## Multiple Choice Questions

#### Question 1

An operator taking only single operand for its operation is called ...........

**A unary operator ✓**- A binary operator
- A ternary operator
- None of these

#### Question 2

Which one of the following is not a binary operator?

- AND
- %
- ==
**! ✓**

#### Explanation

**! is the NOT operator that works on only one operand so it is a unary operator not a binary operator.**

#### Question 3

Which one of the following is not a valid operator in Java?

- <=
**!== ✓**- !=
- ==

#### Question 4

The statement i = i + 1 is equivalent to ...........

- i++
- i += 1
- ++i
**All of these ✓**

#### Explanation

**All the 3 statements increment the value of i by 1.**

#### Question 5

For x = 5, the statement sum = ++x + 8 evaluates to ...........

- sum = 13
**sum = 14 ✓**- sum = 15
- sum = 16

#### Explanation

sum = ++x + 8

⇒ sum = 6 + 8

⇒ sum = 14

**++x will first increment the value of x from 5 to 6 and then use this incremented value in the expression.**

#### Question 6

The statement (1>0) && (1<0) evaluates to ...........

- 0
- 1
**false ✓**- true

#### Explanation

`1>0`

is true and `1<0`

is false so the condition becomes `true && false`

. As && return true only when both of its operands are true so the answer is false.

#### Question 7

The statement (1>0) || (1<0) evaluates to ...........

- 0
- 1
- false
**true ✓**

#### Explanation

`1>0`

is true and `1<0`

is false so the condition becomes `true || false`

. As || return true if one or both of its operands are true so the answer is true.

#### Question 8

The statement (1==1)? 1: 0 evaluates to ...........

- 0
**1 ✓**- false
- true

#### Explanation

`1==1`

is true so the expression just after the question mark (which in this case is 1) is returned.

#### Question 9

The expression 13 % 3 gives the output ...........

- 4
- 3
- 2
**1 ✓**

#### Explanation

**% is modulus operator that returns the remainder of the division operation. Dividing 13 by 3 gives 4 as quotient and 1 as remainder so the final answer is 1.**

#### Question 10

The expression 13 / 3 gives the output ...........

**4 ✓**- 3
- 0
- 1

#### Explanation

When both operands of division operator (/) are integers then integer division takes place discarding the digits after the decimal sign.

#### Question 11

The statement System.out.println("six " + 3 + 3); gives the output ...........

**six 33 ✓**- six 6
- 33 six
- 6 six

#### Explanation

First `"six " + 3`

is evaluated. As one operand of addition operator (+) is string and other int so int is converted to string and concatenation is performed resulting in "six 3". Next, `"six 3" + 3`

is evaluated and similarly the result is six 33.

#### Question 12

The expression 4 + 8 % 2 gives the output ...........

- 6
- 8
**4 ✓**- None of these

#### Explanation

4 + 8 % 2

⇒ 4 + 0

⇒ 4

Due to operator precedence 8 % 2 is evaluated first. Its result is 0 so final result is 4.

## State whether the given statements are True or False

#### Question 1

Arithmetic operators + and - also have a unary form.**True**

#### Question 2

Operators = and == perform the same operation in Java.**False**

#### Question 3

The expression 10 % 4 evaluates to 2.**True**

#### Question 4

The expression 3 / 4 evaluates to 0.**True**

#### Question 5

The expressions 3 + 4 and "3" + "4" evaluate to the same value.**False**

#### Question 6

The expression x = x + 7 is same as x =+ 7.**False**

#### Question 7

The new operator allocates memory during runtime.**True**

#### Question 8

The statements x = 7 and x == 7 are same.**False**

#### Question 9

The expression z =- 7 is same as z = z-7.**False**

#### Question 10

The assignment operator (=) is a binary operator.**True**

## Assignment Questions

#### Question 1

What are logical operators? Give an example of each.

**Answer**

Logical operators operate only on boolean operands and are used to construct complex decision-making expressions. Some of the logical operators are given below:

Operator | Symbol |
---|---|

Logical AND | && |

Logical OR | || |

Logical NOT | ! |

#### Question 2

What is an assignment operator? Give an example.

