KnowledgeBoat Logo
OPEN IN APP

Section B — Chapter 10

Independence and the Partition of India

Class 10 - APC Modern History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

When and at which Session of the Muslim League a resolution for the partition of India was formally passed?

Answer

At its Lahore Session in 1940 the Muslim League passed a resolution that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in majority should be grouped to constitute an Independent State.

Question 2

Name the persons who constituted the Cabinet Mission.

Answer

Lord Pethick-Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and Mr. Alexander constituted the Cabinet Mission.

Question 3

What was the purpose of sending Cabinet Mission to India in 1946?

Answer

The purpose of sending Cabinet Mission to India in 1946 was to bring about a settlement between the League and the Congress for speedy transfer of power from British to Indian hands.

Question 4

Mention any two reasons why Cabinet Mission rejected Muslim League's demand for India's partition.

Answer

Cabinet Mission rejected Muslim League's demand for India's partition because of the following reasons-

  1. It would not provide an acceptable solution to the communal problem.
  2. Two halves of the proposed Pakistan State (West Punjab and East Bengal) would be separated by some seven hundred miles.

Question 5

Mention any two recommendations (Proposals) of the Cabinet Mission.

Answer

Two recommendations (Proposals) of the Cabinet Mission were as follows-

  1. There was to be a Federal Union including both British India and the Princely States.
  2. All subjects other than the Central subjects (i.e. defence, foreign affairs and communications) would be under the control of the Provinces.

Question 6

How can you say that the Cabinet Mission Plan accepted the principle of Provincial Autonomy?

Answer

According to the proposal of the Cabinet Mission, all subjects other than the Central subjects (i.e. defence, foreign affairs and communications) would be under the control of the Provinces. Thus the proposals accepted the principle of Provincial Autonomy. The Princely States would retain all subjects and powers other than those ceded to the Union.

Question 7

Name any two Provinces included in 'Group A' as per the Cabinet Mission Plan.

Answer

Two Provinces included in 'Group A' as per the Cabinet Mission Plan were Madras and Bombay.

Question 8

What was the implication of the Cabinet Mission's proposal regarding 'Group B' Provinces?

Answer

'Group B' comprised Punjab, NWFP and Sindh. The Muslim League saw in the grouping of provinces the seeds of Pakistan. Jinnah interpreted the regional groups of provinces as a de facto recognition of his Pakistan demand.

Question 9

Name the two provinces included in 'Group C' as per the Cabinet Mission Plan.

Answer

The two provinces included in 'Group C' as per the Cabinet Mission Plan were Assam and Bengal.

Question 10

Why did the Congress finally accept the Cabinet Mission Plan?
or
Why did the Congress welcome Cabinet Mission's proposal regarding the formation of a Constituent Assembly?

Answer

The Congress accepted the Cabinet Mission Plan because it preserved the Unity of India. It agreed to join the Constituent Assembly with a view to framing the Constitution of a united democratic India.

Question 11

Why did the Congress reject Viceroy's offer to form an Interim Government as per the Cabinet Mission's Plan?

Answer

The Congress rejected Viceroy's offer to form an Interim Government because the principle of parity with Muslim League was not acceptable to it.

Question 12

Why did the Muslim League accept Cabinet Mission's proposals?

Answer

The Muslim League accepted Cabinet Mission's proposals because it saw in the plan the seeds of Pakistan.

Question 13

Mention any two proposals contained in the Mountbatten Plan of 3rd June 1947.

Answer

Two proposals contained in the Mountbatten Plan of 3rd June 1947 were-

  1. The partition of Bengal and Punjab was proposed provided that the Legislative Assemblies of the two provinces decided in favour of partition.
  2. The existing Constituent Assembly would continue to work, but the Constitution framed by it would not apply to Pakistan.

Question 14

What did the Mountbatten Plan provide in regard to the Princely States?

Answer

As regards the Princely States, the Mountbatten Plan provided that the treaties with them would come to an end. They would be free to associate themselves with either of the Dominions or to remain independent.

Question 15

Mention any two provisions of the Indian Independence Act, 1947.

Answer

Two provisions of the Indian Independence Act, 1947 were-

  1. The Act provided for the creation of two independent Dominions from 15 August, 1947 to be known as India and Pakistan. Pakistan was to comprise East Bengal, West Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, North-West Frontier Province and the district of Sylhet in Assam. India was to comprise all the remaining territories included in British India.
  2. There would be a Governor-General for each of the Dominions. The Governor-General was to function as a Constitutional Head. There was no sphere in which he could act against the wishes of the Ministers. Similarly, the Provincial Governors were to act on the advice of their Ministers.

Question 16

What did the Indian Independence Act lay down about the Princely States?

Answer

According to the Indian Independence Act, Princely States would become independent. All powers and authority exercisable by His Majesty in relation to the Princely States were terminated. The States thus became independent. However, arrangements concerning customs, transit and communications were to continue until they were denounced by the States or the two Dominions.

