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Section B — Chapter 7

National Movement: 1919-1934

Class 10 - APC Modern History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

When and why did Gandhi launch the Champaran Satyagraha in Bihar?

Answer

In 1917, Gandhi launched the Champaran Satyagraha in Bihar for helping the cause of tenants of the indigo-planters in Champaran district of Bihar.

Question 2

What is meant by Satyagraha?

Answer

Satyagraha means 'the force born of truth'.

Question 3

What is meant by Swadeshi?

Answer

Swadeshi means that we should use only those things which are produced by our countrymen within the borders of India.

Question 4

Why did Gandhi lay emphasis on Swadeshi?

Answer

Mahatma Gandhi laid emphasis on Swadeshi to get over poverty and unemployment in India. He believed that small-scale production could provide employment to millions in India.

Question 5

Name any two movements launched by Gandhi against British rule in India.

Answer

Two movements launched by Gandhi against British rule in India are-

  1. Satyagraha
  2. Swadeshi

Question 6

Which two provisions of the Rowlatt Act aroused widespread popular indignation?
Or
Mention any two provisions of the Rowlatt Act?

Answer

Two provisions of the Rowlatt Act which aroused widespread popular indignation were that it gave enormous powers to the police -

  1. to search a place
  2. to arrest any person they disapproved of without warrant

Question 7

Why was the Rowlatt Act enacted?
Or
What was the object of the Rowlatt Act?

Answer

The object of the Rowlatt Act was to give government extraordinary powers of search and arrest so as to suppress the national movement.

Question 8

What was Gandhi's reaction against the Rowlatt Act of 1919?

Answer

Gandhi described the Rowlatt Act as "destructive of the elementary rights of an individual". He called upon the people to do Satyagraha against such an oppressive measure, i.e., to disobey the law without resorting to violence.

Question 9

When did the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy occur? What did General Dyer do without warning people not to hold a public meeting?

Answer

The Jallianwala Bagh tragedy occurred on 13 April, 1919.
General Dyer without any warning opened fire upon the peaceful crowd that had gathered at Jallianwala Bagh and continued firing on them until all his ammunition was exhausted.

Question 10

Which tragic incident prompted Gandhi to launch the Non-Cooperation Movement?

Answer

The Jallianwala Bagh incident prompted Gandhi to launch the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Question 11

Why was the Khilafat Committee formed in 1919?
Or
Why was the Khilafat Movement launched?

Answer

A Khilafat Committee was formed to champion the cause of the Caliph of Turkey, who was deprived of real authority even over those territories which were left under his control according to the Peace Treaty.

Question 12

Name the two prominent leaders of the Khilafat Movement.

Answer

The two prominent leaders of the Khilafat Movement were Ali Bothers — Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.

Question 13

What was the programme of the Khilafat Movement?

Answer

The programme of the Khilafat Movement included

  1. resignation from the government services
  2. boycott of councils
  3. refusal to pay taxes
  4. refusal to join the army

Question 14

Mention one item each of the positive and negative programme of the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Answer

The positive programme of the Non-Cooperation Movement included Hindu-Muslim Unity.

The negative programme of the Non-Cooperation Movement referred to the boycott of Legislative Councils.

Question 15

Why did Gandhi suspend the Non-Cooperation Movement?

Answer

Mahatma Gandhi suspended the Non-Cooperation Movement because of the Chauri Chaura incident, where a mob of peasants set fire to the police station with some twenty-two policemen inside it.

Question 16

In what way did the Non-Cooperation Movement provide a great national base to the Congress organisation?

Answer

The Non-Cooperation Movement provided a great national base to the Congress organisation as all sections of society could now actively participate in the struggle for freedom.

Question 17

How did the Non-Cooperation Movement instil confidence among people and make them bold?

Answer

The Non-Cooperation Movement instilled confidence among people and made them bold as the people courted arrest and faced police brutalities with a smile.

Question 18

Why and when was the Simon Commission appointed?

Answer

The Act of 1919 had provided for the appointment of a Commission to inquire into the working of the Reforms introduced by it. Accordingly, a Commission with Sir John Simon as President, was appointed in 1927.

