Short Answer Questions
Why did Subhas Chandra Bose resign from the post of President of the Congress Party?
Pant, Patel and some other members of the All-India Congress Committee wanted that Subhas should constitute his working committee in accordance with the wishes of Mahatma Gandhi. However, Mahatma Gandhi refused to suggest any name. As a result, Bose resigned from the chairmanship of the party on 29 April, 1939.
Mention any one irreconcilable difference between Gandhi and Subhas.
Subhas believed in Socialism and was well-known for his revolutionary beliefs. This went against the policy and programme of Mahatma Gandhi.
Name the Party formed by Subhas Bose in May 1939.
The Party formed by Subhas Chandra Bose in May 1939 was named the Forward Bloc.
What was the immediate objective of the Forward Bloc?
The immediate objective of the Forward Bloc was liberation of India with the support of workers, peasants, youths and all radical organisations.
Who was Rash Behari Bose? What was the objective of the Indian Independence League?
Rash Behari Bose was an old revolutionary who had fled to Japan in 1915. He was the organiser of the Indian Independence League.
The League aimed at mobilising the members of the Indian community for the purpose of securing Indian independence.
When was the Indian National Army (INA) formally established?
The Indian National Army (INA) was formally established on 1st September, 1942.
Mention any one objective of the Indian National Army (INA).
One objective of the Indian National Army (INA) was to mobilise all their forces effectively to lead Indian people to regain their lost freedom.
Who announced the formation of the Provisional Government of Free India in 1943? Mention the two slogans that became the battle cry of the INA.
Subhas Chandra Bose announced the formation of the Provisional Government of Free India on 21st October, 1943.
The two slogans that became the battle cry of the INA were 'Jai Hind' and 'Delhi Chalo'.
Name any two countries that accorded recognition to the Provisional Government of Free India.
Two countries that accorded recognition to the Provisional Government of Free India were Japan and Germany.
What names were given by Subhas Bose to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands respectively?
Subhas Chandra Bose renamed the Andaman and Nicobar Islands as Shahid and Swaraj Islands respectively.
Why could not the INA take possession of Imphal?
The Indian National Army was three kilometres from Imphal when the Japanese forces had to withdraw from the Indo-Burma border because of their entanglement with the Americans in the Pacific Ocean. The rainy season set in and Rangoon was recaptured by the British in May, 1945. The INA soldiers were disarmed and made prisoners of war. Hence, INA couldn't capture Imphal.
Mention one significant achievement of INA in its struggle for India's freedom.
When and where did the INA plant Tricolour Flag as liberator of the Soil of India?
The INA gave a tough fight to the British forces in the Assam hills and succeeded in capturing Ukhral and Kohima. They planted the Tricolour Flag for the first time on the liberated soil of India (near Kohima) on 19 March 1944.
With reference to the formation of Forward Bloc answer the following questions:
(a) What led to the formation of Forward Bloc?
(b) What were the immediate aim and long-term objectives of the Forward Bloc?
Explain any four measures suggested by Subhas Bose to establish a Socialist society.
(a) Subhas Bose's re-election as Congress President against Gandhi's wishes, his socialist beliefs and his revolutionary ideas were the factors that led to the formation of Forward Bloc in May, 1939.
(b) Forward Bloc's immediate objective was liberation of India with the support of workers, peasants, youths and all radical organisations.
After attaining independence, the Forward Bloc would work for the establishment of a Socialist Society. The measures suggested by Subhas Bose were as follows:
- State-planning for the reorganisation of agriculture and industry on Socialist lines
- Abolition of landlordism, i.e., Zamindari system
- Social ownership of the means of production (land, factories, etc) and means of distribution (banks and the transportation system)
- Making the 'right to work' as a Fundamental Right of the citizens
- Providing workers several kinds of benefits, such as the payment of minimum wages and occupational safety
- Introduction of a new Monetary and Credit System.
Its objectives also included the following-
- Freedom in the matter of religious worship.
- Linguistic and cultural autonomy for all sections of the Indian community.
Forward Bloc's statement of objectives concluded with these words: "Application of the principle of Equality and Social Justice in building up the New Order in Free India".
The triumphant campaign of the Japanese in South-East Asia caused much excitement among the people of Indian origin living in these regions. In this context briefly describe:
(a) Circumstances which led to the establishment of Indian Independence League
(b) Decisions taken at the Tokyo Conference
(c) The Bangkok Conference and the Formation of Indian National Army
(a) In South-East Asia, the Japanese were getting one success after another against the British.
- As a result, a large number of Indian soldiers fell prisoners into their hands.
- After the fall of Singapore in February 1942 Japan captured some 40,000 Indian soldiers as prisoners of war.
- The Japanese handed them over to Captain Mohan Singh, who had earlier surrendered to them after the Japanese forces attacked Malaya.
- Britain's defeats roused great hopes among Indian soldiers.
- They were ready to take action which led to the formation of the Indian Independence League.
- The organiser of the league was Rash Behari Bose, an old revolutionary who had fled to Japan in 1915.
