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Section B — Chapter 2

Factors for the Growth of Nationalism & Foundation of Indian National Congress

Class 10 - APC Modern History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

What is Nationalism?

Answer

Nationalism denotes patriotism or devotion to one's nation.

Question 2

By whom and when was the Brahmo Samaj founded?

Answer

Raja Rammohan Roy founded the Brahmo Samaj in 1828.

Question 3

Mention any two social evils that came in for severe criticism by Raja Rammohan Roy (or the Brahmo Samaj)?

Answer

Raja Rammohan Roy criticised child marriage and Sati system.

Question 4

When and by whom was the Bengali weekly Samvad Kaumudi started?

Answer

The Bengali weekly Samvad Kaumudi was started by Raja Rammohan Roy in 1821.

Question 5

Mention any one important effort made by Rammohan Roy in support of Freedom of Press.

Answer

Raja Rammohan Roy started the Bengali weekly Samvad Kaumudi in 1821. Along with a few other eminent persons, Roy presented a Petition to the Supreme Court for legal action to be taken against Press Regulations.

Question 6

Mention any two social reforms favoured by Jyotiba Phule.

Answer

Two social reforms favoured by Jyotiba Phule are-

  1. Uplifting lower castes
  2. Gender justice

Question 7

When and by whom was the Satya Shodhak Samaj founded?

Answer

Satya Shodhak Samaj was founded by Jyotiba Phule on 24th September, 1873.

Question 8

What did the Satya Shodhak Samaj endeavour to do?

Answer

Satya Shodhak Samaj endeavoured to mitigate the distress and sufferings of dalits and women.

Question 9

What role did the Press (Newspapers and Magazines) play in fostering patriotism among our countrymen in the 19th century?

Answer

The Press and the literature played a big role in carrying nationalist ideas to the people. They had a great influence in fostering patriotism and ideas of liberty and justice in our country.

Question 10

Name Bankim Chandra's novel that has been called the 'Bible of modern Bengalee patriotism'. Which national song was taken from this book?

Answer

Bankim Chandra's novel, Anandmath, has been called the 'Bible of modern Bengalee patriotism'.

Our national song 'Vande Mataram' was taken from this book.

Question 11

Give two evidences to suggest that the British pursued the policy of economic exploitation in India.

Answer

Two evidences to suggest that the British pursued the policy of economic exploitation in India are-

  1. The Indian peasants had to sell their produce at cheap prices in order to satisfy the greed of the moneylenders, the Zamindars and the government officials.
  2. Heavy duties were imposed on goods exported into England from India. Further, British goods were forced upon India, since we were at the mercy of our foreign masters.

Question 12

Give one reason why the Indian handicrafts declined during the British rule.

Answer

The Indian handicrafts declined during the British rule because of the policy of Free Trade. Heavy duties were imposed on goods exported into England from India. Further, British goods were forced upon India, since we were at the mercy of our foreign masters.

Question 13

Give two evidences to suggest that the British pursued the repressive colonial policies.

Answer

Two evidences suggesting that the British pursued the repressive colonial policies were-

  1. In 1877 the maximum age limit for the civil service examination was reduced from twenty one to nineteen. This was a calculated move to ruin the prospects of Indian candidates for the Indian Civil Service.
  2. The government tried to silence the opposition by enacting the Vernacular Press Act and the Arms Act in 1878. The Vernacular Press Act more commonly known as "the Gagging Act" crushed the freedom of the Vernacular papers. The Act required the editors to publish nothing that would excite disaffection against the Government. Under this act, the government has the power to confiscate the printing press in the event of the publication of undesirable matter. Many editors who opposed the act were sentenced to jail.

Question 14

Name the Act of Lord Lytton's regime which sought to limit the freedom of the press.

Answer

The Act of Lord Lytton's regime which sought to limit the freedom of the press was The Vernacular Press Act or the Gagging Act passed in 1878.

Question 15

What was the main provision of the Indian Arms Act of 1878?

Answer

The main provision of the Indian Arms Act of 1878 made it a criminal offence for Indians to keep or bear arms without licence.

Question 16

In whose Viceroyalty did the Ilbert Bill controversy take place? Who were upset when this Bill was introduced?

Answer

The Ilbert Bill controversy took place in the viceroyalty of Lord Ripon.

