# Chapter 4: Operators in Java

**Contents**

- Multiple Choice Questions
- Write the Java expressions for the following:
- Answer the following questions
- Solutions to Unsolved Java Programs

## Multiple Choice Questions

#### Question 1

The statement n += 4 is equivalent to:

- ++n
**n=n+4**- n+1
- none

#### Question 2

What will be the output of a & b in the following, if int a, b; a=10; b=a++;

- 10,10
- 10,11
**11,10**- 11,11

#### Question 3

What will be the output of a++ when int a = -1;

- 1
- -1
**0**- none

#### Question 4

If int a = 25, b = 5, c = 0; what value is stored in c? When c = a % b;

- 5.0
- 5
**0**- none

#### Question 5

What is the result of the following in Java statement?

```
int m=8;
m*=8;
System.out.println("The output =" + m);
```

- 8
**64**- 16
- 88

#### Question 6

```
double c;
int x, y, z;
x = 5; y = 10; z = 11;
c = x*y+z/2;
```

The value stored in c is:

**55.0**- 55.5
- 55
- none

##### Explanation

c = x * y + z / 2

⇒ c = 5 * 10 + 11 / 2

⇒ c = 5 * 10 + 5

⇒ c = 50 + 5

⇒ c = 55.0

#### Question 7

```
int m, p;
m = 5;
p = 0;
p = m-- + --m;
```

The output will be:

- 11
- 10
**8**- 12

##### Explanation

p = m-- + --m;

⇒ p = 5 + 3

⇒ p = 8

#### Question 8

```
int a=7, p=0, q=0;
p= ++a + --a;
q -= p;
```

The output of q will be:

- 13
- 14
- 15
**-15**

##### Explanation

p = ++a + --a

⇒ p = 8 + 7

⇒ p = 15

q -= p

⇒ q = q - p

⇒ q = 0 - 15

⇒ q = -15

## Write the Java expressions for the following:

#### Question 1

p = a^{2} + bc

##### Answer

**p = a * a + b * c**

#### Question 2

m = a^{2} - b^{2} / (ab)

##### Answer

**m = (a * a - b * b) / (a * b)**

#### Question 3

s = ut + (1/2)at^{2}

##### Answer

**s = u * t + (1 / 2) * a * t * t**

#### Question 4

f = uv / (u + v)

##### Answer

**f = u * v / (u + v)**

#### Question 5

(a + b)^{2} + b

##### Answer

**(a + b) * (a + b) + b**

#### Question 6

y = 2(lb + bh + lh)

##### Answer

**y = 2 * (l * b + b * h + l * h)**

#### Question 7

a^{2} + b^{2}

##### Answer

**a * a + b * b**

#### Question 8

z = x^{3} + y^{3} - xy / 3

##### Answer

**z = x * x * x + y * y * y - x * y / 3**

## Answer the following questions

#### Question 1

What is an operator?

**An operator is a symbol or sign used to specify an operation to be performed in Java programming.**

#### Question 2

Name the different types of operators.

**The different types of operators are Arithmetical, Logical and Relational.**

#### Question 3

Explain the following:

(a) Arithmetical operator**Arithmetic operators are used to perform mathematical operations on its operands. Operands of arithmetic operators must be of numeric type. A few arithmetic operators operate upon one operand. They are called Unary Arithmetic operators. Other arithmetic operators operate upon two operands. They are called Binary Arithmetic operators. As an example consider the below statement:**`int a = 10 + 20;`

**Here, the addition arithmetic operator, represented by the symbol + will add 10 and 20. So variable a will be 30.**

(b) Relational operator**Relational operators are used to determine the relationship between the operands. Relational operators compare their operands to check if the operands are equal to ( == ), not equal to ( != ), less than ( < ), less than equal to ( <= ), greater than ( > ), greater than equal to ( >= ) each other. The result of an operation involving relation operators is a boolean value — true or false.****Example:**`int a = 8;`

`int b = 10;`

`boolean c = a < b;`

**Here, as a is less than b so the result of a < b is true. Hence, boolean variable c becomes true.**

(c) Logical operator**Logical operators operate on boolean expressions to combine the results of these boolean expression into a single boolean value.****Example:**`int a = 7;`

`int b = 10;`

`boolean c = a < b && a % 2 == 0;`

**Here, the result of first boolean expression a < b is true and the result of second boolean expression a % 2 is false. The logical AND operator ( && ) combines these true and false boolean values and gives a resultant boolean value as false. So, boolean variable c becomes false.**

(d) Unary operator**Operators that act on one operand are called as Unary operators. Unary +, unary -, ++, --, etc. are some unary operators in Java.**

(e) New operator**new operator is used to instantiate an object by dynamically allocating memory for it.**

(f) Binary operator**Operators that act on two operands are called as Binary operators.**

#### Question 4

What is a Ternary operator? Explain with the help of an example.

