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Section B — Chapter 12

Rise of Dictatorships: Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany

Class 10 - APC Modern History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

What is Fascism? Name the country where a Fascist Government was formed in 1922.

Answer

Fascism was an intensely nationalistic, anti-communistic and anti-democratic movement. It is derived from the term 'fasces' which in Italian language means "a bundle of rods". The Fascists believed in having a powerful dictator holding power both total in character and unlimited in time.

A Fascist Government was formed in Italy in 1922.

Question 2

What is Nazism? Name the country where the Nazi party came to power in 1933.

Answer

The Nazi Party was an abbreviated form of 'the National Socialist Party'. In fact, it was far removed from being a Socialist Movement. Nazism was an anti-democratic movement, but the core of Nazi ideology was 'Racialism'. Therefore, Nazism could be best defined as 'Fascism plus Racialism'. The Nazi Party depicted the Germans as a 'Master Race' that was destined for world domination.

The Nazi party came to power in Germany in 1933.

Question 3

Who led the Fascist and Nazi Movements in Italy and Germany respectively?

Answer

In 1923 Italy became a fully Fascist country under Benito Mussolini.

In Germany the Nazi movement was led by Adolf Hitler.

Question 4

Mention any two factors responsible for the emergence of Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany.

Answer

Two factors responsible for the emergence of Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany were-

  1. Dissatisfaction with the Peace Treaties — Italy had much to contribute to the success of the Allies in the War. But Italy could have no valuable addition to her territory. When it came to dividing the spoils of War, her allies deserted her.
    Defeat in the War and conditions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles, made Germans feel ashamed and helpless.
  2. Economic Factors — Economic conditions in Italy after the War were very bad. War debts and budget deficits caused lots of difficulty.
    Treaty of Versailles imposed on Germany a huge War Indemnity. The financial crisis forced Germany to borrow recklessly.

Question 5

Give two reasons why the Germans felt humiliated because of the Treaty of Versailles?
Or
Give two reasons to show that the Powers that won the First World War contributed to the rise of Nazi dictatorship in Germany.

Answer

Two reasons why the Germans felt humiliated because of the Treaty of Versailles were-

  1. Defeat in the War and conditions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles, made Germans feel ashamed and helpless.
  2. Treaty of Versailles imposed on Germany a huge War Indemnity. The financial crisis forced Germany to borrow recklessly. German economy combined a high rate of inflation with a high level of unemployment.

Question 6

Why did Italy and Germany lose faith in post-World War I democratic governments?

Answer

The post-war democratic governments were weak. They could not respond properly to the needs and aspirations of the people. The governments under Nitti and Giolitti in Italy were unable to control industrial and agrarian disorders. Popular discontent took the form of strikes and riots.

In Germany the Constituent Assembly, which met at Weimar in 1919, established a liberal democratic government. But from the very beginning Germany was faced with a problem of unstable governments. Between 1919 and 1933, there were as many as 21 Ministries headed by 12 Chancellors (Prime Ministers). The people, therefore, were looking for a strong government, with a firmer economic programme.

Question 7

What is meant by the Class Conflict that emerged in Italy and Germany after World War I?
Or
Why did Capitalists and the Landlords support the Fascist and Nazi Movements?

Answer

The Fascist and the Nazi parties were being supported mainly by industrialists, big businessmen and the landlords. The economy was in crisis and the workers were agitating for higher wages and better conditions of work.

The industrialists viewed the growing strength of the labour unions with alarm. It is said that financial support for Fascism came largely from the monied classes who wished to suppress the workers.

Question 8

Why did totalitarian (dictatorial) ideology appeal to the masses in Italy and Germany during Post-World War I period?

Answer

Irrational and anti-intellectual thoughts of Alfred Rocco, an Italian nationalist, had got the upper hand. It appealed to the masses because it glorified power or even sheer force.

In Russia, after the Revolution of 1917, the government had been using terror to enforce obedience. Political power in Russia was monopolised by one party, i.e., Communist Party.

