ports are as follows:
Serial port — It is used to supply data serially i.e., bit by bit. It uses a single wire for communication. This port takes much time to transfer data i.e., it transfers a byte in eight tries. Serial ports are usually available with 9 pins or 24 pins and allow connections of mouse, modem etc.
Parallel port — This type of port is available with a 24 pins female connector and is capable of transmitting eight bit signals at a time i.e., the bits travel parallel to each other. The transfer rate is eight times faster than a serial port. This port is basically to connect CD-writers, scanners, printers, hard disks etc.
USB port — This port is usually designed to connect printers, plotters, mouse, joystick, pen drives, digital cameras etc. with a single plug arrangement. It avoids pin configuration of the ports.
In what ways are DVDs more useful than CDs?
A DVD is a silver coloured disk with a diameter of 4.75 inches. DVDs are more useful than CDs as:
A DVD is superior to a CD in terms of its storage capacity. A CD-ROM stores up to 700 MB whereas a DVD can store up to 4.7 GB.
The performance of a DVD is also superior to that of a CD-ROM.
What are the main functions of the CPU? Explain.
Central Processing Unit is 'the brain of the computer' and takes all the major decisions in a computer system. CPU consists of three main components. The functions of these components are as follows:
Arithmetic and Logic Unit(ALU) — All the arithmetical and logical operations are performed through this unit. An arithmetical operation includes addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and logical operations include all types of comparisons.
Control Unit — This unit controls each and every part of the computer system along with the peripherals. It retrieves data and instructions from the memory and sends the commands to various parts of the computer system.
Memory Unit — This unit provides space for storing data, instructions, intermediate results and final results.