Progress Check 1
Name the three great cultural revolutions that favoured a steep rise in population.
- Tool making revolution
- Agricultural revolution
- Scientific industrial revolution
Mention two areas of medical sciences which have indirectly contributed to high growth in human population.
- Discovery of Antibiotics
- Discovery of Vaccination
Is the present day human population growth following a J-shaped curve or S-shaped curve?
Progress Check 2
Write any six factors which have contributed to a rapid rise of human population in recent times in the world.
Factors which have contributed to a rapid rise of human population in recent times in the world are:
- Better health care
- Fewer deaths due to better medical aids.
- Green revolution minimised food shortages.
- Improved nutrition.
- Large scale immunisation.
- Fewer infant deaths.
Give the approximate figures for the population in India in million at (a) the beginning and (b) the end of twentieth century.
(a) 238 millions
(b) 1027 millions
Progress Check 3
Mention whether the following statements are True or False.
(i) Urbanisation is the enlargement of towns covering a very large area together with modern facilities.
(ii) Rising population is leading to an increased coverage of land for raising forests.
(iii) Coal and iron are inexhaustible resources.
Corrected Statement — Rising population is leading to decreased coverage of land for raising forests.
Corrected Statement — Coal and iron are exhaustible resources.
Fill up the blanks by choosing the right option.
(i) Public conveyances like buses and railways are ............... (necessities/luxuries).
(ii) Many sets of garments per member in a family is ............... (a necessity/fashion).
(iii) Petroleum is a resource of the same category as that of ............... (copper/ground water).
(i) Public conveyances like buses and railways are necessities.
(ii) Many sets of garments per member in a family is fashion.
(iii) Petroleum is a resource of the same category as that of copper.
Progress Check 4
Give the technical terms for the following :
(i) Statistical study of human population.
(ii) Number of deaths per 1000 people per year.
(iii) Number of individuals per sq. km. at any given time.
(iv) Difference between birth rate and death rate.
(ii) Death rate or Mortality
(iii) Birth rate or Natality
(iv) Growth rate of population
List any three consequences of high population density.
Three consequences of high population density are:
- per capita income comes down
- natural resources like land, minerals, wood, fuel, etc decrease.
- general health goes down.
Progress Check 5
List any five major disadvantages of having large families.
Five major disadvantages of having large families are:
- Economic pressure
- Ill health of mother
- Less attention to children
- Poor housing
What are the age restrictions for marriage for boys and girls respectively in India ?
The age restrictions for marriage for boys is 21 years and for girls is 18 years.
What are the three aspects covered under family welfare ?
The three aspects covered under family welfare are:
- Family planning in terms of having a small family.
- Total welfare of the small family, including the diet and nutrition of the child and pregnant mother.
- Subsequent care of the children, like immunisation and oral rehydration therapy, to ensure survival of the young ones
Progress Check 6
State whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F). If false, write the correct word for the one which is wrong.
(i) Some vitamin preparations prevent the release of the egg from the ovary.
(ii) Use of a condom for contraception is a barrier method.
(iii) IUDs prevent implantation of embryo in vagina.
(iv) Tubectomy is performed on females.
Corrected Statement — Some hormones prevent the release of the egg from the ovary.
Corrected Statement — IUDs prevent implantation of embryo in uterus.
Write the full form of MTP. In what circumstances is it recommended?
MTP stands for Medical Termination of Pregnancy.
It is recommended in case of serious genetic disease or if the couple does not want to have the child. It is only permitted within 5 months of pregnancy.
Multiple Choice Type
The statistical study of human population is :
- Population density
- Population growth
- Population explosion
Reason — Demography is the statistical study of human population with reference to size and density, distribution etc.
Surgical method of sterilization in women involves cutting and tying of :
- Fallopian tube
Reason — Surgical method of sterilization in women involves cutting and tying of fallopian tube which does not allow eggs to pass to uterus.
When the number of individuals added to the population exceeds the number of individuals lost, there is :
- Decrease in carrying capacity
- Exponential population growth
- Zero population growth
- Decrease in biotic potential
Exponential population growth
Reason — When the number of individuals added to the population exceeds the number of individuals lost, there is exponential population growth.
