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Section B — Chapter 5

Muslim League and its Objectives

Class 10 - APC Modern History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

Why did the British follow the policy of 'Divide and Rule' in India?

Answer

After the Revolt of 1857, the British followed the policy of "divide and rule" to keep themselves in power by causing rift between various sections who could otherwise unite against the British.

Question 2

Mention any two methods the British used in pursuance of their policy of Divide and Rule.

Answer

Two methods which the British used in pursuance of their policy of Divide and Rule are-

  1. The British encouraged communal and separatist trend in Indian politics. They appeased the Princes and the Zamindars so that the common people of the country could be brought under the control of the British through this aristocratic class.
  2. The Government tried to keep Muslims aloof from the Congress. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and Theodore Beck, the first Principal of the Mohammedan College at Aligarh, tried to convince the Muslims that "the Congress was Hindu Organisation which should be avoided at all costs."

Question 3

How did the relative economic backwardness of the Muslim Community foster Communalism in India?

Answer

While children of the Hindus went to schools run by Government or Christian missionaries, Muslims kept away from Western education. This widened the gap between the two communities. Later, as a result of the efforts of Syed Ahmad Khan and Tyabji, the Muslims also took to the new learning. But even now they were going too slowly as compared to the other communities — the Hindus, the Christians and the Parsis. The Muslims were led to believe that supporting the government was the surest way of getting government jobs or other rewards and honours. This led to the growth of Communalism in India.

Question 4

What led to an arousal of Hindi-Urdu Controversy in 1900?

Answer

In U.P. the petitions only in Urdu could be submitted to the offices and courts. The Hindus protested against this practice. The Government gave instructions on 8 April, 1900 that offices and courts should entertain petitions written in Hindi, i.e., Devanagri script also. This angered the Muslims who called protest meetings in different parts of the Province. The Hindus also held meetings to meet the challenge. The controversy worsened relations between the two communities.

Question 5

Mention any two demands made by the Muslim Deputation in 1906.

Answer

Two demands made by the Muslim Deputation in 1906 are-

  1. Separate Electorates — The Muslims should be given the right of sending their representatives to the Provincial Councils and Imperial Legislative Council through separate communal electorates.
  2. Weightage in Representation — The representation to the Muslim Community should be determined not by their numerical strength. It should be in accordance with the position they occupied in India about a hundred years ago.

Question 6

Name the Viceroy who was responsible for granting separate representation to the Muslims in 1909. What is meant by Separate (Communal) Electorates?

Answer

The Viceroy, Lord Minto was responsible for granting separate representation to the Muslims in 1909.

The system of separate electorates implied that 'communities' should serve as the basis for representation. In other words, the Muslims would vote for Muslim candidates and the Hindus for the Hindu candidates.

Question 7

When was the Muslim League formed? Who presided over its first Session at Dhaka?

Answer

The All-India Muslim League was formally founded on 30 December, 1906.

The First Session of Muslim league at Dhaka was presided over by Nawab Salimullah.

Question 8

When was the Muslim League's Constitution framed? Who presided over the Leagues Session at Amritsar in 1908?

Answer

The Muslim League's Constitution was framed in 1907 at Karachi.

The First Session of Muslim league was held in December 1908 at Amritsar under the Chairmanship of Syed Ali Imam.

Question 9

Mention any two objectives of the Muslim League as laid down in its Constitution.

Answer

Two objectives of the Muslim League as laid down in its Constitution are-

  1. To promote among Indian Muslims feelings of loyalty towards the British Government. The League would also remove misconception that may arise as to the intentions of Government in relation to Indian Muslims.
  2. To protect the political and other rights of the Muslims and to place their needs and aspirations before the Government in mild and moderate language.

Question 10

Who founded 'Majlis-e-Ahrar'? Name any two nationalist.

Answer

Habibur Rahman founded 'Majlis-e-Ahrar' (The Society of Freemen).

Two nationalists are M. Rashid Ahmad and Abul Kalam Azad.

Question 11

Muslims associated with the Ahrar Movement.

Answer

Muslims associated with the Ahrar Movement are Habibur Rahman, M. Rashid Ahmad and Abul Kalam Azad.

Structured Questions

Question 1

There were many events and factors which finally led to the formation of the Muslim League in 1906. In this context describe:

(a) Rift caused by the Hindi-Urdu controversy.

(b) The Aligarh politics.

(c) Movement against the Partition of Bengal.

Answer

(a) In U.P. the petitions only in Urdu could be submitted to the offices and courts.

  1. The Hindus protested against this practice.
  2. The Government gave instructions on 8 April, 1900 that offices and courts should entertain petitions written in Hindi, i.e., Devanagri script also.
  3. This angered the Muslims who called protest meetings in different parts of the Province.
  4. The Hindus also held meetings to meet the challenge.
  5. The controversy worsened relations between the two communities.

(b) The Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh became the Centre of a movement, popularly known as the Aligarh Movement.

  1. The theme of the Movement was "loyalty, approval and support of the Government".
  2. After the death of Sir Syed in 1898, Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk led the Aligarh Movement.
  3. When the Hindi-Urdu controversy raged, he was the Secretary of the M.A.O. College Trust.
  4. He had severely criticised the Government order granting equal status to Hindi and Urdu in U.P.
  5. The Lt. Governor of U.P., A. Macdonell, demanded that he should either resign from the Secretaryship of the Trust or separate himself from the agitation against the Government order.
  6. The Nawab cooled down for the time being.
  7. But other Muslim leaders were angry and put forward the suggestion of establishing a political organisation of the Muslims.

(c) During the early phase of the Anti-Partition Movement, a large number of Muslims took part in the protest meetings.