Dictatorial ideas or principles appealed to the masses in Italy and Germany also.

Question 9

Name Hitler's Autobiography that tells us about his ideas and programme. Whom did Hilter hold as Aryans or the Master Race?

Answer

Hitler published his autobiography called Mein Kamph which tells us about his ideas and programme.

Hilter held Germans as Aryans or the Master Race.

Question 10

Mention any two ideas or programmes that Hitler's autobiography contains.

Answer

Two ideas or programmes that Hitler's autobiography contains are-

  1. Land reforms
  2. The abolition of unearned incomes

Question 11

What is meant by Anti-Intellectualism of Fascism and Nazism?

Answer

Fascism and Nazism sought to create a society based on 'Myth'. They believed that "it is faith that moves mountains, not reason." The motto given by Mussolini to his countrymen was "to believe, to obey, to fight."

Some of the myths popularised by the Fascists and the Nazis were as under:

  1. The Leader is ever right.
  2. International peace is a coward's dream
  3. Imperialism is the eternal law of life.

Nazi Germany used propaganda to publicize myths and even "big lies". Hitler believed that a lie, if it is frequently repeated, will at last be believed by the masses.

Question 12

Mention any two features of Fascism and Nazism.
Or
Mention any two similarities between Fascism and Nazism.

Answer

Two features of Fascism and Nazism were-

  1. Anti-Intellectualism of Fascism and Nazism — They sought to create a society based on 'Myth'. They believed that "it is faith that moves mountains, not reason."
  2. Negation of Democracy — The Fascist and the Nazi rulers did not allow other than their own party to operate in the country. Their order was that life should be made "impossible" for their opponents.

Question 13

Give one evidence in support of the statement that the Fascist and Nazi ideologies were the sworn enemy of democracy.

Answer

Fascist and Nazi ideologies were the sworn enemy of democracy. This can be understood by the fact that in 1924, Giacomo Matteotti, leader of the Socialists in the Parliament (Chamber of Deputies) and an extremely bitter critic of Mussolini, was murdered.

Question 14

Hitler was a racist. How?
or
Hitler's regime victimised Jews. Give an example to illustrate this point.

Answer

Hitler was a racist. He believed in the elimination of Jews. The Jews were deprived of German Citizenship. In 1937 the Ghetto Laws were implemented. Under these laws no Jew could marry a German. All Jews were forced to live in Ghettos, in isolation from the other people in the towns.

Question 15

What was Hitler's concept of Pan-German Unity?

Answer

Hitler's concept of Pan-German Unity meant that Germany, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia and a few other territories in Eastern Europe should be consolidated into a Unified State.

Question 16

Give two examples to show that Hitler followed an imperialist policy and committed acts of aggression.

Answer

Two examples to show that Hitler followed an imperialist policy and committed acts of aggression are as follows-

  1. Hitler used violence in order to achieve his political aims. The Nazi Party was left as the only legitimate party in the country. The school, the radio, the cinema and literature, they all served nothing but the Nazi cause.
  2. Concentration Camps had been specially built in Germany and in those parts of Europe which came under German occupation. Many such camps had Gas Chambers, so that they could be filled with poisonous gases killing hundreds of Jews in no time.

Structured Questions

Question 1

State the three major factors that led to the rise of Dictatorships in Italy and Germany.
Or
Describe the factors responsible for the rise of Fascism and Nazism under the following headlines:

(a) Dissatisfaction with the Peace Treaties

(b) Economic Disaster in Italy and Germany

(c) Inefficient and corrupt democratic governments

Answer

The factors responsible for the rise of Fascism and Nazism are as follows:

(a) Dissatisfaction with the Peace Treaties

  1. Italy joined the War on the side of the Allies.
  2. Italy had much to contribute to the success of the Allies in the War.
  3. But Italy could have no valuable addition to her territory.
  4. When it came to dividing the spoils of War, her allies deserted her.
  5. Defeat in the War and conditions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles, made Germans feel ashamed and helpless.
  6. Germany was forced to cede large chunks of her territory to France, Belgium, Poland and Denmark.
  7. Her overseas possessions and colonies were divided among themselves by the Allies.
  8. The total strength of the German army was fixed at one lakh, which caused a sense of great insecurity among the Germans.