The symbol of family welfare is :
- Red circle
- Green triangle
- Red square
- Red inverted triangle
Red inverted triangle
Reason — The symbol of family welfare is a red inverted triangle as shown below:
Death rate is the number of deaths:
- per 1000 people per year
- per 100 people per decade
- per 1000 people per decade
- per 100 people per year
per 1000 people per year
Reason — Death rate is the number of deaths per 1000 of population per year.
What was directly responsible for the rapid rise of world population in the twentieth century ?
- Better education and jobs
- Religious and social customs
- Better healthcare
- Increased food production
Reason — Better healthcare facilities lead to decreased death rate and hence increase in population.
Which of the following is not a non-conventional source of energy ?
- Nuclear energy
- Tidal energy
- Petroleum energy
- Wind energy
Reason — Petroleum energy is a conventional source of energy.
Birth rate is technically termed as :
- Population density
- Carrying capacity
Reason — Birth rate is technically termed as natality.
Which of the following is an exhaustible source of energy ?
- Fossil fuels
- Nuclear energy
- Solar energy
- Wind energy
Reason — Fossil fuels are exhaustible source of energy.
What are the age restrictions for marriage by law for boys and girls in India?
- 18 years, 21 years
- 21 years, 19 years
- 21 years, 18 years
- 18 years, 17 years
21 years, 18 years
Reason — The age restrictions for marriage by law for boys and girls in India is 21 years and 18 years respectively.
Very Short Answer Type
Give the technical term for statistical study of human population of a region.
Name two surgical techniques (one for the human male and another for the human female) that can be used to prevent pregnancy.
- Vasectomy (For Male)
- Tubectomy (For Female)
Short Answer Type
Mention whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F).
(a) Vasectomy is the surgical method of sterilisation in human males.
(b) Tubectomy is the placing of a diaphragm on the cervix.
(c) Cow was the first domesticated animal.
(d) Rapidly growing industries favoured population rise.
(e) Present human population growth is following arithmetic progression.
(f) Birth rate (natality) is the number of live births per hundred people of population per decade.
(g) Tubectomy is a popular surgical method of contraception in human males.
Corrected statement — In tubectomy, fallopian tubes are cut or ligated i.e. tied with nylon thread to close the passage of the egg.
Corrected statement — Dog was the first domesticated animal.
Corrected statement — Present human population growth is following geometrical progression.
Corrected statement — Birth rate (natality) is the number of live births per 1000 people of population per year.
Corrected statement — Vasectomy is a popular surgical method of contraception in human males.
Give two advantages of a small family.
Two advantages of small family are:
- With fewer children, the parents could save enough for the children's education. They can provide the best possible education for their children.
- With fewer family members and less to spend, a small family has better savings for the future. It would help them in building a house, buy a car.
List three major landmarks in human history which contributed to the sudden rise in population of the world.
The three major landmarks in human history which contributed to the sudden rise in population of the world were:
- Tool making revolution.
- Agricultural revolution.
- Scientific industrial revolution.
What is meant by family welfare centres? What is the symbol of family welfare in our country?
The department which plays a significant role in controlling population and is committed to provide advice and help about family planning is known as Family Welfare Centre Department. These places could be any hospitals, dispensaries, etc. The inverted red triangle as shown below is the symbol of family welfare in India.
Sterilisation in men means preventing the flow of sperms into the seminal vesicles by cutting and ligating the vas deferens. Can there be a corresponding operation made in women? If yes, where?
Yes, there could be a corresponding operation made in women. The name of the surgical procedure in females is 'tubectomy'. In tubectomy, the abdomen is opened and the fallopian tubes (oviducts) are cut or ligated i.e. tied with nylon thread to close the passage of the egg. Diagram showing the procedure of tubectomy is shown below:
Write the full forms of the following abbreviations:
(a) IUDs — Intra-Uterine Devices
(b) MTP — Medical Termination of Pregnancy
Explain briefly the relationship between poverty and population and how one affects the other.
