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Section B — Chapter 3

Objectives and Methods of Struggle of Early Nationalists

Class 10 - APC Modern History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

During which period did the early Nationalists dominate the Congress?

Answer

The early Nationalists dominated the Congress during the period of 1885 - 1905.

Question 2

Name any two leaders who belonged to the early days of Indian nationalism.

Answer

Two leaders who belonged to the early days of Indian nationalism are W.C. Bonnerjea and Surendranath Banerjea.

Question 3

Mention any two objectives of the early nationalists in respect to
(a) Constitutional Reforms
(b) Administrative Reforms

Answer

Two objectives of the early nationalists in respect to Constitutional Reforms were-

  1. They asked for the abolition of the India Council.
  2. The Congress at its very first session asked for the expansion of the Legislative Councils created by the Act of 1861. The Central and Provincial Councils both should have a considerable proportion of "elected" members.

Two objectives of the early nationalists in respect to Administrative Reforms were-

  1. Wider employment of Indians in the higher services.
  2. Holding of simultaneous examinations both in England and in India for recruitment to the Indian Civil Service.

Question 4

Mention any two objectives of the early nationalists that related to improving the lot of the peasants.

Answer

Two objectives of the early nationalists that related to improving the lot of the peasants were-

  1. Reduction in land revenue and protection of peasants against unjust demands of the Zamindars.
  2. Giving of cheap credit (loans) to the peasants through agricultural banks.

Question 5

What did the early nationalists seek in the field of civil liberties?

Answer

The early nationalists sought the following civil liberties-

  1. Early Congressmen opposed tooth and nail the suppression of the freedoms of speech and expression.
  2. They were demanding rights to assemble and to form associations.
  3. The Congress believed that the suppression of a free press would not check 'sedition' or rebellion against government, it would only drive it underground.

Question 6

Name any two methods through which the early nationalists carried their agitation.

Answer

Two methods through which the early nationalists carried their agitation were-

  1. Petitions to high Government officials.
  2. Resolutions

Question 7

Mention any two shortcomings or points of criticism of early nationalists.

Answer

Two shortcomings or points of criticism of early nationalists were-

  1. In those early days, the Congress lacked mass appeal. It represented the English educated well-to-do and the middle classes that hardly constituted nearly a hundredth part of the country's population.
  2. The early nationalists believed that sooner or later the British would agree to establish representative institutions in India. They could not see that British and Indian interests clashed with each other. Britain was using India's resources in order to increase its own wealth.

Question 8

Mention any two achievements of early nationalists.

Answer

Two achievements of early nationalists were-

  1. They infused national consciousness among various sections of public life. They promoted the spirit of common brotherhood and aroused among the people a feeling that they all belonged to one nation.
  2. They had done a lot to popularise ideas of democracy, civil liberty and representative institutions. They declared that Indians "wanted to be governed according to the ideals of government prevalent in Europe."

Question 9

Who came to be known as the 'Grand Old Man of India'?

Answer

Dadabhai Naoroji came to be known as the 'Grand Old Man of India'.

Question 10

When and by whom was the East India Association founded?

Answer

In 1866, Dadabhai Naoroji founded the East India Association in London.

Question 11

What was the objective of the East India Association?

Answer

The objective of the East India Association was to inform the British of the true state of affairs in India.

Question 12

Who came to be known as the India's Unofficial Ambassador in England?

Answer

Dadabhai Naoroji came to be known as the India's Unofficial Ambassador in England.

Question 13

Why did the early nationalists persuade Dadabhai Naoroji to preside over the Kolkata Session of the Congress in 1906?

Answer

Dadabhai Naoroji's Presidentship of the Congress in 1906 was memorable in many ways. The partition of Bengal in 1905 had very sadly disillusioned the early nationalists. Their power and prestige were on the decline. They, therefore, persuaded Dadabhai to preside over the Kolkata Session of the Congress in 1906. Dadabhai's name and fame made it difficult for the assertive nationalists to oppose his candidature, although they would have liked Tilak to hold that office.

Question 14

Who is the author of 'Poverty and Un-British Rule in India'? Mention any one way India's wealth was being taken away to England, as Author of this book pointed.

Answer

Dadabhai Naoroji is the author of 'Poverty and Un-British Rule in India'.

India's wealth was being taken away to England as salaries payable to the members of the India Council.

Question 15

Who took the lead in convening Indian National Conference in 1883?

Answer

Surendranath Banerjea took the lead in convening Indian National Conference in 1883.

Question 16

Name the nationalist leader who edited The Bengalee for several years.