(b) Economic Disaster in Italy and Germany

  1. Economic conditions in Italy after the War were very bad.
  2. War debts and budget deficits caused lots of difficulty.
  3. The salaried employees, the farmers and the industrial workers felt the pinch of post-war inflation.
  4. The youngmen found all channels of employment closed to them.
  5. There were agrarian riots and strikes in the factories.
  6. Treaty of Versailles imposed on Germany a huge War Indemnity.
  7. The financial crisis forced Germany to borrow recklessly.
  8. German economy combined a high rate of inflation with a high level of unemployment.
  9. It was owing to this factor that the Nazi party had its ranks swollen by new recruits, especially youths.

(c) Inefficient and corrupt democratic governments

  1. The post-war democratic governments were weak.
  2. They could not respond properly to the needs and aspirations of the people.
  3. The governments under Nitti and Giolitti in Italy were unable to control industrial and agrarian disorders.
  4. Popular discontent took the form of strikes and riots.
  5. In Germany the Constituent Assembly, which met at Weimar in 1919, established a liberal democratic government.
  6. But from the very beginning Germany was faced with a problem of unstable governments.
  7. Between 1919 and 1933, there were as many as 21 Ministries headed by 12 Chancellors (Prime Ministers).
  8. The people, therefore, were looking for a strong government, with a firmer economic programme.

Question 2

How the following factors became causes for the rise of Fascism and Nazism in Italy and Germany respectively?

(a) Rise of Totalitarian Ideologies (Dictatorial Ideas)

(b) Industralists' full support to the Fascists

(c) Dictators' personal charisma to inspire people

Answer

(a) Rise of Totalitarian Ideologies became a cause for the rise of Fascism and Nazism in Italy and Germany respectively.

  1. The philosophy of Hegel, a German philosopher, had flourished in Italy for years before Fascism was thought of.
  2. His philosophy had a great intellectual depth.
  3. But his pupils used Hegelian arguments to justify an authoritarian regime.
  4. In fact, irrational and anti-intellectual thoughts of Alfred Rocco, an Italian nationalist, had got the upper hand now.
  5. It appealed to the masses because it glorified power or even sheer force.
  6. In Russia, after the Revolution of 1917, the government had been using terror to enforce obedience.
  7. Political power in Russia was now monopolised by one party, i.e., Communist Party.
  8. Dictatorial ideas or principles appealed to the masses in Italy and Germany also.

(b) Many writers are of the opinion that the Fascist and the Nazi parties were being supported mainly by industrialists, big businessmen and the landlords.

  1. The economy was in crisis and the workers were agitating for higher wages and better conditions of work.
  2. Italy seemed to be heading towards a Communist Revolution.
  3. The industrialists viewed the growing strength of the labour unions with alarm.
  4. It is said that financial support for Fascism came largely from the monied classes who wished to suppress the workers.
  5. Mussolini's followers destroyed all Socialist head-quarters and Labour Union Offices in Livorno, Genoa and other key cities.

(c) Mussolini and Hitler were able to attract, influence and inspire people by their personal qualities.

  1. In Italy Mussolini was called 'Duce', which means the Leader.
  2. He used the technique that highlighted his low background and showed him working on some humble job.
  3. The masses sympathized with him.
  4. Later his role as Duce "the Leader" was magnified, or rather, glorified.
  5. The Germans adored Hitler as their Saviour.
  6. He adopted the designation of 'Fuehrer', i.e., the Leader.

