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Section B — Chapter 11

The First World War (1914-1918)

Class 10 - APC Modern History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

Mention any two reasons why the War that broke out in 1914 is referred to as the First World War.
Or
Mention the two ways in which the War that began in 1914 was different from the previous Wars.

Answer

The War that broke out in 1914 is referred to as the First World War because of the following reasons-

  1. The War was fought on the land and in the air, on the sea and under it. In the War were mobilised all methods of destruction, such as tanks, submarines, gunfire and bombardments.
  2. The War began in Europe, but very soon it spread to continents of Asia and Africa as well.

Question 2

How did Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm's intense nationalism become an important cause of First World War?

Answer

An important cause of the war was intense nationalism or "competitive patriotism". Germany had Kaiser Wilhelm II as her new Emperor. He went about proclaiming that "Germany was going to be the leader of the world." He wanted to establish a vast German Empire and gain important position in the international sphere.

Question 3

Cite any one instance to suggest how the race for armaments contributed to the beginning of World War I.

Answer

Britain and France were concerned about Germany's growing military strength. There was an arms race and the peculiar feature of such a race is that if one country increases its armaments, other countries are compelled to do the same. For every battleship built by Germany, two such ships were built by England. Such a race for armaments could end only in a war.

Question 4

Name the two rival blocs formed in Europe before World War I.

Answer

The two rival blocs formed in Europe before World War I were-

  1. Triple Alliance
  2. Triple Entente

Question 5

Name the countries which formed the Triple Alliance.

Answer

Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy formed the Triple Alliance.

Question 6

Name the countries which formed the Triple Entente.

Answer

England, France and Russia formed the Triple Entente.

Question 7

How did the formation of Alliances lead to First World War?

Answer

Europe was divided into two major camps — on one side were England, France and Russia and on the other Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Turkey. The suspicions, fears, rivalry and enmity between the two camps led to World War I.

Question 8

What is meant by Imperialism?

Answer

Imperialism means race for colonies. Imperialism is a policy of extending a country's power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means.

Question 9

What became the most immediate cause for the First World War?
Or
What was the Sarajevo Crisis?

Answer

On 28 June, 1914, the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the Crown Prince of Austria and his wife were assassinated at Sarajevo, the Capital City of Bosnia. Though the assassin, Gavrilo Princep was an Austrian subject, the assassination had been planned in Serbia by a secret society of patriotic terrorists called 'Black Hand'.

Serbia was blamed for Archduke's assassination and Austria declared war on Serbia. Russia supported Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia and Great Britain declared war on Germany. Italy left the Triple Alliance and joined the war against Germany. Thus, the First World War began.

Question 10

Who was assassinated at Sarajevo? Which country was blamed for the assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand?

Answer

On 28 June, 1914, the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the Crown Prince of Austria and his wife were assassinated at Sarajevo, the Capital City of Bosnia.
Serbia was blamed for Archduke's assassination.

Question 11

When did the First World War break out? Which country declared war on Serbia on 28 July, 1914?

Answer

The First World War broke out on 28th July, 1914.
Austria declared war on Serbia on 28th July, 1914.

Question 12

How did Russia react to Austria's declaration of War on Serbia?

Answer

Russia mobilised her troops to defend Serbia and warned Austria of the consequences.

Question 13

Why did Britain declare war on Germany in August 1914?

Answer

Great Britain declared war on Germany on 4th August, when the German army invaded Belgium whose neutrality had been guaranteed by England.

Question 14

Name the five major powers that got involved in the hostilities in 1914.

Answer

The five major powers that got involved in the hostilities in 1914 were Austria, Germany, Russia, France and Britain.

Question 15

Why did America declare war on Germany in April 1917?
Or
Why did the USA join the First World War?

Answer

A few miles off the Irish Coast, Britain's newest and fastest Atlantic liner (ship) Lusitania was struck by a torpedo from a submerged U-Boat. It was sunk in a matter of minutes taking all the American and European passengers to the bottom of the sea. The people of the United States were extremely shocked and on 6th April 1917, America declared War on Germany.

Question 16

How did America's entry into the First World War tilt the balance in favour of the Allies?

Answer

The entry of USA in the Great War placed huge resources, both in men and money at the disposal of the Allies. Britain, France and the United States launched a massive military offensive in July 1918. Subsequently, the Germans were pushed back and the German Emperor Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated the throne and fled to the Netherlands. Germany became a Republic and the new government signed the Armistice (An agreement to stop fighting) on 11th November, 1918 to mark their surrender to the Allies. Thus the Great War came to an end.

Question 17

What is the significance of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
Or
Which country withdrew from the First World War? What a high price it had to pay to end hostilities towards Germany?

Answer

In 1917 the Revolution broke out in Russia. Lenin signed a Peace Treaty with Germany to mark the ceasing of Russia's hostility towards them.