Answer

The nationalist leader who edited The Bengalee for several years is Surendranath Banerjea.

Question 17

Who came to be known as the Political Guru of Mahatma Gandhi? Give the reason for him being regarded as Gandhi's Guru.

Answer

Gopal Krishna Gokhale is known as "the Political Guru of Gandhi" because violence had no place in his scheme of things.

Question 18

When and by whom was the Servants of India Society started?

Answer

In 1905, Gopal Krishna Gokhale established the Servants of India Society.

Question 19

What was the aim of the Servants of India Society?

Answer

The aim of the Servants of India Society was to train men to devote their lives to the cause of the country. Its members were required to create among the people a deep and passionate love of the motherland. The Society worked for the education of women and elevation of the depressed classes.

Question 20

Mention any two concessions that Gokhale did seek for Indian peasants by means of his speeches as Member of the Imperial Legislative Council?

Answer

Two concessions that Gokhale did seek for Indian peasants by means of his speeches as Member of the Imperial Legislative Council were-

  1. Reduction in Salt Duty
  2. Abolition of excise duty on cotton goods

Question 21

Mention any two measures suggested by Gokhale to the British Government for the Welfare of Indians.

Answer

Two measures suggested by Gokhale to the British Government for the Welfare of Indians were-

  1. Reform of the Legislative Councils
  2. Separation of the judiciary from the executive

Question 22

What did Gokhale advocate to make the life of the peasants better or easier?

Answer

To make the life of the peasants better or easier, Gokhale advocated the following-

  1. The reduction of land revenue
  2. Giving of cheap credit (loans) to the peasants by agricultural banks

Structured Questions

Question 1

The early Congressmen who dominated the Indian National Congress from 1885 to 1905 were liberal in their views and programme. In this context describe their objectives regarding:

(a) Any three Constitutional Reforms

(b) Any three Administrative Reforms

(c) Any two Economic Reforms

(d) Their fight to safeguard Civil Liberties

Answer

(a) The objectives of Early Nationalists regarding three Constitutional Reforms were-

  1. They asked for the abolition of the India Council.
  2. The Congress at its very first session asked for the expansion of the Legislative Councils created by the Act of 1861. The Central and Provincial Councils both should have a considerable proportion of "elected" members.
  3. These Councils should be given more powers. All legislative measures and financial questions, including budgets should be submitted to the Councils.

(b) The objectives of Early Nationalists regarding three Administrative Reforms were-

  1. Wider employment of Indians in the higher services.
  2. Holding of simultaneous examinations both in England and in India for recruitment to the Indian Civil Service.
  3. Adequate representation of the Indians in the Executive Council of the Viceroy and those of the Governors.

(c) The objectives of Early Nationalists regarding two Economic Reforms were-

  1. Giving of cheap credit (loans) to the peasants through agricultural banks.
  2. Total abolition of salt tax and the duty on sugar.

(d) The objectives of Early Nationalists regarding their fight to safeguard Civil Liberties were-

  1. Early Congressmen opposed tooth and nail the suppression of the freedoms of speech and expression.
  2. They were demanding rights to assemble and to form associations.
  3. The Congress believed that the suppression of a free press would not check 'sedition' or rebellion against government, it would only drive it underground.

Question 2

The early Nationalists believed in caution and slow evolution. In this context describe:

(a) Their Main Beliefs

(b) Their Methods of Struggle

Answer

(a) The early Nationalists believed the following-

  1. They had unlimited faith in the British sense of justice and fair play. The First Session of the Congress ended with "three cheers" for Hume and Hume answered the greetings with "three cheers for Her Majesty, the Queen Empress." The Congress in those days was a band of loyalists who were proud of their British connections.
  2. To England they looked for "inspiration and guidance." Even when they criticised the government, they maintained a certain dignity and moderation.
  3. Dadabhai Naoroji was honest enough to recognise the benefits which English rule had conferred upon Indians, especially the English language and the modern means of communication and transport.

(b) The Methods of Struggle of the Early Nationalists were as follows-

  1. The early nationalists did not believe in agitation or unconstitutional means.
  2. They carried their agitation through-
    1. Petitions to high Government officials
    2. Resolutions
    3. Meetings in towns, cities and the countryside
    4. Distribution of leaflets and pamphlets criticising government policies
    5. Preparing Memorandum (a written report) for the Government Committees or for submission to Committees of British Parliament
    6. Sending Delegations of leading Indians to England to have talks with British authorities on behalf of people of India.
  3. Dadabhai Naoroji had founded the East India Association in London in 1866. Through this Association, he aimed at providing members of British Parliament information regarding India's grievances.
  4. In brief, these leaders believed that once the Government was convinced of the genuine needs for reforms, their demands would be conceded sooner or later.
  5. The early Congressmen "merely wanted to mitigate the evils of British rule and not to terminate it." They believed that by constitutional agitation alone could political and economic reforms be achieved.