Question 19

How did the people of India react to the appointment of Simon Commission?
Or
Why was Simon Commission rejected by the Congress?

Answer

The Simon Commission landed in Mumbai on 3rd February, 1928. That day was observed throughout the country as a day of strikes and hostile demonstration. The whole country rang with the slogan "Simon! Go Back".

Question 20

Mention any two recommendations of the Simon Commission.

Answer

Two recommendations of the Simon Commission were-

  1. Dyarchy should be given up and the Provincial Legislative Councils should be enlarged.
  2. A Federation, representing both the British India and the Princely States, was sought to be set up.

Question 21

In which year and in which Session did Congress declare Purna Swaraj (Complete Independence) as its objective? Which day was to be observed as the Poorna Swaraj Day all over India every year?

Answer

At its Lahore Session in December, 1929, the Congress declared 'Purna Swaraj' as its goal. Purna Swaraj Day was celebrated all over India on 26th January, 1930.

Question 22

On which day began Gandhi's historic march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi? Why did Gandhi select Salt-laws as his target for the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930?

Answer

Gandhi's historic march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi began on 12th March, 1930.
He selected Salt-laws as his target for the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930 because salt-tax affected all sections of society, especially the poor.

Question 23

Mention one main reason why the Civil Disobedience Movement was launched?

Answer

One main reason for launching the Civil Disobedience Movement was denial of the British Government to grant Dominion Status to India.

Question 24

Who was known as Frontier Gandhi? Name the Volunteer Brigade organised by him.

Answer

Abdul Ghaffar Khan was known as Frontier Gandhi.
He organised a volunteer brigade, known as Khudai Khidmatgars (the Servants of God).

Question 25

How did the Government react to the Dandi March?

Answer

The Government used all kinds of repressive measures to break the nationalist movement. According to official figures, more than 60,000 persons were put behind prison bars. The Satyagrahis were brutally assaulted. They got lathi blows on head, chest, stomach and joints.

Question 26

Mention any two terms (provisions) of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.

Answer

According to the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, the Governor-General agreed -

  1. to release all political prisoners except those guilty of violence
  2. to give back to the Congressmen their confiscated properties

Question 27

Why was Gandhi disgusted with the deliberations of the Second Round Table Conference?

Answer

Gandhi was disgusted with the deliberations of the Second Round Table Conference as most leaders seemed concerned only about seats in legislatures for their respective communities.

Question 28

Mention one main impact (outcome) of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Answer

One main impact of the Civil Disobedience Movement was that the struggle had a healthy effect upon the life of the exploited, the poor, and the oppressed.

Structured Questions

Question 1

With reference to the following points describe the causes and circumstances leading to the Non-Cooperation Movement by the Congress under Gandhi's leadership.

(a) The Rowlatt Act of 1919

(b) The Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy

Answer

(a) The object of the Rowlatt Act was to give government extraordinary powers of search and arrest so as to suppress the national movement. It gave enormous powers to the police:

  1. To search a place, and
  2. Arrest any person they disapproved of without warrant.

Two other ugly features of the Rowlatt Act were that

  1. The trial was to be held in camera, i.e., the public and the newspapermen were not allowed to attend the trial, and
  2. There could be no appeal against court's judgement.

A well-known description of the Rowlatt Act at that time was: No Dalil, No Vakil, No Appeal, i.e., no pleas, no lawyer, no appeal.

Despite much opposition the Rowlatt Act came into operation on 21 March, 1919. The purpose of the Act was to curb the growing nationalist upsurge in the country.

Mahatma Gandhi called upon the people to do Satyagraha against such an oppressive measure, i.e., to disobey the law without resorting to violence.

(b) Below points summarise the reasons with reference to the Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy for launching the Non-Cooperation Movement by the Congress under Gandhi's leadership:

  1. On 11 April, General Dyer arrived and took command of the city.
  2. Proclamations were issued prohibiting all meetings and processions.
  3. On 13 April, 1919 a public meeting took place at Jallianwala Bagh in defiance of the orders.
  4. The Jallianwala Bagh was an open space surrounded by the backs of houses on three sides and having only one narrow entrance through the congested lanes of the city.
  5. General Dyer without any warning opened fire upon the peaceful crowd and continued firing on them until all his ammunition was exhausted.
  6. According to the official figures, some four hundred people were killed and about two hundred wounded.
  7. Jallianwala Bagh massacre was followed by other indignities of being flogged and handcuffed and searches throughout Punjab.

