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Chapter 15

Population — The Increasing Numbers and Rising Problems

Class 10 - Selina Concise Biology Solutions


Multiple Choice Type

(Select the most appropriate option in each case)

Question 1

What was directly responsible for the rapid rise of world population in the twentieth century?

  1. Increased food production
  2. Better transport facilities
  3. Better education and job prospects
  4. Use of antibiotics and prophylactic vaccinations ✓

Question 2

Birth rate is the number of live births

  1. Per 1000 people per year ✓
  2. Per 100 people per decade
  3. Per 1000 people per decade
  4. Per 100 people per year

Very Short Answer Type

Question 1

Give the technical term for statistical study of human population of a region.

Answer

Demography

Question 2

Name two surgical techniques (one for the human male and another for the human female) that can be used to prevent pregnancy.

Answer

  1. Vasectomy (For Male)
  2. Tubectomy (For Female)

Short Answer Type

Question 1

Mention whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F).

(a) Vasectomy is the surgical method of sterilisation in human males.

(b) Tubectomy is the placing of a diaphragm on the cervix.

(c) Cow was the first domesticated animal.

(d) Rapidly growing industries favoured population rise.

(e) Present human population growth is following arithmetic progression.

(f) Birth rate (natality) is the number of live births per hundred people of population per decade.

(g) Tubectomy is a popular surgical method of contraception in human males.

Answer

(a) True

(b) False
Corrected statement — In tubectomy, fallopian tubes are cut or ligated i.e. tied with nylon thread to close the passage of the egg.

(c) False
Corrected statement — Dog was the first domesticated animal.

(d) True

(e) False
Corrected statement — Present human population growth is following geometrical progression.

(f) False
Corrected statement — Birth rate (natality) is the number of live births per 1000 people of population per year.

(g) False
Corrected statement — Vasectomy is a popular surgical method of contraception in human males.

Question 2

Give two advantages of a small family.

Answer

Two advantages of small family are:

  1. With fewer children, the parents could save enough for the children's education. They can provide the best possible education for their children.
  2. With fewer family members and less to spend, a small family has better savings for the future. It would help them in building a house, buy a car.

Question 3

List three major landmarks in human history which contributed to the sudden rise in population of the world.

Answer

The three major landmarks in human history which contributed to the sudden rise in population of the world were:

  1. Tool making revolution.
  2. Agricultural revolution.
  3. Scientific industrial revolution.

Question 4

What is meant by family welfare centres? What is the symbol of family welfare in our country?

Answer

The department which plays a significant role in controlling population and is committed to provide advice and help about family planning is known as Family Welfare Centre Department. These places could be any hospitals, dispensaries, etc. The inverted red triangle as shown below is the symbol of family welfare in India.

What is meant by family welfare centres? What is the symbol of family welfare in our country? Population Increasing Numbers Rising Problems, Concise Biology Solutions ICSE Class 10.

Question 5

Sterilisation in men means preventing the flow of sperms into the seminal vesicles by cutting and ligating the vas deferens. Can there be a corresponding operation made in women? If yes, where?

Answer

Yes, there could be a corresponding operation made in women. The name of the surgical procedure in females is 'tubectomy'. In tubectomy, the abdomen is opened and the fallopian tubes (oviducts) are cut or ligated i.e. tied with nylon thread to close the passage of the egg. Diagram showing the procedure of tubectomy is shown below:

Sterilisation in men means preventing the flow of sperms into the seminal vesicles by cutting and ligating the vas deferens. Can there be a corresponding operation made in women? If yes, where? Population Increasing Numbers Rising Problems, Concise Biology Solutions ICSE Class 10.

Question 6

What is the present rate of growth of population of the world and of our own country?

Answer

The rate of growth of population of the world is 1.092% (this rate results in about 145 net additions to the worldwide population every minute or 2.4 every second {2011 estimates}) and for India is 1.344%.

Question 7

What are the age restrictions for marriage by law for boys and girls in India?

Answer

By law the minimum age is 21 years for boys and 18 years for girls.

Question 8

Mention two reasons for the rapid increase of population in India.