**Answer**

Assignment operator is used to assign the value of an expression to a variable. It has the following syntax:

`variable = expression;`

For example,

`totalMarks = 780;`

The above statement assigns the value of 780 to the variable totalMarks. Any previous value stored in totalMarks variable is overwritten by this new value.

#### Question 3

Explain the shorthand assignment operator with an example.

**Answer**

Java provides shorthand assignment operators for all the arithmetic binary operators. Shorthand assignment operators follow the below syntax:

`variable = variable operation expression;`

Taking the example of shorthand addition operator, the expression `x = x + 3`

can be rewritten as `x += 3;`

#### Question 4

What is the use and syntax of a ternary operator?

**Answer**

Ternary operator is used to check if a condition is true and false. Depending on whether the condition tests true or false, expression 1 or expression 2 is evaluated. Its syntax is:

`boolean-expression ? expression1 : expression2;`

#### Question 5

State the difference between = and ==.

**Answer**

= | == |
---|---|

It is the assignment operator used for assigning a value to a variable. | It is the equality operator used to check if a variable is equal to another variable or literal. |

E.g. int a = 10; assigns 10 to variable a. | E.g. if (a == 10) checks if variable a is equal to 10 or not. |

#### Question 6

If a = 5, b = 9, calculate the value of:

a += a++ - ++b + a

**Answer**

a += a++ - ++b + a

⇒ a = a + (a++ - ++b + a)

⇒ a = 5 + (5 - 10 + 6)

⇒ a = 5 + 1

⇒ a = 6

a++ first uses the current value of a (which is 5) in the expression and then increments it to 6. ++b first increment the current value of b to 10 and uses this incremented value in the expression.

#### Question 7

If x = 3, y = 7, calculate the value of:

x -= x++ - ++y

**Answer**

x -= x++ - ++y

⇒ x = x - (x++ - ++y)

⇒ x = 3 - (3 - 8)

⇒ x = 3 - (-5)

⇒ x = 3 + 5

⇒ x = 8

#### Question 8

What will be the output of the following if x=5?

i. 5 * ++x

ii. 5 * x++

**Answer**

i. 5 * ++x

⇒ 5 * 6

⇒ 30

ii. 5 * x++

⇒ 5 * 5

⇒ 25

#### Question 9

What is type conversion? How is an implicit type conversion different from explicit type conversion?

**Answer**

Type conversion is a process that converts a value of one data type to another data type.

In an implicit conversion, the result of a mixed mode expression is obtained in the higher most data type of the variables without any intervention by the user. For example:

```
int a = 10;
float b = 25.5f, c;
c = a + b;
```

In case of explicit type conversion, the data gets converted to a type as specified by the programmer. For example:

```
int a = 10;
double b = 25.5;
float c = (float)(a + b);
```

#### Question 10

What do you understand by type conversion?

**Answer**

Type conversion is a process that converts a value of one data type to another data type.

#### Question 11

What is typecasting in Java? Give an example.

**Answer**

The process of converting a value of one data type to another data type is called typecasting. For example:

```
int a = 10;
double b = 25.5;
float c = (float)(a + b);
```

#### Question 12

What are precedence and associativity?

**Answer**

Precedence of operators refers to the order in which the operators are applied to the operands in an expression.

Associativity of operators refers to the direction of execution of operators ("Left to Right" or "Right to Left") when operators in an expression have the same precedence.