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ended the war between Russia and Germany. Germany imposed many terms which were very harsh on Russia. Germany occupied many prosperous and industrial cities of Russia. Russia was obliged to pay Germany an indemnity of six billion marks.

Question 18

When was the Armistice signed, which ended the First World War? When was the Treaty of Versailles signed?

Answer

The Armistice was signed on 11th November, 1918 to mark their surrender to the Allies. Thus the Great War came to an end.

The Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28th June, 1919.

Question 19

Mention any two terms of the Treaty of Versailles.

Answer

Two terms of the Treaty of Versailles were-

  1. The Treaty declared Germany guilty of aggression. She had to pay a very heavy sum estimated at 33 billion dollars as War Indemnity to the Allies. Germany was to evacuate the places she had captured during the war.
  2. The area of the Rhine Valley was to be demilitarised. Germany could not "maintain or construct any fortification either on the left bank of the Rhine or on the right bank". To guarantee the execution of the Treaty, the German territory west of Rhine was to be occupied by the Allied Troops for 15 years.

Question 20

Name the Big Four who attended the Paris Peace Conference?

Answer

The Big Four who attended the Paris Peace Conference were the British Prime Minister, Lloyd George, President Woodrow Wilson of the United States, George Clemenceau, the French Premier and V. Orlando of Italy.

Question 21

Name two important regions in Europe which had to be given away by Germany as per provisions of the Treaty of Versailles.

Answer

Two important regions in Europe which had to be given away by Germany as per provisions of the Treaty of Versailles were Alsace-Lorraine and the Saar Basin.

Question 22

What was done to demilitarise the area of the Rhine Valley under the Treaty of Versailles?

Answer

The area of the Rhine Valley was to be demilitarised. Germany could not "maintain or construct any fortification either on the left bank of the Rhine or on the right bank". To guarantee the execution of the Treaty, the German territory west of Rhine was to be occupied by the Allied Troops for 15 years.

Question 23

How was Denmark affected by the Treaty of Versailles?

Answer

The fate of Schleswig, taken away from Denmark in 1864, was determined by a plebiscite. The northern zone voted for incorporation in Denmark and the central zone voted for Germany.

Question 24

How was Poland affected by the Treaty of Versailles?

Answer

The newly created State of Poland got back all the territories she had lost in the War. Posen and almost the whole of West Prussia were also included in the Polish State. To provide Poland with a port, the German city of Danzig was internationalised. It was kept as a 'Free City' and placed under the protection of League of Nations. Trading rights through the City of Danzig increased Poland's wealth and resources.

Question 25

What happened to Germany's colonies and overseas possessions in Africa as per provisions of the Treaty of Versailles?

Answer

Besides territorial losses in Europe, Germany lost all her colonies and overseas possessions. Togoland and the Cameroon (in West Africa) were partitioned between Britain and France and German East Africa was shared between Britain and Belgium. However, the Allied powers (Britain, France and Belgium) held these territories as Mandatories of the League of Nations. Palestine and Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) were also held by Britain under a Mandate from the League of Nations.

Question 26

How did the First World War affect Austria and Hungary?

Answer

Austria-Hungary was broken up. Hungary was recognised as a separate State. Separate treaties were signed with Austria (Treaty of Saint-Germain, September 1919) and Hungary (Treaty of the Trianon, June 1920).

Question 27

Name any two countries that were held by Britain after First World War under a Mandate from the League of Nations.

Answer

Palestine and Mesopotamia were held by Britain after First World War under a Mandate from the League of Nations.

Question 28

When was the League of Nations formed? What was the chief aim of the League of Nations?
Or
Why was the League of Nations established?

Answer

The League of Nations was established in 1920 and had its headquarters at Geneva in Switzerland.

The chief aim of the League of Nations was "to promote international cooperation and to achieve international peace and security."

Question 29

Mention two other objectives of the League of Nations, besides promotion of Peace.

Answer

Besides promotion of Peace, the other objectives of the League were:

  1. Maintenance of status quo, that is, the situations that existed as a result of the Peace Conference.
  2. The protection of national minorities.

Question 30

Mention any two of the 14-Points formulated by President Wilson of USA.

Answer

Two of the 14-Points formulated by President Wilson of USA were-

  1. Reduction of armaments
  2. Formation of an International Organisation to guarantee the independence of all states, large and small.

Question 31

Name the country which emerged as a World Power after the First World War. Who was its President at that time?

Answer

United States of America emerged as a World Power after the First World War.

Woodrow Wilson was the President of USA at that time.

Structured Questions

Question 1

The Great War of 1914 was not due to any single cause, but due to accumulation of explosive material for many years. Describe the factors that widened the rift between the rival powers with reference to the following:

(a) Intense Nationalism

(b) Race for Armaments

Answer

(a) An important cause of the war was intense nationalism or "competitive patriotism".