Question 2

With reference to the Khilafat Movement, answer the following questions:

(a) Why did Mahatma Gandhi support the Khilafat Movement?

(b) What was the significance of the Khilafat Movement?

(c) What brought the Khilafat Movement to an end?

Answer

(a) Mahatma Gandhi saw Khilafat Movement as an opportunity of uniting the Hindus and the Muslims. He advised the Khilafat Committee to adopt a policy of non-cooperation with the Government. This Non-Cooperation campaign started on 1st August, 1920.

(b) The significance of the Khilafat Movement is as follows:

  1. The Khilafat Movement exercised great influence over the Muslim masses.
  2. Later the Congress also launched the Non-Cooperation Movement.
  3. Never before had any movement received the willing support of so many people, Hindus and Muslims alike.
  4. The Khilafat Movement contributed to a sense of national unity.

(c) The Khilafat Movement died a natural death when in November 1922 Mustafa Kemal Pasha deposed the Sultan of Turkey and showed no concern for the holy places of Islam. He finally abolished the Caliphate and separated the State from religion. Mustafa modernised education, agriculture and industry. He developed Turkey on secular and progressive lines.

Question 3

The Congress in 1920 resolved that there was no course left open for the people of India but to adopt the policy of Non-violent Non-Cooperation. In this context answer the following questions:

(a) What was meant by the Non-Cooperation Movement?

(b) What were the three objectives of this Movement?

(c) What was the programme of this Movement?

Answer

(a) Non-Cooperation meant "not to cooperate with the evil-doer." Mahatma Gandhi asked his countrymen "not to assist the foreign government to rule over them."

(b) The Non-Cooperation Movement sought to achieve these objectives—

  1. restoring the old status of the Sultan of Turkey
  2. punishing those guilty of atrocities in Punjab
  3. attaining Swaraj for India

(c) The Non-Cooperation Movement launched by Gandhi had two kinds of programme: negative and positive.

The negative aspect of the programme referred to -

  1. the boycott of Legislative Councils
  2. the boycott of the law-courts by the lawyers
  3. the boycott of government schools and colleges
  4. the boycott of British goods
  5. surrender of titles and honorary posts

The positive programme included-

  1. Hindu-Muslim Unity
  2. removal of Untouchability
  3. promotion of Swadeshi, especially home-spun and home-woven cloth
  4. the prohibition of intoxicating drinks

Question 4

Gandhi suspended the Non-Cooperation Movement on 5th February, 1922. In this context, answer the following questions:

(a) Why did Gandhi suspend the Movement?

(b) How had some prominent Congressmen reacted to Gandhi's decision?

Answer

(a) Mahatma Gandhi suspended the Non Cooperation Movement because of the tragic incident at Chauri Chaura.

  1. On 5th February, 1922 a clash took place at Chauri Chaura, a small town in the district of Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh.
  2. A police officer had beaten some volunteers picketing a liquor shop.
  3. A whole crowd of peasants that had gathered there went to the police station.
  4. The mob set fire to the police station with some twenty-two policemen inside it.
  5. Gandhi ji was greatly shocked at such a turn of events.
  6. He realised that the country was not yet ready for a non violent struggle and suspended the movement.

(b) The suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement gave great dissatisfaction to many Congressmen.

  1. C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru protested against the Resolution of the Working Committee.
  2. Subhash Bose called it "a national calamity."
  3. Jawaharlal also felt the Movement should not have been simply suspended because some poor peasants had misbehaved.