The Anglo-Indian community was upset when this Bill was introduced and carried on a wild agitation against this measure.

Question 17

What was the objective of the Ilbert Bill? Why was it not passed?

Answer

At that time no European could be tried for a criminal offence except by a European judge or magistrate. The objective of the Ilbert Bill was to do away with this absurdity.

It was not passed because the Anglo-Indian community was upset when this Bill was introduced and carried on a wild agitation against this measure.

Question 18

Name any two Associations which acted as the precursors (forerunners) of the Indian National Congress.

Answer

Two Associations which acted as the precursors (forerunners) of the Indian National Congress were-

  1. The East India Association, founded by Dadabhai Naoroji.
  2. Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, started under the leadership of Justice Ranade.

Question 19

When and by whom was East India Association founded in London?

Answer

The East India Association was founded in London on 1st October, 1866 by Dadabhai Naoroji.

Question 20

Who founded the Indian Association at Kolkata in 1876?

Answer

Surendranath Banerjea founded the Indian Association at Kolkata in 1876.

Question 21

Name any two objects of the Indian Association founded by Surendranath Banerjea.

Answer

Two objects of the Indian Association founded by Surendranath Banerjea were-

  1. To unite Indians upon the basis of common political interests and beliefs
  2. To promote brotherly feelings between the Hindus and the Muslims

Question 22

Where and when was the Indian National Conference convened by Surendranath Bannerjea?

Answer

The Indian National Conference was convened by Surendranath Bannerjea at Kolkata in 1883.

Question 23

When and by whom was the Indian National Congress founded?

Answer

The Indian National Congress was founded in December, 1885 by A.O. Hume.

Question 24

Where was the First Session of the Indian National Congress held? Who was the First President of the Indian National Congress?

Answer

The First Session of the Indian National Congress was held at Bombay under the Presidentship of W.C. Bonnerjea, a leading barrister.

Question 25

Where was the Second Session of the Indian National Congress held? Who presided over this Session?

Answer

The Second Session of the Indian National Congress was held at Kolkata in 1886, with Dadabhai Naoroji as President.

Structured Questions

Question 1

With reference to the picture given here of the person who heralded the coming of the 'Modern Age' in Indian history answer the questions that follow:

With reference to the picture given here of the person who heralded the coming of the Modern Age in Indian history answer the questions that follow. Who was that one of India's great persons? What were his views on Liberty and Freedom of the Press? What were his economic ideas? Factors leading to the Growth of Nationalism & Foundation of Indian National Congress, Apc Modern History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Who was that one of India's great persons?

(b) What were his views on Liberty and Freedom of the Press?

(c) What were his economic ideas?

Answer

(a) Raja Rammohan Roy heralded the coming of the 'Modern Age' in Indian history.

(b) Raja Rammohan Roy was a staunch nationalist. He regarded liberty as a priceless possession of every individual.

  1. There existed many restrictions on the publication of newspapers in those days.
  2. Roy had started a Bengali weekly called the 'Samvad Kaumudi' in 1821.
  3. Later he started a Persian paper called Miral-ul-Akhbar.
  4. Both the publications had a distinct nationalist and progressive character.
  5. Along with a few other eminent persons, Roy presented a petition to the Supreme Court for legal action to be taken against Press Regulations.

(c) His economic ideas were as follows:

  1. Raja Rammohan Roy was sympathetic to the cause of the poor peasants.
  2. He wanted the Military Budget to be reduced, so that more funds were available for activities concerned with the health and education of the people.
  3. He sailed for England in 1830. It gave him an opportunity to appear before a Select Committee of the British Parliament.
  4. He apprised the Committee of the poor economic conditions of the people in India.

Question 2

Jyotiba Phule was a highly respected Social Reformer of the 19th century. In this context describe:

(a) His contribution to uplift lower Castes and Women.

(b) Formation of Satya Shodhak Samaj and its aims and activities.

Answer

(a) Contributions of Jyotiba Phule for the upliftment of lower Castes and Women:

  1. Jyotiba Phule considered caste system as slavery.
  2. His book 'Ghulamgiri' focused on the Brahmin domination and the poverty, hardship and distress which the lower castes were then facing.
  3. Phule strongly felt that all the problems of Dalits could be solved if proper education was provided to them.
  4. Phule said that the women were superior to men because they "bore children and nursed them".
  5. Phule established in 1848 one of the first Girls schools in India.
  6. He set up an orphanage in 1854 to provide shelter to poor widows and their children.
  7. He also founded a number of schools for girls and the lower castes, i.e., the Mahars and the Mangs.
  8. He founded the Satya Shodhak Samaj on 24th September, 1873 to mitigate the distress and sufferings of dalits and women.