`condition ? expression 1 : expression 2`

**Ternary operator evaluates the condition. If the condition is true then result of ternary operator is the value of expression 1. Otherwise the result is the value of expression 2.****Example:**`boolean isLeapYear = true;`

`int febDays = isLeapYear ? 29 : 28;`

**Here, the ternary operator checks if the value of boolean variable isLeapYear is true or false. As it is true, expression 1, which in this example is the value 29, is the result of the ternary operator. So, int variable febDays becomes 29.**

#### Question 5

Differentiate between the following:

(a) Arithmetical operator and Logical operator

Arithmetical Operator | Logical Operator |
---|---|

Arithmetic operators are used to perform mathematical operations. | Logical operators operate on boolean expressions to combine the results of these boolean expression into a single boolean value. |

+, -, *, /, etc. are a few examples of Arithmetic operators. | &&, ||, ! are a few examples of Logical Operators |

(b) Binary operator and Ternary operator

Binary operator | Ternary operator |
---|---|

Binary operators work on two operands. | Ternary operator work on three operands. |

+, -, *, /, etc. are a few examples of Binary operators. | The conditional operator ? : is a Ternary operator. |

(c) Logical AND (&&) and Logical OR(||)

Logical AND (&&) | Logical OR(||) |
---|---|

It evaluates to true only if both of its operands are true. | It evaluates to true if one or both of its operands are true. |

Example: int a = 8, b = 13, c = 0; if (a > 10 && b > 10) c = 10; else c = 5; Here, value of c will be 5 as one of the operands is false. | Example: int a = 8, b = 13, c = 0; if (a > 10 || b > 10) c = 10; else c = 5; Here, value of c will be 10 as at least one of the operands is true. |

(d) Prefix operator and Postfix operator

Prefix Operator | Postfix Operator |
---|---|

It works on the principle of CHANGE-THEN-USE. | It works on the principle of USE-THEN-CHANGE. |

It is written before the operand. | It is written after the operand. |

Example:`int a = 99;` `int b = ++a;` After the execution of these two statements, both a and b will have the value of 100. | Example:`int a = 99;` `int b = a++;` After the execution of these two statements, a will have the value of 100 and b will have the value of 99. |

(e) System.out.print( ) and System.out.println( )

System.out.print( ) | System.out.println( ) |
---|---|

It prints data to the console but the cursor remains at the end of the data in the same line. | It prints data to the console and places the cursor in the next line. |

Next printing takes place from the same line. | Next printing takes place from next line. |

#### Question 6

Differentiate between an operator and an expression.

**An operator is a symbol or sign used to specify an operation to be performed whereas an expression is a set of variables, constants and operators i.e. an expression is a combination of operators and operands.**

#### Question 7

If m=5 and n=2 then what will be the output of m and n after execution that will store in (a) & (b)?

(a) m -= n;

##### Answer

** m -= n****⇒ m = m - n****⇒ m = 5 - 2****⇒ m = 3**

(b) n = m + m/n;

##### Answer

** n = m + m/n****⇒ n = 5 + 5 / 2****⇒ n = 5 + 2****⇒ n = 7**

#### Question 8

State the difference between = and ==.

= | == |
---|---|

It is the assignment operator used for assigning a value to a variable. | It is the equality operator used to check if a variable is equal to another variable or literal. |

E.g. int a = 10; assigns 10 to variable a. | E.g. if (a == 10) checks if variable a is equal to 10 or not. |

#### Question 9

What will be the output for the following program segment?

```
int a=0,b=10,c=40;
a = --b + c++ +b;
System.out.println(" a = " + a);
```

##### Output

```
a = 58
```

##### Explanation

**a = --b + c++ + b**

⇒ **a = 9 + 40 + 9**

⇒ **a = 58**

#### Question 10

What will be the output of the following?

if x =5

(a) 5* ++x;

##### Answer

**5 * ++x****⇒ 5 * 6****⇒ 30**

(b) 5* x++;

##### Answer

**5 * x++****⇒ 5 * 5****⇒ 25**

#### Question 11

Evaluate the following expressions, if the values of the variables are:

a = 2, b = 3, and c = 9

(a) a - (b++) * (--c);

##### Answer

**a - (b++) * (--c)**

⇒ **2 - 3 * 8**

⇒ **2 - 3 * 8**

⇒ **2 - 24**

⇒ **-22**

(b) a * (++b) % c;

##### Answer

**a * (++b) % c**

⇒ **a * (++b) % c**

⇒ **2 * (4) % 9**

⇒ **8 % 9**

⇒ **8**

#### Question 12

If a = 5, b = 9, calculate the value of:`a += a++ - ++b + a;`

##### Answer

**a += a++ - ++b + a**

⇒ **a = a + (a++ - ++b + a)**

⇒ **a = 5 + (5 - 10 + 6)**

⇒ **a = 5 + 1**

⇒ **a = 6**

#### Question 13

Give the output of the program snippet.

```
int a = 10, b =12;
if(a>=10)
a++;
else
++b;
System.out.println(" a = " + a + " and b = " +b);
```

##### Output

```
a = 11 and b = 12
```

##### Explanation

The condition `if(a>=10)`

is true so a++ increments a to 11. b remains the same.