Answer

Two reasons for the rapid increase of population in India are:

  1. Illiteracy — Most of the rural population which forms the bulk of our society is still illiterate, ignorant and superstitious. They also do not know the functioning of the human reproductive system.
  2. Traditional Beliefs — Among the people from lower strata of the society, children are regarded as a gift of God and a sign of prosperity. Therefore, they make no effort to avoid pregnancy.

Question 9

Explain briefly the relationship between poverty and population and how one affects the other.

Answer

Poverty and the lack of access to education leads to higher birthrates and overpopulation. Rapid population growth is likely to reduce per capita income growth and well being, which tends to increase poverty. Poverty is believed to be the leading cause of overpopulation. Poverty and population have been closely linked ever since the world faced changes due to the major revolutions. Poverty has its own effects on the population and vice versa. Poverty prevails because of illiteracy and traditional beliefs in the economically weaker strata. Since illiteracy and traditional beliefs prevail in the people from this stratum, they regard children as gift of God and a sign of prosperity. They consider children to be helping hands in increasing the family income, hence they keep producing more children forgetting that their current situation would do no good for the children and they would add more to this already overburdened poverty strata. Hence, the population keeps on rising and so does poverty. As the population increases the quality of life goes down.

Question 10

What was the approximate Indian population according to the 1991 census? What was it in 2011?

Answer

According to census, the Indian population in 1991 was 846 million and in 2011 it was 1210 million.

Descriptive Type

Question 1

Define the following terms:

(a) Population

(b) Population density

(c) Demography

(d) Resources

(e) Growth rate of population

Answer

(a) Population — A population is defined as a group of individuals of the same species living and interbreeding within a given area.

(b) Population density — It is the number of individuals per square kilometre (km2) at any given time.

(c) Demography — It is the statistical study of human population specifically with reference to size and density, distribution and other vital statistics.

(d) Resources — Resource is any substance (natural or artificial), energy or organism which is used by humans for their welfare.

(e) Growth rate of population — It is the difference between the birth rate and the death rate. As long as the birth rate exceeds the death rate, the population grows. If the birth rate is lower than the death rate, the population declines.

Question 2

Distinguish between the following pairs:

(a) Exhaustible and Inexhaustible resources

(b) Conventional and Non-conventional sources of energy

(c) Natality and Mortality

(d) Tubectomy and Vasectomy

(e) Deforestation and Afforestation

Answer

(a) Difference between exhaustible and inexhaustible resources —

Exhaustible resourcesInexhaustible resources
Resources which cannot be renewed readily by natural means and are available in finite quantities in nature which can be easily consumed are called exhaustible resources.Resources which are abundantly available in nature and can be used for unlimited time and cannot be exhausted by humans are called inexhaustible resources.
Examples: Coal, petroleum.Examples: Wind, sun

(b) Difference between conventional and non-conventional sources of energy —

Conventional sources of energyNon-conventional sources of energy
Conventional sources of energy are the natural energy resources which are present in a limited quantity and are being used for a long time.Non-conventional sources of energy are the energy sources which cannot be exhausted easily and are continuously replenished by natural processes.
Examples: Coal, petroleum.Examples: Solar energy, wind energy.

(c) Difference between natality and mortality:

NatalityMortality
The total number of live births per 1000 people of population per year is called birth rate or natality.The total number of deaths per 1000 people of population per year is called death rate or mortality.

d) Difference between tubectomy and vasectomy —

TubectomyVasectomy
It is the process which involves cutting or ligating of fallopian tubes by nylon thread to close the passage of egg.It is the process in which vas deferens from each testes is ligated and a small piece between the two ligatures is removed.
It is contraceptive practice in females.It is contraceptive practice in males.

(e) Difference between deforestation and afforestation —

DeforestationAfforestation
It is the destruction of trees and forests for human habitation and use.It is the planting of trees in a previously barren environment.
It has a detrimental effect on the environment.It has a beneficial effect on the environment.

Question 3

What do you mean by the 3Rs in the context of sustainable development?

Answer

The 3Rs in the context of sustainable development are Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.

Reduction of excessive use of natural resources.

Recycling and reuse of resources wherever possible.

More use of renewable resources such as solar energy, wind power,etc.