(b) Formation of Satya Shodhak Samaj and its aims and activities:

  1. Jyotiba Phule founded the Satya Shodhak Samaj on 24th September, 1873.
  2. The main objective of this society was to mitigate the distress and sufferings of dalits and women.
  3. His wife, Savitribai was the Head of the Women's Wing of the Society.

Question 3

The social and religious reformers of the 19th century became the early pioneers of Indian nationalism. Describe any three ways in which the Reform Movements of the 19th century aroused nationalist ideas.

Answer

The reform Movement went a long way towards arousing nationalistic passion against foreign domination.

  1. All these reformers denounced untouchability and the rigidities of the caste system. The ideas of brotherhood and equality attracted the attention of the so called lower castes.
  2. All the reformers believed that the uplift of women must come first and then only can any good come about for the country. They taught us that the Western nations attained greatness by paying proper respect to women.
  3. At a time when nation was seized with despair and idleness, Dayananda and Vivekananda boldly preached the gospel of strength and self reliance.

Question 4

With reference to the growth of national consciousness in India explain the relevance of each of the following:

(a) Growth of Press in the nineteenth century.

(b) India's economic exploitation by the British rulers.

Answer

(a) Growth of Press in the nineteenth century:

The Press and the literature played a big role in carrying nationalist ideas to the people.

  1. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the founder of the nationalist journals in India. There had been a strict censorship on the publication of papers and journals. He waged legal battle against press regulations.
  2. Dadabhai Naoroji edited 'Rast Goftar' in Gujarati.
  3. Raja Rammohan Roy's 'Samvad Kaumudi' in Bengali, Dadabhai's paper 'Rast Goftar' in Gujarati and Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar's journal 'Shome Prakash' in Bengali had a distinct nationalist character.
  4. English dailies, such as 'The Times of India' founded in 1861, the 'Pioneer' in 1865 and the 'Statesman' in 1875 supported the policies of the government, yet they kept people informed of rapid political developments in the country.
  5. The Amrit Bazar Patrika started as the Anglo Bengali weekly in 1867. Later it was converted into an English daily. The 'Tribune' was started in Lahore in 1877 and the 'Hindu' started in Madras in 1878.
  6. Great was the influence of these papers in fostering patriotism and ideas of liberty and justice in the country.
  7. Through his writings in the 'Kesari' and the 'Mahratta' Bal Gangadhar Tilak spread the gospel of freedom and natural rights. The people were asked to unite and work for national welfare.

(b) India's economic exploitation by the British rulers:

The British conquest has a ruinous impact on Indian economy.

  1. The Peasant's Suffering — The Indian peasants had to sell their produce at cheap prices in order to satisfy the greed of the moneylenders, the Zamindars and the government officials.
  2. Destruction of Handicrafts — Heavy duties were imposed on goods exported into England from India. Further, British goods were forced upon India, since we were at the mercy of our foreign masters. The policy of Free Trade was responsible for the destruction of our crafts and trades.
  3. Dissatisfied Educated Indians — The educated young men in India were becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the government because the better paid jobs were kept out of their reach. Surendranath Bannerjea, an ICS official, was dismissed from the service on superficial grounds.
  4. Poverty, unemployment and workers exploitation — The progress of industries in India was very slow. But in 1880, there were nearly 60 mills or factories in India. With the evolution of the new pattern of economy, poverty and unemployment also increased. The workers, as usual, were exploited by the mill owners, mostly Englishmen.
  5. Government ignored people's welfare — Burden of taxes was constantly on the increase, but the government did very little to promote the welfare of the people. Huge expenditure was incurred on army and the police force to sustain Britain's imperial interests. Insufficient attention was being paid to raising the living standards of the people.

Question 5

With reference to the following Acts and Regulations, explain how did repressive colonial policies cause an annoying sense of humiliation in the minds of educated Indians:

(a) The Vernacular Press Act, 1878

(b) The Arms Act, 1878

(c) Ilbert Bill controversy

Answer

(a) The Vernacular Press Act, 1878:

The government tried to silence the opposition by enacting the Vernacular Press Act in 1878.