(b) At the Tokyo Conference, the following decisions were taken:
- To expand and strengthen the Indian Independence League
- To form under the overall command of the League an Indian National Army, i.e., an army of Indian Liberation
- To hold a conference at Bangkok to consolidate these decisions.
(c) The Bangkok Conference was held from 15 June to 23 June.
- More than 150 delegates from Malaya (Malaysia), Singapore, Burma, Thailand, HongKong, Manila and Java attended the Conference.
- It passed many resolutions, including one which stated that "Shri Subhas Chandra Bose be invited to come from Europe to lead this movement".
- Thousands of Indian soldiers joined the INA (Azad Hind Fauz), which was formally established on 1st September, 1942.
- The Flag of the INA was similar to that of the Congress Tricolour. It bore the symbol of a roaring lion.
- A Council of Action was formed under the presidentship of Rash Behari Bose.
- Mohan Singh took over as the Commander-in-Chief of the Indian National Army.
- Japanese Government supplied the arms, ships and aeroplanes to the INA.
- On 26 August 1943 Subhas officially took charge of the Indian National Army and became its Supreme Commander.
Answer the following questions based on the picture given below:
(a) What were the INA's objectives?
(b) What was Subhas' contribution to INA's victories over the British?
(a) INA's objectives, as stated by Subhas himself, were as follows:
- To mobilise all their forces effectively to lead Indian people to regain their lost freedom.
- To prepare the Indian people inside and outside India for "an armed struggle". Subhas said, "Since the enemy fights with the sword, we too should fight with the sword." Only then can we "win the race and get the reward of freedom."
- To organize a Provisional Government of Free India.
- To go on fighting till the last Britisher is either cast in prison or thrown out of the country.
(b) Subhas persuaded Japan's Prime Minister Tojo to give the fighter planes, war tanks, artillery and lorries used to transport food, equipment and soldiers to the front line. As INA's supreme leader, his achievements were as follows:
Formation of the Provisional Government of Free India —
- On 21st October, 1943 he announced the formation of the Provisional Government of Free India and declared War on the Allies.
- The slogans—Jai Hind (Victory to India) and Delhi Chalo (march to Delhi)—became the battle cry of the INA.
- On 8th November, 1943 Japan handed over the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the Provisional Government of India.
- In the last week of December Subhas paid a visit to these islands and renamed them as Shahid and Swaraj Islands respectively.
- In 1944 Provisional Government's Headquarters were shifted from Singapore to Rangoon.
Struggle for India's Freedom and Victories won by INA —
- The INA along with the Japanese army overran many territories in South-East Asia.
- In 1944 they advanced up to the very frontier of India.
- They besieged Kohima and reached Imphal.
- They had the good fortune of planting Tricolour on the liberated soil of India (near Kohima) on 19 March 1944.
- INA's military vehicles had entered Manipur also.
- Imphal was expected to fall in April or near the beginning of May 1944.
- Monsoon started before the fall of Imphal and by the end of May 1944 the Japanese forces started their retreat.
- Rangoon (Yangon) was recaptured by the British early in May, 1945.
- INA men were disarmed and made prisoners of war.
- The surrender of Japan on August 15 sealed the fate of the INA also.
With reference to the significance of the struggle of INA and Subhas Chandra Bose answer the following questions:
(a) How did people of India show solidarity with the INA Officers put on trial at the Red Fort in Delhi?
(b) How did the INA's successes affect India's armed forces?
(c) How will you justify the statement that the INA was a unique army?
A Guide: An INA soldier was not the one interested in money. He could lay down his life as a patriotic son of the Motherland.
(a) The people of India showed solidarity with the INA Officers put on trial at the Red Fort in Delhi in the following manner-
- In 1945 the trial of the INA officers — Shah Nawaz Khan, G.S. Dhillon and Prem Sehgal at the Red Fort in Delhi evoked the sympathy of the entire nation.
- The Congress took up their cause.
- Jawaharlal Nehru, Bhulabhai Desai and Tej Bahadur Sapru fought the case on behalf of the INA officers.
- Students everywhere demonstrated in support of the INA officers.
- Even the Muslim League condemned the trial.
- The Government viewed these developments with alarm.
- The INA officers were ultimately set free.
(b) The INA spirit started affecting the armed forces of the country.
- The Indian Navy rose in revolt at Mumbai in February 1946.
- Similar uprisings took place at Kolkata, Chennai and Karachi also.
- The naval revolts shook the very foundation on which the British Empire rested.
- Officers of the army demonstrated their ability to lead in difficult situations.
(c) The INA was unique in its own way and unlike many other armies engaged in the global war.
- It was an army organised on foreign soil, hundreds of kilometres away from its motherland.
- It was dependent on foreign powers for planes, tanks, artillery, rifles, ammunition and even lorries for the transport of soldiers to the front.
- It depended upon the patriotic fervour of its nationals scattered over East Asia, from Myanmar to Japan, for men, money, clothing, food and other civilian supplies.
- However, its greatest asset was the spirit of self-sacrifice of it's soldiers. An INA soldier was not the one interested in money. He could lay down his life as a patriotic son of the Motherland.