Question 3

Fascism and Nazism were anti-democratic, imperialistic and anti-communistic movements. In the context of this statement explain the following features of Fascism and Nazism:

(a) Negation of Democracy

(b) Imperialistic Policies (Aggressive Nationalism)

(c) Anti-Communist Policies
Or
Describe any three main similarities between the Fascist and Nazi ideologies.
Or
Examine the three key features of Fascism and Nazism.

Answer

(a) Fascism is a sworn enemy of liberalism, democracy and personal liberty.

  1. Mussolini said, "Fascism trains its guns on the whole block of democratic ideologies."
  2. Similarly, Hitler asserted that masses should be governed by those whom "Nature has endowed with special gifts".
  3. Although the legislature continued to exist in Italy, but in essence the power of law-making belonged to 'Duce'.
  4. The Fascist and the Nazi rulers did not allow other than their own party to operate in the country.
  5. Their order was that life should be made "impossible" for their opponents.
  6. In 1924, Giacomo Matteotti, leader of the Socialists in the Parliament (Chamber of Deputies) and an extremely bitter critic of Mussolini, was murdered.

(b) Imperialistic Policies (Aggressive Nationalism):

  1. Both Hitler and Mussolini pursued an expansionist policy abroad.
  2. "Imperialism", said Mussolini, "is the eternal law of life."
  3. In March 1936, the Italian troops reached near the Ethiopian Capital, Addis Ababa.
  4. On 2nd May, the Emperor of Ethiopia fled the country and the Capital fell to the Italian troops.
  5. The Hitler regime embarked upon a policy of expansionism.
  6. The Germans knocked down one country after another — Austria, Denmark, Czechoslovakia, Norway, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Belgium. Even Paris fell to the Nazis.

(c) Fascism claimed to be neither capitalistic nor socialistic.

  1. It protected private property, but placed its use under state-control.
  2. The Communists, however, never trusted the Fascists.
  3. The country had been placed under a "perpetual war economy".
  4. Political necessities, such as rapid rearmament and industrial growth, placed the initiative more and more in the hands of the government.
  5. Nazism also was a sworn enemy of Socialism and Communism.
  6. It condemned the Marxist doctrine of Class Struggle as being destructive of the unity of the nation.

Question 4

Mention the two main differences between the Fascist and Nazi ideologies and programme.
A Guide: Fascist theory of Corporate State and Nazi Germany's Racialist theory.

Answer

The two main differences between the Fascist and Nazi ideologies and programme were-

Economical Differences

Fascist Economy

  1. In Italy the workers and employers had their separate Syndicates.
  2. These were linked together by 22 National Corporations in which both workers and employers had equal representation.
  3. Each Corporation had its managing body — the Council.
  4. These Councils sitting together constituted the National Council of Corporations.
  5. The Central Committee of the National Council included all the Fascist Ministers.
  6. Mussolini himself was the head of the Ministry of Corporations.
  7. The National Corporations were supposed to make rules regarding wages, hours and conditions of work.
  8. This theory emphasised the importance of groups rather than individuals.
  9. In fact, however, the theory of Corporate State became a means through which Mussolini could exercise control over the Italian economy.

Nazi Germany's Economy

  1. In Nazi Germany big industrial houses were allowed to continue, but they were brought under control of the State.
  2. Wages and prices of all commodities were fixed.
  3. Neither factory-owners could declare lock-outs i.e., close their factories, nor workers could go on strike.

Differences in ideology

Racialism was not an Essential Part of the Fascist Ideology

  1. In Italy the Jews held important posts in the Fascist Party from the beginning.
  2. Later Mussolini also adopted a policy of 'race hatred' under Nazi influence.
  3. But the core of Fascist ideology was never a set of racial theories.
  4. Fascism was essentially an extreme form of Nationalism.
  5. Nazism, on the other hand, was built largely on the basis of Racialism.