Question 3

Dadabhai threw himself heart and soul into country's great cause. In this context describe:

(a) His role as India's Unofficial Ambassador in England

(b) His role in the Congress and his efforts to spread nationalist ideas

(c) His views about the nature of British Imperialism

(d) His views on Exploitation and Poverty in India (His famous 'Drain Theory')

Answer

(a) Dadabhai Naoroji is known as India's Unofficial Ambassador in England for the following reasons-

  1. In 1866, Dadabhai founded the East India Association in London.
  2. Its object was to inform the British of the true state of affairs in India.
  3. During his long stay in England, he made friendship with eminent Englishmen like Gladstone, Bradlaugh and Bright.
  4. He was the first Indian to have won a seat in 1892 in the British House of Commons.
  5. As Member of British Parliament he rendered admirable service to the cause of India and the people of Indian origin in South Africa.
  6. It was due to the efforts of Dadabhai and Bradlaugh that the British House of Commons passed a resolution recommending that the ICS examination be held simultaneously both in England and in India.

(b) Dadabhai's role in the Congress was significant.

  1. He was one of the founders of the Indian National Congress.
  2. Thrice he presided over the Sessions of the Congress in 1886, 1893 and 1906.
  3. His Presidentship of the Congress in 1906 was memorable in many ways.
  4. The partition of Bengal in 1905 had very sadly disillusioned the early nationalists.
  5. Their power and prestige were on the decline.
  6. They, therefore, persuaded Dadabhai to preside over the Kolkata Session of the Congress in 1906.
  7. Dadabhai's name and fame made it difficult for the assertive nationalists to oppose his candidature, although they would have liked Tilak to hold that office.
  8. The Congress Session of 1906 passed resolutions on Swaraj, Swadeshi, Boycott and National Education.
  9. He laid stress on the attainment of Swaraj.
  10. He said as in the United Kingdom "all taxation, legislation and all powers of spending the taxes were in the hands of representatives of the people, so should it be in India. We do not ask for any favours. We want Justice."

(c) Dadabhai's views about the nature of British Imperialism are summarised below:

  1. Dadabhai was a great thinker and writer. His views on Indian economy and exploitation of India could be gathered from his classic work 'Poverty and Un-British Rule in India'.
  2. Through his famous 'Drain Theory' he explained how India's wealth was being taken away to England in these forms:
    1. Salaries payable to the members of the India Council
    2. Dispatch of savings to England by British personnel posted in India
    3. Pensions to British Officers
    4. Payments to the War Office for the maintenance of British troops in India
    5. Profits of the British Trading Agencies
  3. Dadabhai also edited 'Rast Goftar' (Speaker of Truth).
  4. He also started a magazine 'Dharma Marg Darshak'.
  5. The Hindu, an English daily, stated that "as an authority on Indian economics there is none equal to Dadabhai in all India."

(d) Dadabhai Naoroji's views on Indian economy and exploitation of India could be gathered from his classic work 'Poverty and Un-British Rule in India'. Through his famous 'Drain Theory' he explained how India's wealth was being taken away to England in these forms:

  1. Salaries payable to the members of the India Council
  2. Dispatch of savings to England by British personnel posted in India
  3. Pensions to British Officers
  4. Payments to the War Office for the maintenance of British troops in India
  5. Profits of the British Trading Agencies

Question 4

Identify the person whose picture is shown here and describe briefly:

Identify the person whose picture is shown here and describe briefly His efforts towards national awakening through his fight against injustice and repression and his belief in India's right to Self-Government and methods he advocated to attain that objective. Objectives and Methods of Struggle of Early Nationalists, Apc Modern History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) His efforts towards national awakening through his fight against injustice and repression.

(b) His belief in India's right to Self-Government and methods he advocated to attain that objective.

Answer

The person shown in the picture is Surendranath Banerjea.

(a) Surendranath Banerjea drew much inspiration from a great Italian nationalist Joseph Mazzini and his contribution towards national awakening is significant.