Question 17

Who was the first and the last Governor-General of Indian origin?

Answer

C. Rajagopalachari was the first and the last Governor-General of Indian origin.

Structured Questions

Question 1

The Cabinet Mission had pointed out a few serious consequences of the Partition of India. Mention any four reasons why Cabinet Mission rejected Muslim League's demand for India's partition.

Answer

Muslim League's demand for Pakistan was rejected by the Cabinet Mission because of the following reasons-

  1. It would not provide an acceptable solution to the communal problem. The size of the non-Muslim minorities in Pakistan would be very considerable. The Commission saw no justification for including within Pakistan those areas of Punjab, Bengal and Assam in which the population was predominantly non-Muslim.
  2. Two halves of the proposed Pakistan State (West Punjab and East Bengal) would be separated by some seven hundred miles. Communications between them would depend on the goodwill of India.
  3. The armed forces and the postal and telegraph systems had been built up for India as a whole. To disintegrate them would gravely injure both parts of India.
  4. Partition would make the problem of the Princely States more complex.

Question 2

Explain the following proposals of the Cabinet Mission to bring about a political settlement for the speedy transfer of power from British to Indian hands:

(a) A Federal Union including both the British India and Princely States

(b) Subjects to be retained by the Provinces and Princely States

(c) Setting up a Constituent Assembly

(d) Interim Government

Answer

(a) The Cabinet Mission proposed a Federal Union.

  1. There was to be a Federal Union including both British India and the Princely States.
  2. The Central Government was to have only three subjects under its jurisdiction:
    1. Defence
    2. Foreign affairs
    3. Communications
  3. Of course, it would have the power to raise the finances required for these subjects.

(b) The Cabinet Mission proposed that all subjects other than the Central subjects (i.e. defence, foreign affairs and communications) would be under the control of the Provinces.

Thus, the proposals accepted the principle of Provincial Autonomy. The Princely States would retain all subjects and powers other than those ceded to the Union.

(c) The Cabinet Mission proposed that a Constituent Assembly would frame the Union Constitution.

  1. It was to consist of 385 members — the Provinces were to elect 292 members, whereas Princely States were allocated 93 seats.
  2. Members of the Provinces would be elected by Provincial Legislative Assemblies.
  3. They would fall into these three categories — 210 Hindus, 78 Muslims and 4 Sikhs.
  4. After a preliminary meeting the Constituent Assembly was to split into three sections.
  5. Members of all the three groups would frame Provincial Constitutions for the provinces included in each group.
  6. They would also decide whether any Regional Constitution should be set up for those Provinces.
  7. Finally, the Constituent Assembly would meet again jointly and frame the Union constitution.
  8. Thus the Cabinet Mission proposed a Federal Union with three tiers: the Provinces, the Regional Groups of Provinces and a Union Centre.

(d) The Cabinet Mission recommended the formation of an Interim Government at the Centre. For the time being, the Viceroy would reconstitute his Executive Council consisting of representatives of all communities.

Question 3

The Muslim League accepted the Cabinet Mission Plan because it saw in 'Grouping of Provinces' the seeds of Pakistan. In this context answer the following questions:

(a) How were the Provinces proposed to be grouped under the Cabinet Mission Plan?

(b) What was the Congress viewpoint regarding grouping of Provinces?

Answer

(a) Under the Cabinet Mission Plan, the Provinces would be divided into three Groups.

  1. Provinces would be free to form groups and each Group would be like a Regional Union.
  2. 'Group A' would include Madras, Bombay, U.P., Bihar, Central Provinces and Orissa.
  3. 'Group B' comprised Punjab, NWFP and Sindh.
  4. 'Group C' included Assam and Bengal.

(b) The Congress Working Committee sought an assurance that the proposed Constituent Assembly would be a sovereign body and that the Provinces should be free to opt out of a Group to which they did not wish to belong. This was important in view of the fact that Assam in the proposed 'Group C' had a Congress government at that time.

Question 4

Lord Mountbatten had been sent with the definite object of transferring power to India. In this context:

(a) Mention the broad thrust of Clement Attlee's Announcement of 1947

(b) Explain any four features of the Mountbatten Plan

Answer

(a) Prime Minister Attlee fixed a firm date by which the British would leave India.

On 20th February, 1947 he made a historic announcement in the House of Commons. The main thrust of this Announcement was that the British would quit India by 30th June 1948.

(b) Four features of the Mountbatten Plan were-

  1. Partition of Bengal and Punjab — The partition of Bengal and Punjab was proposed provided that the Legislative Assemblies of the two provinces decided in favour of partition.
  2. The existing Constituent Assembly would continue to work, but the Constitution framed by it would not apply to Pakistan — A separate Constituent Assembly would be constituted for those parts of India which decided in favour of partition.
  3. Sindh — The Legislative Assembly of Sindh was to take its own decision at a special meeting.
  4. North-West Frontier Province — In the NWFP a referendum was to be held to decide the future of the Province.