  1. Germany had Kaiser Wilhelm II as her new Emperor.
  2. He went about proclaiming that "Germany was going to be the leader of the world."
  3. He wanted to establish a vast German Empire and gain important position in the international sphere.
  4. France and Germany were old rivals.
  5. After defeating France in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) Germany had seized the province of Alsace and most parts of Lorraine, which were rich in minerals and industrial products.
  6. The French dreamed of revenge and of taking back their lost provinces.
  7. The Italians desired to get back Trentino and the Port of Trieste which were inhabited by Italians but were still the part of Austria-Hungary.
  8. Then there was the "unsatisfied national spirit of the Balkan States—Serbia and Bulgaria, of Poland and of the people of Austria-Hungary."
  9. The political leaders were successful in fanning hatred and passion under the cover of nationalism.

(b) It was the intense nationalism which turned Europe into an assembly of vast armed camps.

  1. Each country went on preparing for war and arming itself to the teeth.
  2. Germany had acquired colonies in Africa and a few islands in the Pacific.
  3. In order to protect her colonies Germany began to build a powerful navy.
  4. The Germans dug the Kiel Canal deeper so that battle ships could find shelter in its waters.
  5. England requested Germany not to make such naval preparations, but she did not pay any heed, which increased the hostilities between these nations.
  6. Britain and France were concerned about Germany's growing military strength.
  7. There was an arms race and the peculiar feature of such a race is that if one country increases its armaments, other countries are compelled to do the same.
  8. For every battleship built by Germany, two such ships were built by England.
  9. Such a race for armaments could end only in a war.
  10. The Krupps in Germany, Vicker Armstrong in England and Schneiders in France owned high-profit armament industries. The defence spending had increased irrationally between 1908 and 1914.

Question 2

There were many causes responsible for the outbreak of the First World War. Describe how did the following lead to the First World War?

(a) Division of Europe into two armed camps.

(b) Imperialism, i.e., race for Colonies.

Answer

(a) Division of Europe into two armed camps:

  1. In 1879 Germany and Austria-Hungary had signed a Treaty to help each other in case of enemy attack. Three years later Italy joined the Pact, which came to be known as the Triple Alliance.
  2. As opposed to the Triple Alliance emerged the Triple Entente comprising Britain, France and Russia in 1907 to control German expansionism.
  3. The French expression 'Entente' means 'understanding or alliance'.
  4. Thus Europe was divided into two major camps—on one side were England, France and Russia and on the other Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Turkey.
  5. The suspicions, fears, rivalry and enmity between the two camps was a major step towards World War I.

(b) Imperialism (race for colonies):

  1. There was a mad struggle among the European nations for new territories in Africa and Asia in the 19th century.
  2. Great Britain established many colonies in Africa, followed by France, Spain, Portugal and Belgium.
  3. Britain and France had occupied most of the regions of Africa.
  4. The colonies were important for the European colonial powers in order to increase their supremacy and wealth.
  5. Colonies provided raw materials for their industries and markets for their finished products.
  6. When Germany entered the race for establishing colonies, Britain and France made a secret agreement in 1904.
  7. According to this agreement Britain was to have political control over Egypt and France was to take over Morocco.
  8. But the French claim over Morocco was opposed by Germany.
  9. The German Emperor proclaimed that he would uphold the independence of Morocco and her Sultan.
  10. He said all the nations should have equal opportunities to trade with that country.
  11. Germany tried to force her opinion on France by sending a gun boat, Panther.
  12. The war between these nations seemed imminent, but it was averted, partly owing to American mediation.

Question 3

The Treaty of Versailles was not negotiated, but dictated by the victorious powers. In this context answer the following questions:

(a) How did Germany suffer territorial losses in the mainland of Europe?

(b) How did Germany have to lose all her African colonies and other overseas possessions?

Answer

(a) Germany suffered major territorial losses in the mainland of Europe. The terms of the treaty were as follows:

  1. France got back Alsace-Lorraine which she had lost in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871).
  2. To compensate France for the deliberate destruction of her coal mines by the Germans in 1918, she was given full ownership of the rich coal mines in the Saar basin, a district adjoining Lorraine for a period of 15 years.
  3. The fate of Schleswig was determined by a plebiscite. The northern zone voted for incorporation in Denmark and the central zone voted for Germany.
  4. Germany had to surrender the areas of Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium. The city of Memel went to Lithuiana.
  5. The newly created State of Poland got back all the territories she had lost in the War. Posen and almost the whole of West Prussia were also included in the Polish State. To provide Poland with a port, the German city of Danzig was internationalised.

(b) Besides territorial losses in Europe, Germany lost all her colonies and overseas possessions.

