Name the following
Two Nawabs of Awadh.
(a) Saadat Khan (b) Safdar Jung
Two Nawabs of Bengal.
(a) Murshid Quli Khan (b) Shuja-ud-din
Two ministers who seized power from the ruler of Mysore in the 18th century.
(a) Nanjaraj (b) Devraj
Two sons of Shivaji.
(a) Rajaram (b) Shambhaji
Two commanders of the Maratha army in the Third Battle of Panipat.
(a) Sadashiv Rao Bhau (b) Ibrahim Gardi
Fill in the blanks
Nawab Saadat Khan was the founder of the autonomous state of Awadh.
The City of Jaipur was founded by Raja Sawai Jai Singh.
Tipu Sultan died fighting the British in the course of the Fourth Anglo Mysore war.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh signed the Treaty of Amritsar in 1809 with Lord Minto.
The Third Battle of Panipat was fought between Ahmad Shah Abdali and Marathas.
Answer the following questions
What led to the rise of regional kingdoms in India in the 18th century?
The decline of the Mughal Empire led to the rise of a number of small regional kingdoms. These were earlier the provinces under the Mughal empire but when the Mughal authority grew weak, they declared their independence and carved out independent and semi-independent states.
Who founded the independent state of Awadh? What was the impact of prolonged peace and prosperity in Awadh?
Nawab Saadat Khan, also known as Burhan-ul-Mulk, founded the independent state of Awadh.
The prolonged period of peace and economic prosperity under the Nawabs of Awadh led to the growth of a distinct culture known as the 'Lucknavi' culture. Lucknow developed as an important centre of performing arts, literature and architecture. Imambaras are excellent examples of the historical structures of that time.
What were the reasons which made Bengal an easy prey to the imperialistic ambitions of the British?
The reign of Murshid Quli Khan, Shuja-ud-din and Alivardi Khan gave Bengal a long period of peace and promoted trade and commerce. As a result of this, Bengal prospered. However, these Nawabs did not check the agressive and expansionist policies of the English East India Company. In fact they could not understand the true nature and ulterior motives of the East India Company. Corruption was rampant and even the high ranking officals were involved in it. They did not build a strong army and paid a heavy price for it. Due to these reasons, Bengal became an easy prey to the imperialistic ambitions of the British.
How did Hyder Ali become the ruler of Mysore? List some of the measures adopted by Tipu Sultan to make Mysore a strong and prosperous kingdom.
Nanjaraj and Devraj, the two ministers of King Chikka Krishna Raj seized power from him in the early 18th century and reduced him to a mere puppet. Hyder Ali was a soldier in the Mysore army who later rose to higher ranks and overthrew Nanjaraj in 1761 and established his authority over the Mysore state.
The measures adopted by Tipu Sultan to make Mysore a strong and prosperous kingdom were:
- He introduced a new calender, a new system of coinage and new scales of weights and measures.
- Tipu modernised his army army and strengthened the economy by encouraging agriculture, trade and industry.
Explain briefly the rise of Sikhs under Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
The Sikhs were organised into 12 rival misls or confederacies. Ranjit Singh was the Chief of the Sukerchakia misl who brought all Sikh chiefs west of the Sutlej under his control and established his own kingdom in Punjab. In 1809, Maharaja Ranjit Singh signed the Treaty of Amritsar with Lord Minto, the Governor-General of the English East India company. Both the sides decided not to interfere in each other's internal affairs. After this treaty, Maharaja Ranjit Singh conquered Kashmir, Peshawar and Multan and became the master of a powerful kingdom which extended from the Khyber Pass in the north to Sindh in the south. He built a powerful army with the help of European instructors and set up modern foundries to manufacture cannons at Lahore.
Describe the expansion of the Maratha power under the first three Peshwas.
First Peshwa was Balaji Viswanath. He made the Mughals restore all the territories that had earlier formed Shivaji's kingdom to Shahu along with the chauth and sardeshmukhi of the six provinces of the Deccan.
Second Peshwa was Baji Rao I, son of Balaji Vishwanath. He led numerous campaigns against the Mughals, against Nizam-ul-Mulk of Hyderabad and Sidis of Janjira. He won control over Malwa, Gujarat and parts of Bundelkhand. He also captured Bassein and Salsette from the Portuguese and transformed the kingdom of Maharashtra into an Empire.
Third Peshwa was Balaji Baji Rao, who succeeded his father Baji Rao I in 1740. He consolidated Maratha control over Malwa, Gujarat and Bundelkhand. He also compelled the Nizam of Hyderabad to cede vast territories. The State of Mysore and other principalities in south were forced to pay tribute. The Nawab of Bengal was compelled to cede Orissa.
What were the causes of Maratha failure in the third Battle of Panipat?
The causes of failure of Marathas in the third Battle of Panipat were:
- Ahmad Shah Abdali's forces outnumbered the Maratha forces. According to an estimate Abdali's army had 60,000 soldiers while the Maratha army comprised 45,000.
- Abdali's troops were better equipped and organised than those of the Marathas. While the Marathas fought with swords and lances, Abdali's troops used muskets.
- Infighting among the Marathas weakened their side. Some of the Maratha leaders were selfish in spirit and weak in their military tactics. The Afghan troops, on the other hand, worked according to a single plan under strict discipline.
Study the picture and answer the following questions:
(a) Identify the person in the picture. Why did his successors fail to establish an all-India Empire?
(b) Name any three independent kingdoms established after the decline of the Mughal Empire.
(c) Do you think these independent regional kingdoms paved the way for the British ascendancy in India? If yes, how?
(a) The person in the picture is Shivaji.
His successors failed to establish an all India Empire because a war of succession broke out between his two sons — Rajaram and Shambhaji. Shambhaji ascended the throne but was defeated and killed by the Mughals under Aurangzeb. Later on, a civil war broke out between Shambhaji's son Shahu and his aunt Tara Bai. This made the Marathas weak.
(b) Three independent kingdoms established after the decline of the Mughal Empire were:
(c) The establishment of independent regional kingdoms with the decline of the Mughal empire made it easier for the East India Company to establish itself in these states one by one. The British did not faced any tough resistance from these states as well as from Mughals. The kingdoms had small and inefficient army which was not capable of checking the aggressive and expansionist policies of the British. Thus we can say that the independent regional kingdoms paved the way for the British ascendancy in India.