  1. This Act is commonly known as the 'Gagging Act'.
  2. The Act required the editors to publish nothing that would excite disaffection against the Government.
  3. Under this act, the Government had the power to confiscate the printing press in the event of the publication of undesirable matter.
  4. Many editors who opposed the Act were sentenced to jail.
  5. This caused an annoying sense of humiliation in the minds of educated Indians.

(b) The Arms Act, 1878:

The government tried to silence the opposition by enacting the Indian Arms Act in 1878.

  1. The main provision of the Indian Arms Act of 1878 made it a criminal offence for Indians to keep or bear arms without licence.
  2. Surendranath Bannerjea's reaction was that the Act "imposed on us a badge of racial inferiority" because it was not applicable to the British.

(c) Ilbert Bill controversy:

Lord Ripon tried to reduce some of the grievances of the Indians by passing the Ilbert Bill. But his attempts were marred by the controversy over the Ilbert bill.

  1. At that time no European could be tried for a criminal offence except by a European judge.
  2. Lord Ripon tried to do away with this absurdity.
  3. Accordingly, a bill was introduced in 1883 by Ilbert, the Law member of the Governor-General's Executive Council.
  4. The Anglo-Indian community carried on a wild agitation against this measure.
  5. The Government ultimately withdrew the Bill and negotiated a compromise.
  6. As a result, the Indian District Magistrates and the Judges were empowered to try European offenders on the condition that the accused were to have the benefit of trial by Jury. Half the members of the Jury were to be Europeans or Americans.
  7. This caused an annoying sense of humiliation in the minds of educated Indians.

Question 6

A number of political associations came into existence in the latter half of the 19th century. In this context, answer the following questions:

(a) What were the objectives and activities of the East India Association founded in 1866?

(b) What were the objectives of the Indian Association established at Kolkata in 1876 by Surendranath Banerjea?

Answer

(a) Objectives and activities of the East India Association

The East India Association was founded in London on 1st October, 1866 by Dadabhai Naoroji. Its objectives were as follows-

  1. It aimed at providing members of the British Parliament information regarding India's genuine grievances.
  2. The Association attracted a lot of Englishmen who sympathised with India's distress.
  3. The Association recommended the abolition of cotton duties and petitioned the government to withdraw the Vernacular Press Act.
  4. The Association soon became popular and soon had branches in Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.

(b) Objectives of the Indian Association

The objectives of the Indian Association established at Kolkata in 1876 by Surendranath Banerjea were-

  1. To unite Indians upon the basis of common political interests and beliefs
  2. To promote brotherly feelings between the Hindus and the Muslims
  3. To agitate for a constitutional government

Question 7

With reference to the picture given here, answer the questions that follow:

With reference to the picture given here answer the questions that follow. Identify the person. What was his role in the foundation of the Indian National Congress? What were the immediate objectives of the Indian National Congress? Factors leading to the Growth of Nationalism & Foundation of Indian National Congress, Apc Modern History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Identify the person

(b) What was his role in the foundation of the Indian National Congress?

(c) What were the immediate objectives of the Indian National Congress?

Answer

(a) The picture shows A.O.Hume, a retired civil servant.

(b) A.O.Hume addressed a circular letter to the graduates of Calcutta University in which he said, "whether in the individual or the nation, all vital progress must spring from within, and it is to you, her most cultured and enlightened minds...that your country must look for the initiative." He added, "if only fifty men, good and true, can be found to join as founders, the thing can be established and the future development would be comparatively easy."

  1. The appeal had the desired effect.
  2. The Indian National Congress was founded and the first session was held in December, 1885 at Bombay under the Presidentship of W.C. Bonnerjea, a leading barrister.
  3. A.O.Hume had played a major role in the formation of the Congress. He is regarded as the Father and Founder of the Indian National Congress.

(c) The immediate objectives of the Indian National Congress were-

  1. To enable all national workers from all parts of India to become personally known to each other.
  2. To end all racial, religious and provincial prejudices and to promote a feeling of national unity among all lovers of the country.
  3. The formulation of popular demands on vital Indian problems and their presentation before the government.
  4. To train and mobilise public opinion all over the country.
  5. To decide upon the political tasks to be undertaken during the ensuing year.
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