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Chapter 9

Food Production and its Management

Class 8 - Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar


Think and answer 1

Question 1

Why do you think organic farming is gaining popularity these days?

Answer

Organic farming is gaining popularity these days because people are becoming aware of its benefits which are as follows:

  1. It provides us toxin-free food that is free from pesticides.
  2. Organic farming is environment friendly. It does not cause any kind of pollution. It does not cause any harm to beneficial insects and thus helps to maintain ecological balance.
  3. It helps in recycling of waste produced in a farm.
  4. It also maintains the fertility and structure of soil.
  5. Cropping systems and management practices help in control of insects and pests.

Check your progress 1

Question 1

The process of raising crops in the field for food and other useful products is called ............... .

Answer

The process of raising crops in the field for food and other useful products is called agriculture .

Question 2

Rice, wheat and maize are ............... .

Answer

Rice, wheat and maize are cereals .

Question 3

............... crops are grown for their commercial value to earn profits.

Answer

Cash crops are grown for their commercial value to earn profits.

Question 4

............... produce contains no or very less levels of pesticide residues than conventional produce.

Answer

Organic produce contains no or very less levels of pesticide residues than conventional produce.

Question 5

In India, the Green Revolution was led by ............... .

Answer

In India, the Green Revolution was led by Dr M. S. Swaminathan.

Think and answer 2

Question 1

What will be the impact on the consumers of poultry products if hygiene is not maintained at poultry farms?

Answer

If hygiene is not maintained at poultry farms, it can lead to various diseases in birds. Some of these diseases may infect humans too. For example, Bird flu.

Check your progress 2

Question 1

Name two leather-yielding animals.

Answer

Two leather-yielding animals are:

  1. Sheep
  2. Goat

Question 2

Name a breed of sheep in India.

Answer

Bikaneri is a breed of sheep in India.

Question 3

Name two important breeds of goat in India.

Answer

Two important breeds of goat in India are:

  1. Black Bengal
  2. Jamnapari

Question 4

Name an exotic breed of poultry.

Answer

White Leghorn is an exotic breed of poultry.

Question 5

Murrah is a breed of which animal?

Answer

Murrah is a breed of Buffalo.

Tick the most appropriate answer

Question 1

Which of these crops is not a cereal?

  1. Wheat
  2. Rice
  3. Maize
  4. Pea

Answer

Pea

Reason — Pea is a pulse.

Question 2

Which of the following is a cash crop?

  1. Cotton
  2. Rice
  3. Wheat
  4. Maize

Answer

Cotton

Reason — Cotton is grown for its commercial value.

Question 3

In India, the Green Revolution was led by

  1. Dr M. S. Swaminathan
  2. Dr Norman Barlaug
  3. Dr J. C. Bose
  4. none of these

Answer

Dr M. S. Swaminathan

Reason — In India, the Green Revolution was led by the scientist, Dr M. S. Swaminathan.

Question 4

Poultry products are a rich source of

  1. animal protein
  2. sugar
  3. vitamins
  4. carbohydrates

Answer

animal protein

Reason — Poultry products are a rich source of animal protein.

Question 5

It is an example of exotic breeds of cows.

  1. Red Sindhi
  2. Shahiwal
  3. Gir
  4. Jersey

Answer

Jersey

Reason — Red Sindhi, Shahiwal, Gir are indigenous breeds of cows in India.

Question 6

Aspergillosis is a disease occurring in birds caused by a

  1. bacterium
  2. fungus
  3. virus
  4. alga

Answer

fungus

Reason — Aspergillosis is a fungal disease occurring in birds.

Question 7

The place where bees are cultured and bred to get commercial products is called

  1. coop
  2. apiary
  3. shed
  4. stable

Answer

apiary

Reason — Apiary is the place where bees are reared commercially.

Question 8

The care, breeding and management of honeybees is called.

  1. horticulture
  2. apiculture
  3. sericulture
  4. pisciculture

Answer

apiculture

Reason — The care, breeding and management of honeybees for commercial purposes is called apiculture.

Fill in the blanks

Question 1

Cattle feed consists of two types of ingredients, ............... and ............... .

Answer

Cattle feed consists of two types of ingredients, roughage and concentrate.

Question 2

............... is a common disease of cattle.

Answer

Anthrax is a common disease of cattle.

Question 3

Pigs get easily infected with ............... which can be transferred to human beings.

Answer

Pigs get easily infected with tapeworm cyst which can be transferred to human beings.

Question 4

............... is the rearing and large-scale production of fish.

Answer

Pisciculture is the rearing and large-scale production of fish.

Question 5

The rearing of silkworm is known as ............... .

Answer

The rearing of silkworm is known as sericulture.

Question 6

The process of treating animal skin to produce leather is called ............... .

Answer

The process of treating animal skin to produce leather is called tanning.

Define these terms

Question 1

Agriculture

Answer

Agriculture — The process of raising crops in a field for food and other useful products is called agriculture.

Question 2

Animal husbandry

Answer

Animal husbandry — The branch of agricultural science that deals with the feeding, shelter, health and breeding of livestock is called animal husbandry.

Question 3

Apiculture

Answer

Apiculture — The breeding and management of honeybees for commercial purpose is called apiculture.

Question 4

Sericulture

Answer

Sericulture — The breeding and management of silkworms for the production of silk is known as sericulture.

