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Section B — Chapter 6

National Movement during the First World War: Lucknow Pact and Other Developments

Class 10 - APC Modern History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

When was the Lucknow Pact adopted by the Congress and the League?

Answer

In December 1916, the Congress and the League held their Sessions at Lucknow and Lucknow Pact was formally adopted at Lucknow.

Question 2

Mention any two factors which brought the Muslim League and the Congress closer by the Year 1916.

Answer

Two factors which brought the Muslim League and the Congress closer by the Year 1916 were-

  1. The younger generation of educated Muslims began to realise that their interests were not different from those of their other countrymen. In 1913, the Muslim League had amended its Constitution. It was now demanding "self-government" for India under the protection of the British Crown.
  2. The League had now a more liberal leadership. Mr. Jinnah and Muhammad Ali favoured cooperation with the Congress. In fact, Jinnah in those days was an admirer of Congress Leaders like Tilak and Annie Besant.

Question 3

Why was the 1916 Lucknow Session of the Indian National Congress significant?

Answer

In December 1916, the Congress and the League held their Sessions at Lucknow. The significance of the Lucknow Session was that a Joint Scheme of Reforms, that later came to be known as the Lucknow Pact, was formally adopted at Lucknow.

Question 4

What does the Lucknow Pact say about the composition of Provincial Legislutures?

Answer

According to the Lucknow Pact-

  1. Four-fifths of the members of the Provincial Legislatures were to be elected and one-fifth nominated.
  2. The number of Muslim members was laid down Province by Province.
  3. On the whole, the proportion of Muslim members was large, for example, 50 per cent in Punjab, 40 per cent in Bengal and 30 per cent in U.P.
  4. They were to be elected through Separate Electorates.

Question 5

What does the Lucknow Pact stipulate about the composition of Governor-General's Executive Council?

Answer

About the composition of Governor-General's Executive Council, the Lucknow Pact stipulates that half the members of the Viceroy's Executive Council should be Indians, elected by the elected members of the Imperial Legislative Council.

Question 6

Mention any one defect of the Lucknow Pact.

Answer

One defect of the Lucknow Pact was that the Pact provided for Muslim representation in the Councils far in excess of their proportion in the total population.

Question 7

Mention any one factor showing the significance of the Lucknow Pact.

Answer

One factor showing the significance of the Lucknow Pact was that the unity between the Congress and the Muslim League and between early Nationalists and Assertive Nationalists demoralised the Government of India.

Structured Questions

Question 1

The bond of alliance between the Congress and the Muslim League was cemented by the conclusion of the Lucknow Pact in 1916. In this context answer the following questions:

(a) What were the three main factors that led to the signing of the Lucknow Pact?

(b) What were the three main features (terms) of the Lucknow Pact?

(c) What were the two main drawbacks of the Lucknow Pact?

Answer

(a) The three main factors that led to the signing of the Lucknow Pact were-

  1. Changes in the Objects of the Muslim League — The younger generation of educated Muslims began to realise that their interests were not different from those of their other countrymen. In 1913 the Muslim League had amended its Constitution. It was now demanding "self-government" for India under the protection of the British Crown.
  2. International Events — International events also distanced the league from the government. In the First World War Turkey had to fight against Great Britain. The Turkish ruler was the Caliph or religious head of the muslims. Therefore, the muslim leaders like Muhammad Ali and his brother Shaukat Ali encouraged the anti-british feelings among the muslims in India.
  3. A Compromise between the two Factions of the Congress — Mrs. Annie Besant made efforts to reunite the two wings of the Congress — the early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists. Tilak and his followers rejoined the Congress in 1916.

(b) The three main features of the Lucknow Pact were as follows:

  1. Provincial Legislatures — Four-fifths of the members of the Provincial Legislatures were to be elected and one-fifth nominated. The number of muslim members was laid down province by province. On the whole, the proportion of muslim members was large, for example, 50 per cent in Punjab, 40 per cent in Bengal and 30 per cent in U.P. They were to be elected through separate electorates.
  2. Imperial Legislative Council — The Imperial, i.e., the Central Legislative Council was to consist of 150 members. Of these four-fifths were to be elected and one-fifth nominated. One-third of the elected members were to be muslims.
  3. Governor-General's Executive Council — Half the Members of the Viceroy's Executive Council should be Indians, elected by the elected members of the Imperial Legislative Council.

(c) The two main drawbacks of the Lucknow Pact were as follows-

  1. The pact kept alive the system of separate electorates. The Congress, being a secular organisation, should not have agreed to any scheme of separate (Communal) electorates for muslims.
  2. The pact provided for muslim representation in the councils far in excess of their proportion in the total population.

Question 2

Tilak and Jinnah were the forces behind the Lucknow Pact, 1916. Describe the Significance (Impact) of the Lucknow Pact under these heading:

(a) A step towards Hindu-Muslim Unity.

(b) Unity between the Congress and the League demoralised the Government.

(c) August Declaration, 1917.

Answer

(a) The Lucknow Pact was an important step on the road to Hindu-Muslim unity. The Hindu-Muslim cooperation and unity continued throughout the years 1914-1922. It had been said that the Congress had yielded too much to the Muslim League. Tilak's reply to this criticism "When we have a fight against a third party, we stand on this platform united; united in race, united in religion."

(b) The Lucknow Pact signified the unity between the Congress and the Muslim League and between early nationalists and assertive nationalists. This demoralised the Government of India. Our leaders were convinced that the government would grant India a significant measure of self-government only if there was "a united political front" to bring pressure upon them. The government now had no excuse for delaying political or constitutional reforms.

(c) The Pact led to the gradual development of self-governing institutions. The World War was on and our leaders had made it sufficiently clear that the British could not expect loyalty from Indians, if their demand for political reforms went unheard. In the face of overwhelming odds, the Government announced on August 20, 1917 that their policy in India was "the gradual development of self-governing institutions."

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