  1. Surendranath took to Public life in 1876, the year in which he founded the Indian Association.
  2. The object of the Association was to agitate for the introduction of political reforms in India.
  3. In 1877, the age-limit for the Civil Service Examination was reduced from 21 to 19.
  4. Surendranath made a tour of India, protesting against the reduction of the maximum age-limit.
  5. He fearlessly criticised such measures as the Arms Act and the Vernacular Press Act.

(b) Surendranath Banerjea's belief in India's right to Self-Government and methods he advocated to attain that objective are described below:

  1. He was a firm believer in India's right to Self-Government.
  2. His best known book is 'A Nation in Making'.
  3. His principle was "Opposition where necessary, Cooperation where possible."
  4. He disapproved of violent activities.
  5. He urged Indians to boycott foreign goods.
  6. He supported the Swadeshi Movement.
  7. He said, "take the Swadeshi vow and you will have laid broad and deep the foundations of your industrial and political emancipation."
  8. For his firm resistance to partition, he was called "Mr. Surrender Not Banerjea." However, he would not sanction acts of violence.

Question 5

Identify the person whose picture is seen here and describe briefly:

Identify the person whose picture is shown here and describe briefly His views about the Goal of Congress and the Means to achieve that Goal. Object and activities of the Servants of India Society founded by him. His efforts to arouse National Awakening through his speeches in Imperial Legislative Council. His economic ideas. Objectives and Methods of Struggle of Early Nationalists, Apc Modern History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) His views about the Goal of Congress and the Means to achieve that Goal.

(b) Object and activities of the Servants of India Society founded by him.

(c) His efforts to arouse National Awakening through his speeches in Imperial Legislative Council.

(d) His economic ideas.

Answer

The person shown here is Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

(a) Gokhale was one of India's most respected leaders.

  1. He presided over the Varanasi Session of the Congress in 1905.
  2. He was a man with moderate views and had immense faith in British liberalism.
  3. Gokhale urged that "the goal of the Congress should be the attainment of a form of government similar to that which existed in the self-governing colonies of the British empire."
  4. He believed in constitutional agitation, i.e., petitions, appeals to justice and passive resistance.
  5. At the same time, he supported the Swadeshi Movement.
  6. In his Presidential Address at the Varanasi Session, he said, "the true Swadeshi Movement is both a patriotic and an economic movement."
  7. He made a strong plea for the reform of the Legislative Councils and separation of judiciary from the executive.

(b) In 1905, Gopal Krishna Gokhale established the Servants of India Society.

  1. The main objective of the society was to train men to devote their lives to the cause of the country.
  2. Its members were required to create among the people a deep and passionate love of the motherland.
  3. The Society worked for the education of women and elevation of the depressed classes.

(c) In 1902, Gopal Krishna Gokhale had become the Member of the Imperial Legislative Council. In his speeches in the Council, he pleaded for:

  1. Reduction in Salt Duty
  2. Abolition of excise duty on Cotton Goods
  3. In 1910 and 1912, he moved resolutions in the Imperial Legislative Council for relief to Indian bonded labour in Natal.
  4. In one of his Budget speeches he pleaded for free primary education for all children.
  5. Gokhale would like Indians to be given a large share in Indian Civil Service.

(d) Gokhale was deeply pained to see the increasing misery of the peasantry. He pleaded for

  1. The reduction of land revenue.
  2. Giving of cheap credit (loans) to the peasants.
  3. Gokhale was in favour of State protection to infant Indian industries.
  4. He called for the employment of members of educated middle class.

Question 6

With reference to the picture given here, answer the following questions:

Identify the person in the picture. He came to be known as the Grand Old Man of India. Name the famous book authored by him. Name a magazine started by him. Objectives and Methods of Struggle of Early Nationalists, Apc Modern History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Identify the person in the picture.

(b) Fill in the blanks: He came to be known as 'the Grand ..........'.

(c) Name the famous book authored by him.

(d) Name a magazine started by him.

(e) Name a famous economic theory propounded by him, mentioning any four ways in which India's wealth was being taken away to England, as the author of that famous book points out.

Answer

(a) The person in the picture is Dadabhai Naoroji.

(b) He came to be known as 'the Grand Old Man of India'.

(c) The famous book authored by him is 'Poverty and Un-British Rule in India'.

(d) He started the magazine 'Dharm Marg Darshak'.

(e) Through his famous 'Drain Theory', Dadabhai Naoroji explained how India's wealth was being taken away to England in these forms:

  1. Salaries payable to the members of the India Council.
  2. Dispatch of savings to England by British personnel posted in India.
  3. Pensions to British Officers.
  4. Payments to the War Office for the maintenance of British troops in India.
  5. Profits of the British Trading Agencies.
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