Hitler's Racialist Policies and Hatred for the Jews

  1. Hitler said that Germany's defeat in the War (1914-1918) was due to the fact that the Jews and the Communists betrayed their country.
  2. Germany could never become strong and great unless and until the non-German elements, especially the Jews were eliminated.
  3. The Nazis believed that the Germans (or the Aryans) were a 'Master Race.'
  4. They, were, therefore, on the road to 'World Domination'.
  5. The Jews were seen as 'fundamentally evil'.
  6. Hitler's attempts to kill European Jews resulted in the death of some six million Jews.
  7. People all over the world were shocked by such barbarous and inhuman atrocities.

Question 5

Study the picture given here and answer the questions that follow:

Identify the person. What colour did the Shirts worn by his followers have? Give one evidence to suggest that he pursued an Expansionist (Imperialist) Policy. Give one evidence to suggest that he was intolerant towards his Opponents. Rise of Dictatorships Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany, Apc Modern History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Identify the person.

(b) What colour did the Shirts worn by his followers have?

(c) Give one evidence to suggest that he pursued an Expansionist (Imperialist) Policy.

(d) Give one evidence to suggest that he was intolerant towards his Opponents.
(A Guide: G. Matteotti, Leader of Socialists in the Parliament, was murdered)

Answer

(a) The given picture shows Benito Mussolini.

(b) His followers wore black shirts.

(c) Mussolini preached that the Nation has a Will and a Personality of its own.

  1. The growth of empire is an expression of nation's vitality.
  2. In order to justify his policy of Imperialism, Mussolini said, "We are forty millions squeezed into our narrow but adorable peninsula. Italy must expand or perish."
  3. Abyssinia (Ethiopia) was annexed in 1936 after a most merciless warfare.
  4. In fact, War was used by Mussolini to divert peoples' attention from internal problems and economic insecurity.

(d) Although the legislature continued to exist in Italy, but in essence the power of law-making belonged to 'Duce'.

  1. The Fascist and the Nazi rulers did not allow other than their own party to operate in the country. Their order was that life should be made "impossible" for their opponents.
  2. In 1924, Giacomo Matteotti, leader of the Socialists in the Parliament (Chamber of Deputies) and an extremely bitter critic of Mussolini, was murdered.

Question 6

Answer the questions based on the picture given here:

Identify the person. Which community did he blame for incredible misery of his people in Germany? Describe his expansionist policies (acts of aggression). What was that Nazis called the Final Solution? What it resulted in? Rise of Dictatorships Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany, Apc Modern History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Identify the person.

(b) Which community did he blame for incredible misery of his people in Germany?

(c) Describe his expansionist policies (acts of aggression).

(d) What was that Nazis called the 'Final Solution'? What it resulted in?

Answer

(a) The given picture shows Adolf Hitler.

(b) Hitler blamed the Jews and the Communists for incredible misery of his people in Germany.

(c) Hitler used violence in order to achieve his political aims.

  1. The Nazi Party was left as the only legitimate party in the country.
  2. Hitler preached the gospel of 'Victorious Sword'.
  3. He said, "he who does not wish to fight has not the right to exist in the world."
  4. He broke the bonds of the Treaty of Versailles and began to build up Germany's armed forces.
  5. Hitler's concept of Pan-German Unity meant that Germany, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia and a few other territories in Eastern Europe should be consolidated into a Unified State.
  6. He conquered one country after another — Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg and Belgium.
  7. On 1st September 1939, German troops stormed into Poland.
  8. That became the immediate cause of the Second World War.

(d) The Jews were deprived of German Citizenship.

  1. In 1937 the Ghetto Laws were implemented.
  2. Under these laws no Jew could marry a German.
  3. All Jews were forced to live in Ghettos, in isolation from the other people in the towns.
  4. An attempt to find a 'Final Solution' to the German question meant the large scale murder of the Jews.
  5. Concentration Camps had been specially built in Germany and in those parts of Europe which came under German occupation.
  6. Many such camps had Gas Chambers, so that they could be filled with poisonous gases killing hundreds of Jews in no time.
  7. Hitler's attempts to kill European Jews resulted in the death of some six million Jews.
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