Question 4

Our resources cannot keep pace with the rising population. Give three examples in support of this statement.

Answer

Three examples which show that our resources cannot keep pace with the rising population are explained below:

  1. Food — Food is among the most important need for humans. Although humans have been discovering better improved methods of food production still the rate of food production doesn't match the rate of population growth. Production of food rises by arithmetic progression whereas population grows by geometric progression. This indicates that food would be running short for the unchecked rising population.
  2. Water — Availability of clean and germ-free water for drinking purposes would be more and more scarce with increase in population; the reason would be mainly, the pollution of rivers, ponds, lakes etc.
  3. Land — Man is bringing more and more land under cultivation and also using up land for building more residential colonies, factories and industries. Usable land would thus become less and less available.

Question 5

How can the knowledge of the processes of reproduction help people in limiting the size of their families? Give two concrete examples.

Answer

It is necessary that the people should be educated about the need to limit the population and about the steps which can be taken in this direction —

  1. Married couples should be educated to delay the birth of their first child, to space the second with a sufficient interval for proper upbringing and to stop the third. They should also be educated to adopt family planning methods by which they can prevent pregnancy after two children. These include devices for both men and women, for example — Condoms, intrauterine devices (IUD) and oral pills.
  2. The orthodox view, to have at least one son especially in Indian society, should be modified with education. People should be educated that their greed for a son can lead to numerous children in the household which would worsen both their family's health and wealth. They should focus on proper upbringing of the child, be it a son or a daughter.

Question 6

What is the idea behind the phrase "population explosion"?

Answer

Population explosion refers to the rapid and massive rise in the world population that has occurred over the last few hundred years. It began in the middle of the nineteenth century. Two-thirds of the present world population belongs to the developing nations where more than half the people live below the poverty line. The effects of this population increase are evident in increasing poverty, unemployment, air and water pollution, and shortage of food, health resources, and educational resources. Some of the reasons for this population explosion are poverty, lack of family planning knowledge, certain superstitions, better medical facilities, and immigration from the neighbouring countries. For developing countries like India, population explosion is a curse and is damaging the development of the country and its society.

Structured / Application / Skill Type

Question 1

Given below are hypothetical figures in regard to population (in crores) of two countries A and B during the last three decades.

Country197119811991
A6.49.610.6
B15.715.715.3

Fill in the blanks:

(a) Rate of growth of population of country .................. has declined between years ................ and ................

(b) The country ................... shows negative population growth between years ................... and ...................

(c) The country .................... shows zero population growth between years ................. and ....................

Answer

(a) Rate of growth of population of country B has declined between years 1981 and 1991

(b) The country B shows negative population growth between years 1981 and 1991

(c) The country B shows zero population growth between years 1971 and 1981.

Question 2

Observe the diagrams (A) and (B) given below and answer the following questions.

Observe the diagrams (A) and (B) given below and answer the following questions. Label the parts 1 to 5. What does figure A depict? What does figure B depict? Comment on P and Q. Mention one function each of part 2 and 4. Population Increasing Numbers Rising Problems, Concise Biology Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Label the parts 1 to 5.

(b) What does figure A depict?

(c) What does figure B depict?

(d) Comment on P and Q.

(e) Mention one function each of part 2 and 4.

Answer

(a) The parts 1 to 5 are labelled below:

  • 1 → Sperm duct / Vas deferens
  • 2 → Testis / Seminiferous tubule
  • 3 → Oviduct / Fallopian tube
  • 4 → Uterus
  • 5 → Ovary

(b) Figure A depicts Vasectomy

(c) Figure B depicts Tubectomy

(d) P is the cut part of vas deferens while Q is the cut part of the oviduct. A small piece of oviduct in females and vas deferens in males is cut and then the remaining portions are ligated as a part of the contraceptive process of tubectomy and vasectomy respectively.

(e) One function each of part 2 and 4 is mentioned below:

  • Part 2 (Testes) — They produce the sperm cells or sperms by the process of spermatogenesis.
  • Part 4 (Uterus) — It's function is to nourish and house a fertilized egg until the fetus, or offspring, is ready to be delivered.
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