Question 5

Explain the Impact or Significance of the Non-Cooperation Movement in India's Freedom Struggle.
Or
Though the Non-Cooperation Movement broke down, it gave people a bit more confidence in their power to fight for freedom. Describe the impact of the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920-22 under the following headings:

(a) Provided a great National Base to the Congress

(b) Undermined the Power and Prestige of the Government

(c) Its other Positive Achievements (Emancipation of the Poor and the Oppressed and Hindu-Muslim Unity)

Answer

The impact or significance of the Non-Cooperation Movement in India's Freedom Struggle can be described as follows-

  1. The Movement provided a great national base to the Congress Organisation — All sections of society — peasants, workers, lawyers, students, moneyed classes, women and oppressed people — could now actively participate in the struggle for freedom.
  2. The Movement undermined the Power and Prestige of the British Government — There was total loss of faith in the present system of government. The people wanted to get rid of their rulers. The British officials were now nervous and a bit shaky.
  3. Repression failed to crush the spirit and courage of the People — The Movement made people bold and patriotic. They courted arrest and faced police brutalities with a smile.
  4. Gandhi was determined to emancipate the Poor and the Oppressed — Removal of untouchability and promotion of Khadi became the essential tools of Gandhi in his struggle against the British rule. People took to Charkhas in a big way. Message of the Swadeshi spread quickly everywhere.
  5. Hindu-Muslim Unity — Never before had any movement received the willing support of so many people, the Hindus and the Muslims alike.

Question 6

With reference to the following points describe briefly the causes that led to the launching of Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.

(a) Reaction against the Simon Commission

(b) The Lahore Session of the Congress in 1929 and adoption of Purna Swaraj as the Goal of India

Answer

(a) The Indians were discontent with the Simon Commission because of the following reasons-

  1. The seven members of the Simon Commission were all British.
  2. Moreover, Commission's recommendation that the Viceroy's Executive Council could not be made responsible to Central Legislature and the fatal blows inflicted on Lala Lajpat Rai filled the whole nation with great anger.
  3. The Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930 and the demand for Purna Swaraj owed much to this emotional trouble.

(b) The causes that led to the launching of Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930 with reference to the Lahore Session of the Congress in 1929 and adoption of Purna Swaraj as the Goal of India are as follows-

  1. Congress leaders wanted a firm assurance as to granting of Dominion Status to India.
  2. Instead of giving any definite assurance, the Viceroy had only announced that a Round Table Conference of all parties would be held in London to discuss the recommendations of the Simon Commission.
  3. The announcement fell short of the expectations of the Congress.
  4. At its Lahore Session, presided over by Jawaharlal Nehru in December, 1929, the Congress passed resolution boycotting the Round Table Conference.
  5. It declared 'Purna Swaraj' (Complete Independence) as its goal and took steps to launch a programme of Civil Disobedience.
  6. Purna Swaraj Day was celebrated all over India on 26th January, 1930.

Question 7

The whole country was agog with excitement over the Civil Disobedience Movement launched by the Congress in 1930. In this context briefly describe the following:

(a) The Dandi March

(b) Programme of the Movement

Answer

(a) On 2nd March, 1930, Gandhi wrote a long letter to the Viceroy, communicating his decision to start the Civil Disobedience Movement.

  1. On 12th March, Mahatma Gandhi began his historic march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, a village on the Gujarat sea-coast.
  2. Seventy-eight persons followed him, but as Gandhi advanced others joined the party.
  3. He reached Dandi on 5th April.
  4. On the morning of 6th of April Gandhi violated the salt-laws by picking up some salt left by the sea-waves.
  5. Gandhi's campaign against the salt-laws was a signal to disobey the Government laws.

(b) Civil Disobedience campaign involved-

  1. defiance of salt laws
  2. boycott of liquor
  3. boycott of foreign cloth and British Goods of all kinds
  4. non-payment of taxes.

Question 8

In March 1931 Mahatma Gandhi suspended the Civil Disobedience Campaign and agreed to attend the Second Round Table Conference in London, from where he returned empty-handed to India. In this context describe:

(a) Terms of Gandhi-Irwin Pact, 1931.

(b) Second Round Table Conference, 1931.

(c) Renewal of Civil Disobedience Movement in 1932.

Answer

(a) According to the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, the Governor-General agreed -

  1. to release all political prisoners except those guilty of violence
  2. to give back to the Congressmen their confiscated properties
  3. to permit peaceful picketing of liquors and foreign cloth shops
  4. to permit such people as lived near sea-shores to manufacture salt

(b) Gandhi was chosen as the sole representative of the Congress for the Second Round Table Conference (7th September to 1st December, 1931).