  1. The Government was eager to prevent the Muslims from joining the mainstream of Indian life.
  2. It won over Nawab Salimullah of Dhaka to its cause.
  3. As days passed by, more and more Muslims came under the influence of the British.
  4. The Government could secure the support of the Muslims on the ground that the new Province would be a Muslim majority region.

Question 2

A Muslim Deputation with Aga Khan as their leader was received by Lord Minto on 1st October, 1906. In this context answer the following questions:

(a) What four major demands did the Address presented to the Viceroy contain?

(b) What assurance did the Deputation have from the Viceroy?

(c) What impact did Viceroy's promise have on Morley-Minto Reforms?

Answer

(a) The Muslim leaders involved in the Muslim Deputation presented the following demands:

  1. Separate Electorates — The Muslims should be given the right of sending their representatives to the Provincial Councils and Imperial Legislative Council through separate communal electorates.
  2. Weightage in Representation — The representation to the Muslim Community should be determined not by their numerical strength. It should be in accordance with the position they occupied in India about a hundred years ago.
  3. Separate Representation in the Municipal and University Bodies — There should be some scheme for giving adequate representation to the Muslims in Municipal and District Boards and the Senates and Syndicates of Indian Universities.
  4. Greater Representation in Civil, Military and Judicial Services — There should be greater representation of the Muslims in all services—civil and military. Further, there should be Muslim judges in every High Court.

(b) Lord Minto gave an assurance to the Muslim Deputation that the political rights and interests of Muslims would be duly safeguarded.

(c) The Viceroy's promise had the following impact on Morley-Minto Reforms-

  1. Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909 provided for separate representation of the Muslim Community in the Imperial Legislative Council as well as Provincial Councils.
  2. The system of separate representation implied that 'communities' should serve as the basis for representation.
  3. In other words, the Muslims would vote for Muslim candidates and the Hindus for the Hindu candidates.
  4. Separate Electorates struck a fatal blow at the Unity of India.
  5. Slowly but steadily they led to the Partition of India some forty years later.

Question 3

The All-India Muslim League was established at a meeting held in Dhaka on 30 December, 1906. In this context, describe:

(a) Aims and Objectives of the League.

(b) Two direct results of the formation of the League.

Answer

(a) The aims and objectives of the Muslim League are as follows-

  1. To promote among Indian Muslims feelings of loyalty towards the British Government. The League would also remove misconception that may arise as to the intentions of Government in relation to Indian Muslims.
  2. To protect the political and other rights of the Muslims and to place their needs and aspirations before the Government in mild and moderate language.
  3. To prevent the rise of any feeling of hostility between Muslims and other communities, without adversely affecting the aforesaid objectives of the League.

(b) Two direct results of the formation of the Muslim League are as follows-

  1. The League's leaders were trying to cut off the Muslim masses from the national movement. The Muslim League was an outright loyalist organisation.
  2. The British were successful in sowing seeds of conflict between the two great communities. They welcomed the formation of the League and offered support to it in the hope that "the Muslim League would provide an effective answer to the Congress." Communal fear and jealousy continued to grow.

Question 4

With reference to the picture given here answer the following questions:

Identify the person. Name the College which became the centre of a Movement called the Aligarh Movement. What was the theme of the Movement? He urged Muslims not to join the Congress and to be loyal to the British. Why did he take this course of action? What was the object of the Anglo-Oriental Defence Association? Muslim League and its Objectives, Apc Modern History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Identify the person.

(b) Name the College which became the centre of a Movement called the Aligarh Movement. What was the theme of the Movement?

(c) He urged Muslims not to join the Congress and to be loyal to the British. Why did he take this course of action?

(d) What was the object of the Anglo-Oriental Defence Association?

Answer

(a) The picture given here shows Sir Syed Ahmad Khan.

(b) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan founded a school at Aligarh which in 1875 developed into the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College. The Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh became the Centre of a movement, popularly known as the Aligarh Movement. The theme of the Movement was "loyalty, approval and support of the Government".

(c) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan urged Muslims not to join the Congress and to be loyal to the British because of the following reasons-

  1. He feared that when British withdrew, the Hindus would play a dominant role in political, economic and social affairs of the land.
  2. According to him, the British rule in India was permanent and irremovable, and therefore, the community could only flourish if it could win the favours of the British Government.
  3. It logically followed that the Muslims should place all their interests in the hands of the rulers.

(d) The object of the Anglo-Oriental Defence Association was to promote loyalty towards the rulers and to prevent Muslims from participating in any political movement.

Question 5

With reference to the picture given here answer the questions that follow:

Identify the person. Which sect of the Muslims was headed by him? What role did he have in the Deputation that waited upon the Viceroy Lord Minto in 1906? What assurance did the Viceroy give to the Delegation? What role did the Muslim League play in its early years? Muslim League and its Objectives, Apc Modern History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Identify the person.

(b) Which sect of the Muslims was headed by him?

(c) What role did he have in the Deputation that waited upon the Viceroy Lord Minto in 1906?

(d) What assurance did the Viceroy give to the Delegation?

(e) What role did the Muslim League play in its early years?

Answer

(a) The given picture shows Aga Khan, the then Head of the Ismaili Sect of the Muslims.

(b) The Ismaili Sect of the Muslims was headed by Aga Khan.

(c) Aga Khan led the Deputation that waited upon the Viceroy Lord Minto in 1906.

(d) Lord Minto gave an assurance that the political rights and interests of Muslims would be duly safeguarded.

(e) The Muslim League sabotaged the Anti-Partition Movement in Bengal.

  1. During the first few years resolutions passed by the League continued to harp on one theme — greater representation of Muslims in all services, civil and military.
  2. The League wanted that Muslims should have greater representation in the Legislative Councils than their population would allow.
  3. As the time went on they began to issue threats of disloyalty if their demands were not met.
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