Question 5

Mountbatten's Plan provided for the partition of India into two Dominions. Describe the reasons for the acceptance of India's partition by the Congress.

Answer

The reasons for the acceptance of India's partition by the Congress were-

  1. Communal riots had taken a serious turn as a result of the 'Direct Action' of Muslim League — Partition of the country seemed to offer a way out of chaos and anarchy.
  2. The League had joined the Interim Government to obstruct and not to cooperate — Experience of working with the League had convinced Patel and others that it was not possible to carry on and that "there must either be partition or open War with the League". Jinnah's right hand man Liaqat Ali was holding the Finance portfolio in the Interim Government. His interference made it difficult for any Congress minister to function effectively.
  3. The only alternative to Partition was a federation with a Weak Centre — The disruptive forces— dynastic, communal and regional — could be kept under control only by a strong Centre. A smaller India with a strong central authority was better than a bigger state with a weak Centre.
  4. The leaders felt that Partition would rid the Constitution of Separate Electorates and other undemocratic procedures — India could then evolve a truly secular and democratic polity.
  5. The leaders felt that further delay in the transfer of power could find India in the midst of Civil War — The British were instigating the rulers of native states to assert their right to freedom.

Thus, at last the Congress had to accept the scheme of partition.

Question 6

Indian Independence Act was a unique Act, because never before had such a large country achieved Independence through legislation. In this context answer the following questions:

(a) What were the four main provisions of the Indian Independence Act?

(b) Name the two regions where Referendums were to be held as per the Mountbatten's Plan.

(c) Who was appointed the first Governor-General for each of the two Dominions?

Answer

(a) The four main provisions of the Indian Independence Act were-

  1. Two New Dominions — The Act provided for the creation of two independent Dominions from 15 August, 1947 to be known as India and Pakistan. Pakistan was to comprise East Bengal, West Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, North-West Frontier Province and the district of Sylhet in Assam. India was to comprise all the remaining territories included in British India.
  2. Each Dominion to have a Governor-General — There would be a Governor-General for each of the Dominions. The Governor-General was to function as a Constitutional Head. There was no sphere in which he could act against the wishes of the Ministers. Similarly, the Provincial Governors were to act on the advice of their Ministers.
  3. Constituent Assemblies would serve as Central Legislatures: Pakistan would have a separate Constituent Assembly — The Constituent Assemblies of the two Dominions were to serve as their Central Legislatures also. They were to act as sovereign bodies for the purpose of making the Constitution as well as other laws for the Dominions.
  4. Princely States would become Independent — All powers and authority exercisable by His Majesty in relation to the Princely States were terminated. The States thus became Independent. However, arrangements concerning customs, transit and communications were to continue until they were denounced by the States or the two Dominions.

(b) North West Frontier Province and the district of Sylhet were the two regions where Referendums were to be held as per the Mountbatten's Plan.

(c) Lord Mountbatten became the Governor-General of the Dominion of India and Mr. Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the Governor-General of Pakistan.

Question 7

Jawarharlal Nehru was administered the Oath of Office of the first Prime Minister of Free India. In this context answer the following questions:

(a) Who administered the Oath to the Prime Minister?

(b) In what capacity did he administer the Oath?

(c) Who was sworn in as Governor-General of India on 20 June, 1948?

Answer

(a) Shri Jawaharlal Nehru was administered the Oath of Office of the Prime Minister of India by Lord Mountbatten on 15 August, 1947

(b) Lord Mountbatten administered the oath as the Governor-General of the Dominion of India.

(c) C. Rajagopalachari was sworn in as Governor-General of India on 20 June, 1948.

Question 8

With reference to the picture given here answer the questions that follow:

With reference to the picture given here answer the questions. Identify the Viceroy in the picture. What was the definite object of sending him to India? Fill in the blanks: After many consultations with important leaders, he announced his Plan on ........ June 1947. He was convinced that transfer of power to Indians could only be on the basis of ............. of the country. Independence and the Partition of India, Apc Modern History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Identify the Viceroy in the picture.

(b) What was the definite object of sending him to India?

(c) Fill in the blanks:
After many consultations with important leaders, he announced his Plan on ........ June 1947. He was convinced that transfer of power to Indians could only be on the basis of ............. of the country.

Answer

(a) The picture shows Viceroy Lord Mountbatten.

(b) Lord Mountbatten had been sent with the definite object of transferring power to India. He was to advise the Government in England as to which of the two Plans should be chosen—the one which preserved the unity of India, but gave the maximum powers to Provinces, or the other which divided India into two independent States.

(c) After many consultations with important leaders, he announced his Plan on 3rd June 1947. He was convinced that transfer of power to Indians could only be on the basis of partition of the country.

PrevNext