#### Question 14

Rewrite the following using ternary operator.

```
if(income<=100000)
tax = 0;
else
tax = (0.1*income);
```

##### Answer

`tax = income <= 100000 ? 0 : (0.1*income);`

#### Question 15

Rewrite the following using ternary operator.

```
if(p>5000)
d = p*5/100;
else
d = 2*p/100;
```

##### Answer

`d = p > 5000 ? p * 5 / 100 : 2 * p / 100;`

## Solutions to Unsolved Java Programs

#### Question 1

Write a program to find and display the value of the given expressions:

(a) (x + 3) / 6 - (2x + 5) / 3; taking the value of x = 5

```
public class KboatExpression
{
public static void main(String args[]) {
int x = 5;
double value = ((x + 3) / 6.0) - ((2 * x + 5) / 3.0);
System.out.println("Result = " + value);
}
}
```

##### Output

(b) a^{2} + b^{2} + c^{2} / abc; taking the values a=5,b=4,c=3

```
public class KboatExpression
{
public static void main(String args[]) {
int a = 5, b = 4, c = 3;
double value = (a * a + b * b + c * c) / (double)(a * b * c);
System.out.println("Result = " + value);
}
}
```

##### Output

#### Question 2

A person is paid ₹350 for each day he works and fined ₹30 for each day he remains absent. Write a program to calculate and display his monthly income, if he is present for 25 days and remains absent for 5 days.

```
public class KboatSalary
{
public static void main(String args[]) {
int salary = 25 * 350;
int fine = 5 * 30;
int netSalary = salary - fine;
System.out.println("Monthly Income = " + netSalary);
}
}
```

##### Output

#### Question 3

In a competitive examination, there were 150 questions. One candidate got 80% correct and the other candidate 72% correct. Write a program to calculate and display the correct answers each candidate got.

```
public class KboatCompetitiveExam
{
public static void main(String args[]) {
int totalQuestions = 150;
int c1 = (int)(80 / 100.0 * totalQuestions);
int c2 = (int)(72 / 100.0 * totalQuestions);
System.out.println("Correct Answers of Candidate 1 = " + c1);
System.out.println("Correct Answers of Candidate 2 = " + c2);
}
}
```

##### Output

#### Question 4

Write a program to find and display the percentage difference, when:

(a) a number is updated from 80 to 90

```
public class KboatPercentIncrease
{
public static void main(String args[]) {
int orgNum = 80;
int newNum = 90;
int inc = newNum - orgNum;
double p = inc / (double)orgNum * 100;
System.out.println("Percentage Difference = " + p + "%");
}
}
```

##### Output

(b) a number is updated from 7.5 to 7.2

```
public class KboatPercentIncrease
{
public static void main(String args[]) {
double orgNum = 7.5;
double newNum = 7.2;
double inc = newNum - orgNum;
double p = inc / orgNum * 100;
System.out.println("Percentage Difference = " + p + "%");
}
}
```

##### Output

#### Question 5

The normal temperature of human body is 98.6°F. Write a program to convert the temperature into degree Celsius and display the output.

Hint: c / 5 = f - 32 / 9

```
public class KboatCelsius
{
public static void main(String args[]) {
double f = 98.6;
double c = 5 * (f - 32) / 9.0;
System.out.println("Temperature in Degree Celsius = " + c);
}
}
```

##### Output

#### Question 6

The angles of a quadrilateral are in the ratio 3:4:5:6. Write a program to find and display all of its angles. [Hint: The sum of angles of a quadrilateral = 360°]

```
public class KboatQuadRatio
{
public static void main(String args[]) {
int r1 = 3, r2 = 4, r3 = 5, r4 = 6;
double x = 360 / (double)(r1 + r2 + r3 + r4);
double a = r1 * x;
double b = r2 * x;
double c = r3 * x;
double d = r4 * x;
System.out.println("Angle A = " + a);
System.out.println("Angle B = " + b);
System.out.println("Angle C = " + c);
System.out.println("Angle D = " + d);
}
}
```