Match the following

Question 1

Sl.
No.
Column AColumn B
1.cow (hybrid)Karan-Swiss
2.buffaloMurrah
3.hen (desi breed)Pashmina
4.hen (exotic breed)White Leghorn
5.goatAseel

Answer

Sl.
No.
Column AColumn B
1.cow (hybrid)Karan-Swiss
2.buffaloMurrah
3.hen (desi breed)Aseel
4.hen (exotic breed)White Leghorn
5.goatPashmina

Answer the following in short

Question 1

What are cash crops? Name any two.

Answer

The crops that are grown for their commercial value to earn profits are called cash crops. For example, Cotton and Sugarcane

Question 2

What is organic farming?

Answer

A form of agriculture that uses only organic inputs for supplying nutrients to soil and managing pests is called Organic farming

Question 3

What is animal husbandry?

Answer

The branch of agricultural science that deals with the feeding, shelter, health and breeding of livestock is called animal husbandry.

Question 4

Name any two indigenous breeds of cows.

Answer

Two indigenous breeds of cows are:

  1. Gir
  2. Red Sindhi

Question 5

How are improved breeds of cows obtained?

Answer

Improved breeds of cow are obtained by mating the bulls of an exotic breed with the cows of a desi breed.

Question 6

Among indigenous and exotic breeds of hen, which breed lays better eggs?

Answer

The exotic breeds of hen lay more and bigger eggs than indigenous breeds.

Question 7

Name two products obtained from honeybees.

Answer

Two products obtained from honeybees are:

  1. Honey
  2. Beeswax

Question 8

Give two examples of marine water fishes.

Answer

Salmon and Tuna are the two examples of marine water fishes.

Answer the following in detail

Question 1

Differentiate between food and cash crops.

Answer

Sl.
No.
Food CropsCash Crops
1.The crops that are grown to obtain food are called food crops.The crops that are grown for their commercial value to earn profits are called cash crops.
2.All food crops are edible.Not all cash crops can be eaten. Most of them are inedible.
3.Examples: Cereals, PulsesExamples: Cotton, Sugarcane

Question 2

Which type of feed ensures good milk production in cattle?

Answer

The cattle feed of milk-yielding animals has two components — roughage and concentrates.

  1. Roughage — The roughage includes hay and straw of cereals, green fodder, silage and so on. It has more fibre content then nutritive value.
  2. Concentrates — Concentrates include grams and seeds of bajra, maize, cotton seeds, oil cakes, rice and wheat bran. It has less fibre content, but high nutritive value.

Question 3

Name two diseases of cattle and poultry. How can animals be protected against diseases?

Answer

Two disease of cattle are:

  1. Rinderpest
  2. Anthrax

Two disease of poultry are:

  1. Ranikhet
  2. Fowlpox

Animals can be protected against diseases by following ways:

  1. By timely vaccination of animals and immunization.
  2. By providing them proper food and nutrition.
  3. By maintaining their shelter clean and airy.
  4. Diseased animals should be kept in isolation, away from other healthy animals.

Question 4

What constitutes poultry feed?

Answer

The poultry feed consists of mashed cereals such as bajra, wheat, jowar, ragi and groundnut cake. Egg layers and Broilers are given different foods as per their need. Broilers require feed rich in proteins with adequate fat. The levels of vitamin A and K are kept high in poultry. Nutritive diet helps to maintain their immunity also.

Question 5

How are bacteria useful to human beings?

Answer

The bacteria are useful to human beings in following way:

  1. Saprophytic bacteria decompose excretory products and the dead remains of plants and animals into simpler substances. Therefore, they clear the earth of all waste. That is why they are called decomposers or nature’s scavengers.
  2. Bacteria along with certain fungi play an important role in maintaining soil fertility.
  3. Some bacteria live in the roots of leguminous plants such as peas and beans. They absorb atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into nitrates, which are used by plants.
  4. The digestive tract of herbivorous animals contains bacteria which helps to digest cellulose.
  5. The manufacturing of vinegar, curd and cheese involves fermentation by bacteria. It is also used in production of tea, coffee, lactic acid, citric acid and alcohol etc.
  6. Tanning of leather and retting of fibres are done by the action of bacteria.
  7. Certain medicines such as antibiotics and vitamin B complex tablets are manufactured with the help of bacteria.

Question 6

List five ways in which fungi help us.

Answer

Five ways in which fungi help us are:

  1. They decompose the dead, decaying bodies of plants and animals. Fungi also helps in making the soil fertile.
  2. Morels and some mushrooms are consumed as delicacies.
  3. Yeast is used in baking industry.
  4. Alcohol and alcoholic drinks are produced by the fermentation of grapes, barley etc. by yeast.
  5. Yeast is also used for manufacturing vitamins. Penicillin, an antibiotic, is obtained from Penicillium, a fungi.

Think and answer

Question 1

Saprophytic bacteria are called decomposers or nature's scavengers. Why?

Answer

Saprophytic bacteria are called decomposers or nature's scavengers because they decompose the dead remains of plants and animals and thus help to clean the environment. They decompose the complex compounds of the organic matter and release the nutrients in the soil. In this way, they help to maintain nutrient cycle in the nature.

Question 2

How are animals beneficial to us in many ways?

Answer

We get a variety of products from animals. Animals are beneficial to us in following ways:

  1. They provide us milk, meat and eggs.
  2. We can use the drought animals for work in field.
  3. They also provide us wool, hide, leather etc.
  4. Other products like honey, silk, pearl and lac are derived from animals.
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