Poverty and the lack of access to education leads to higher birthrates and overpopulation. Rapid population growth is likely to reduce per capita income growth and well being, which tends to increase poverty. Poverty is believed to be the leading cause of overpopulation. Poverty and population have been closely linked ever since the world faced changes due to the major revolutions. Poverty has its own effects on the population and vice versa. Poverty prevails because of illiteracy and traditional beliefs in the economically weaker strata. Since illiteracy and traditional beliefs prevail in the people from this stratum, they regard children as gift of God and a sign of prosperity. They consider children to be helping hands in increasing the family income, hence they keep producing more children forgetting that their current situation would do no good for the children and they would add more to this already overburdened poverty strata. Hence, the population keeps on rising and so does poverty. As the population increases the quality of life goes down.
Mention two reasons for the rapid increase of population in India.
Two reasons for the rapid increase of population in India are:
- Illiteracy — Most of the rural population which forms the bulk of our society is still illiterate, ignorant and superstitious. They also do not know the functioning of the human reproductive system.
- Traditional Beliefs — Among the people from lower strata of the society, children are regarded as a gift of God and a sign of prosperity. Therefore, they make no effort to avoid pregnancy.
Match the terms given in column A with those in column B.
|Column A||Column B|
|(a) Forest||(i) Arithmetic progression|
|(b) Food||(ii) Geometric progression|
|(c) Population||(iii) Deforestation|
|(d) Coal||(iv) Afforestation|
|(e) Flash floods||(v) Renewable source of energy|
|(vi) Non-renewable source of energy|
|Column A||Column B|
|(a) Forest||(v) Renewable source of energy|
|(b) Food||(i) Arithmetic progression|
|(c) Population||(ii) Geometric progression|
|(d) Coal||(vi) Non-renewable source of energy|
|(e) Flash floods||(iii) Deforestation|
Given below are some sets of paired terms. The first pair indicates the relationship between the two terms. Rewrite and complete the second pair on a similar basis.
(a) Death rate : Mortality :: Birth rate : ...............
(b) Tubectomy : Oviduct :: Vasectomy : ...............
(c) Intrauterine device : Copper-T :: Oral pills: ...............
(d) Barrier method : Diaphragms :: Surgical method : ...............
(e) Cutting down of forests : Deforestation :: Planting more trees: ...............
(a) Death rate : Mortality :: Birth rate : Natality
(b) Tubectomy : Oviduct :: Vasectomy : Vas deferens
(c) Intrauterine device : Copper-T :: Oral pills: Mala-D
(d) Barrier method : Diaphragms :: Surgical method : Tubectomy
(e) Cutting down of forests : Deforestation :: Planting more trees: Afforestation
Define the following terms:
(b) Population density
(e) Growth rate of population
(a) Population — A population is defined as a group of individuals of the same species living and interbreeding within a given area.
(b) Population density — It is the number of individuals per square kilometre (km2) at any given time.
(c) Demography — It is the statistical study of human population specifically with reference to size and density, distribution and other vital statistics.
(d) Resources — Resource is any substance (natural or artificial), energy or organism which is used by humans for their welfare.
(e) Growth rate of population — It is the difference between the birth rate and the death rate. As long as the birth rate exceeds the death rate, the population grows. If the birth rate is lower than the death rate, the population declines.
Distinguish between the following pairs:
(a) Exhaustible and Inexhaustible resources
(b) Conventional and Non-conventional sources of energy
(c) Natality and Mortality
(d) Tubectomy and Vasectomy
(e) Deforestation and Afforestation
(a) Difference between exhaustible and inexhaustible resources —
|Exhaustible resources||Inexhaustible resources|
|Resources which cannot be renewed readily by natural means and are available in finite quantities in nature which can be easily consumed are called exhaustible resources.||Resources which are abundantly available in nature and can be used for unlimited time and cannot be exhausted by humans are called inexhaustible resources.|
|Examples: Coal, petroleum.||Examples: Wind, sun|
(b) Difference between conventional and non-conventional sources of energy —
|Conventional sources of energy||Non-conventional sources of energy|
|Conventional sources of energy are the natural energy resources which are present in a limited quantity and are being used for a long time.||Non-conventional sources of energy are the energy sources which cannot be exhausted easily and are continuously replenished by natural processes.|
|Examples: Coal, petroleum.||Examples: Solar energy, wind energy.|
(c) Difference between natality and mortality:
|The total number of live births per 1000 people of population per year is called birth rate or natality.||The total number of deaths per 1000 people of population per year is called death rate or mortality.|
(d) Difference between tubectomy and vasectomy —
|It is the process which involves cutting or ligating of fallopian tubes by nylon thread to close the passage of egg.||It is the process in which vas deferens from each testes is ligated and a small piece between the two ligatures is removed.|
|It is contraceptive practice in females.||It is contraceptive practice in males.|
(e) Difference between deforestation and afforestation —
|It is the destruction of trees and forests for human habitation and use.||It is the planting of trees in a previously barren environment.|
|It has a detrimental effect on the environment.||It has a beneficial effect on the environment.|
What do you mean by the 3Rs in the context of sustainable development?