#### Question 13

Evaluate the following expressions, if the values of the variables are a = 2, b = 3 and c = 3

i. a - (b++) * (--c)

ii. a * (++b) %c

**Answer**

i. a - (b++) * (--c)

⇒ 2 - 3 * 2

⇒ 2 - 6

⇒ -4

ii. a * (++b) %c

⇒ 2 * 4 % 3

⇒ 8 % 3

⇒ 2

#### Question 14

Write the Java expressions for the following:

i. (a + b)^{2} + b

**Answer**

Math.pow(a+b, 2) + b

ii. a^{2} + b^{2}

**Answer**

a * a + b * b

iii. z = x^{3} + y^{3} + (xy) / 3

**Answer**

z = Math.pow(x, 3) + Math.pow(y, 3) + x * y / 3

iv. f = a^{2} + b^{2} / a^{2} - b^{2}

**Answer**

f = (a * a + b * b) / (a * a - b * b)

v. z = ab + bc + ca / 3abc

**Answer**

z = (a * b + b * c + c * a) / (3 * a * b * c)

vi. 0 <= x <= 50

**Answer**

x >= 0 && x <= 50

#### Question 15

Rewrite the following statements without using shorthand operators.

a. p /= q

b. p -= 1

c. p *= q + r

d. p -= q - r

**Answer**

a. p = p / q

b. p = p - 1

c. p = p * (q + r)

d. p = p - (q - r)

#### Question 16

Determine the output of the following program.

```
public class Test
{
public static void main(String[] args)
{
int a = 1, b = 2;
System.out.println("Output1: " + a + b);
System.out.println("Output2: " + (a + b));
}
}
```

#### Output

```
Output1: 12
Output2: 3
```

#### Explanation

In the first println statement, the expression is `"Output1: " + a + b`

. First `"Output1: " + a`

is evaluated. As one operand of addition operator is string and other is int so int is casted to string and concatenated giving the result as "Output1: 1". After that, `"Output1: 1" + 2`

is evaluated and similarly the result is Output1: 12.

In second println statement, the expression is "Output2: " + (a + b). Due to brackets, (a + b) is evaluated first. As both operands are integers so they are added giving the result as 3. After that, "Output2: " + 3 is evaluated, resulting in "Output2: 3".

#### Question 17

What is the difference between the following two statements? Explain the results.

x -= 5;

x =- 5;

**Answer**

The first statement, `x -= 5;`

subtracts 5 from x and assigns the result back to x. It is equivalent to `x = x - 5;`

The second statement, `x =- 5;`

assigns the value of -5 to x.

#### Question 18

What is concatenation? On which data type is concatenation performed?

**Answer**

Concatenation means joining two strings together. It is performed on String data type.

#### Question 19

Determine the output of the following program.

```
public class PredictOutput1
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int a = 4, b = 2, c = 3;
System.out.println("Output 1: " + (a = b * c));
System.out.println("Output 2: " + (a = (b * c)));
}
}
```

#### Output

```
Output 1: 6
Output 2: 6
```

#### Explanation

In the first println statement, the expression is `(a = b * c)`

. * has higher precedence than = so first b and c are multiplied and after that the result is assigned to a. Assignment operator returns the value of the assignment so the result of this `(a = b * c)`

entire expression is 6.

In the second println statement, the expression is `(a = (b * c))`

. Putting b * c in brackets causes b * c to be evaluated first but the result is same as the first println statement as * has higher precedence than =.

#### Question 20

Determine the output of the following program.

```
public class PredictOutput2
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int a = 6, b = 2, c = 3;
System.out.println("Output 1: " + (a == b * c));
System.out.println("Output 2: " + (a == (b * c)));
}
}
```

#### Output

```
Output 1: true
Output 2: true
```

#### Explanation

b * c results in 6 which is equal to the value of a so true is printed in both the cases.

#### Question 21

Determine the output of the following program.

```
public class PredictOutput3
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int a = 2, b = 2, c = 2;
System.out.println("Output 1: " + (a + 2 < b * c));
System.out.println("Output 2: " + (a + 2 < (b * c)));
}
}
```

#### Output

```
Output 1: false
Output 2: false
```

#### Explanation

In the first println statement, the expression is `(a + 2 < b * c)`

. b * c is evaluated first as * has higher precedence than + and <. After that a + 2 is evaluated as between + and <, + has higher precedence. Comparison is done in the end. As 4 < 4 is false so false is printed. The case of second println statement is similar.