  1. The Conference devoted most of its time to the communal question and the representation of minorities — the Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians and Anglo-Indians - in legislatures, both at the Centre and in the Provinces.
  2. Gandhi was disgusted to find that most leaders seemed concerned only about seats in legislatures for their respective communities.
  3. The question of Independence or of setting up a Responsible Government receded into background.
  4. Gandhi returned "empty handed" to India.
  5. He could not persuade the British government to grant Freedom or even the Dominion Status to India.

(c) Soon after his return from England, Gandhi sought an interview with the new Viceroy, Lord Willingdon. It was refused.

  1. On 4th January, 1932 Gandhiji was arrested.
  2. The Congress adopted a resolution for the renewal of Civil Disobedience Movement.
  3. The Civil Resisters hoisted Congress flags over government buildings, manufactured salt and boycotted British goods.
  4. Congress was declared as an unlawful organisation.
  5. Its funds and buildings were confiscated.
  6. According to Congress estimates, more than 1,20,000 persons were arrested by the end of March, 1933.
  7. Police methods were cruel and vindictive.

Question 9

Explain the impact of the Civil Disobedience Movement under the following headings:

(a) A tide of patriotic fervour.

(b) Constitutional Reforms by means of the Government of India Act, 1935.

(c) Its effect upon the life of the poor and the oppressed.

Answer

(a) The impact of the Civil Disobedience Movement was significant.

  1. The people were not silent and subdued.
  2. The Movement caused a tide of patriotic fervour in the country.
  3. It resulted in "mass strikes and the setting up of parallel governments in several places."
  4. People's patriotism would not leave the Government in peace.

(b) The Government was convinced that bold Constitutional reforms were now essential. The Government of India Act, 1935 introduced the Federal principle and the principle of Provincial Autonomy; i.e., Responsible Government in the provinces.

(c) The struggle of Civil Disobedience Movement had a healthy effect upon the life of the exploited, the poor, and the oppressed. The anti-untouchability campaign produced the desired effect. The depressed classes were given entry into the schools, temples and wells which had been denied to them until now.

Question 10

Answer the questions based on the picture given here:

Name the place where this Memorial was built. The Memorial reminds people of what tragic event. Give a brief account of that disastrous event and other brutalities that followed it. Name the two popular leaders who were arrested and deported before this event. National Movement 1919-1934, Apc Modern History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Name the place where this Memorial was built.

(b) The Memorial reminds people of what tragic event.
OR
Give a brief account of that disastrous event and other brutalities that followed it.

(c) Name the two popular leaders who were arrested and deported before this event.

Answer

(a) The Central Pillar of the Memorial was constructed at Jallianwala Bagh.

(b) The Memorial reminds people of the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy.

  1. On 11 April, General Dyer arrived and took command of the city.
  2. Proclamations were issued prohibiting all meetings and processions.
  3. On 13 April, 1919 a public meeting took place at Jallianwala Bagh in defiance of the orders.
  4. The Jallianwala Bagh was an open space surrounded by the backs of houses on three sides and having only one narrow entrance through the congested lanes of the city.
  5. General Dyer without any warning opened fire upon the peaceful crowd and continued firing on them until all his ammunition was exhausted.
  6. According to the official figures, some four hundred people were killed and about two hundred wounded. But the Congress Inquiry Committee put the figure of the dead not less than 1,000.

(c) On 10th April two prominent leaders, Dr. Satpal and Dr. Kitchlew, were unnecessarily deported from Amritsar before this event.

Question 11

Answer the questions based on the picture given here:

Identify the Great Leader shown in the picture. What event is the picture related to? In what way did the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930 differ from the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920? National Movement 1919-1934, Apc Modern History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Identify the Great Leader shown in the picture.

(b) What event is the picture related to?

(c) In what way did the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930 differ from the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920?

Answer

(a) This picture shows Mahatma Gandhi.

(b) This picture is related to the Dandi march where on the morning of 6th of April, Gandhi violated the salt-laws by picking up some salt left by the sea-waves.

(c) Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement in the way that it also involved non-payment of taxes and land-revenue and violation of laws of different kinds.

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