  1. Togoland and the Cameroon (in West Africa) were partitioned between Britain and France and German East Africa was shared between Britain and Belgium.
  2. However, the Allied powers (Britain, France and Belgium) held these territories as Mandatories of the League of Nations.
  3. Palestine and Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) were also held by Britain under a Mandate from the League of Nations.

Question 4

The Treaty of Versailles sought to cripple once and for all the military strength of Germany. In this context answer the following questions:

(a) What did the Allied Powers do to curb German Militarism (or to reduce strength of the German army)?

(b) Is it correct to say that the Treaty of Versailles subjected Germany to the harshest possible conditions?
Or
The Treaty of Versailles came in for severe criticism. What was the main criticism against it?

Answer

(a) In order to prevent future aggression Germany's military strength was crippled.

  1. The German army was restricted to a force of 1,00,000 soldiers, the Navy was limited to 15,000 men and 36 ships and the Air Force was totally banned.
  2. No submarines were to be allowed.
  3. Germany was neither to make nor to purchase from outside tanks and armoured cars.

(b) The Treaty of Versailles was undoubtedly a "dictated peace", one that would assign all the war guilt to Germany.

  1. The principle at the root of the Treaty was: "To the Victors belong the Spoils and the Allies are the Victors."
  2. The German representatives had to sign the Treaty under coercion.
  3. The Treaty of Versailles deprived Germany of all its colonial possessions and imposed enormous compensation in the form of war damages.
  4. Her military strength was completely crushed.
  5. The peace arrangements, therefore, broke down and Germany under Hitler showed aggression in its political activities.
  6. This became an important cause of World War II.

Question 5

With reference to the results of the First World War describe:

(a) Territorial rearrangements that changed political map of the world

(b) Principal Organs of the League of Nations

(c) Any three objectives of the League of Nations

Answer

(a) Territorial rearrangements that changed the political map of the world after the First World War are as follows-

  1. Austria-Hungary was broken up and Hungary was recognised as a separate state.
  2. Germany was forced to cede Alsace-Lorraine to France.
  3. She had to surrender the areas of Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium.
  4. Germany was also compelled to hand over to Poland large parts of the industrial area of Silesia.
  5. New States, such as Romania, Czechoslovakia, Finland and Yugoslavia, were created keeping in view the principles of nationality and nationalism.
  6. The War saw the end of autocratic monarchies in Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary.
  7. After the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917, the Czarist dictatorship in Russia also came to an end.

(b) The Principal Organs of the League of Nations were—

  1. The Assembly
  2. The Council
  3. The Secretariat
  4. The Permanent Court of International Justice.

The Constitution of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) was prepared by a Commission set up by the Peace Conference. The ILO became a part of the Treaty of Versailles.

(c) Three objectives of the League of Nations were-

  1. To promote international cooperation and to achieve international peace and security.
  2. Maintenance of status quo, that is, the situations that existed as a result of the Peace Conference.
  3. The protection of national minorities.

Question 6

Answer the questions based on this picture.

Identify the event depicted in the picture. Mention how this event became the immediate cause of the First World War. Name the five major European nations who were at War in 1914. The First World War (1914-1918), Apc Modern History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Identify the event depicted in the picture.

(b) Mention how this event became the immediate cause of the First World War.

(c) Name the five major European nations who were at War in 1914.

Answer

(a) The picture shows the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the Crown Prince of Austria and his wife at Sarajevo, by Gavrilo Princep, an Austrian subject.

(b) On 28 June, 1914, the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the Crown Prince of Austria and his wife were assassinated at Sarajevo, the Capital City of Bosnia.

  1. Though the assassin, Gavrilo Princep was an Austrian subject, the assassination had been planned in Serbia by a secret society of patriotic terrorists called 'Black Hand'.
  2. Serbia was blamed for Archduke's assassination.
  3. Austria presumed that Princep and fellow conspirators had received their guns and bombs in the Serbian Capital with the help of Serbian officials.
  4. Austria sent a stiff ultimatum to Serbia for apprehending the criminals and handing them over to Austrian government.
  5. She sought a ban on all anti-Austrian publications, anti-Austrian schools and anti-Austrian meetings.
  6. They were also required to take steps to suppress all revolutionary movements against the territorial integrity of the Austrian Government.
  7. The Serbian government refused to accept some of the demands of the ultimatum on the ground that they involved violation of its sovereignty, i.e., its authority to govern itself.
  8. Austria declared war on Serbia on 28 July, 1914.
  9. Russia supported Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia and Great Britain declared war on Germany.
  10. Italy left the Triple Alliance and joined the war against Germany.

Thus, the First World War began.

(c) The five major European nations who were at War in 1914 were Germany, Austria, Russia, France and Britain.

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