The 3Rs in the context of sustainable development are Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.
Reduction of excessive use of natural resources.
Recycling and reuse of resources wherever possible.
More use of renewable resources such as solar energy, wind power,etc.
Our resources cannot keep pace with the rising population. Give three examples in support of this statement.
Three examples which show that our resources cannot keep pace with the rising population are explained below:
- Food — Food is among the most important need for humans. Although humans have been discovering better improved methods of food production still the rate of food production doesn't match the rate of population growth. Production of food rises by arithmetic progression whereas population grows by geometric progression. This indicates that food would be running short for the unchecked rising population.
- Water — Availability of clean and germ-free water for drinking purposes would be more and more scarce with increase in population; the reason would be mainly, the pollution of rivers, ponds, lakes etc.
- Land — Man is bringing more and more land under cultivation and also using up land for building more residential colonies, factories and industries. Usable land would thus become less and less available.
How can the knowledge of the processes of reproduction help people in limiting the size of their families? Give two concrete examples.
It is necessary that the people should be educated about the need to limit the population and about the steps which can be taken in this direction —
- Married couples should be educated to delay the birth of their first child, to space the second with a sufficient interval for proper upbringing and to stop the third. They should also be educated to adopt family planning methods by which they can prevent pregnancy after two children. These include devices for both men and women, for example — Condoms, intrauterine devices (IUD) and oral pills.
- The orthodox view, to have at least one son especially in Indian society, should be modified with education. People should be educated that their greed for a son can lead to numerous children in the household which would worsen both their family's health and wealth. They should focus on proper upbringing of the child, be it a son or a daughter.
What is the idea behind the phrase "population explosion"?
Population explosion refers to the rapid and massive rise in the world population that has occurred over the last few hundred years. It began in the middle of the nineteenth century. Two-thirds of the present world population belongs to the developing nations where more than half the people live below the poverty line. The effects of this population increase are evident in increasing poverty, unemployment, air and water pollution, and shortage of food, health resources, and educational resources. Some of the reasons for this population explosion are poverty, lack of family planning knowledge, certain superstitions, better medical facilities, and immigration from the neighbouring countries. For developing countries like India, population explosion is a curse and is damaging the development of the country and its society.
Structured / Application / Skill Type
Given below are hypothetical figures in regard to population (in crores) of two countries A and B during the last three decades.
Fill in the blanks:
(a) Rate of growth of population of country ............... has declined between years ............... and ............... .
(b) The country ............... shows negative population growth between years ............... and ............... .
(c) The country ............... shows zero population growth between years ............... and ............... .
(a) Rate of growth of population of country B has declined between years 1981 and 1991
(b) The country B shows negative population growth between years 1981 and 1991
(c) The country B shows zero population growth between years 1971 and 1981.
Observe the diagrams (A) and (B) given below and answer the following questions.
(a) Label the parts 1 to 5.
(b) What does figure A depict?
(c) What does figure B depict?
(d) Comment on P and Q.
(e) Mention one function each of part 2 and 4.
(a) The parts 1 to 5 are labelled below:
- 1 → Sperm duct / Vas deferens
- 2 → Testis / Seminiferous tubule
- 3 → Oviduct / Fallopian tube
- 4 → Uterus
- 5 → Ovary
(b) Figure A depicts Vasectomy
(c) Figure B depicts Tubectomy
(d) P is the cut part of vas deferens while Q is the cut part of the oviduct. A small piece of oviduct in females and vas deferens in males is cut and then the remaining portions are ligated as a part of the contraceptive process of tubectomy and vasectomy respectively.
(e) One function each of part 2 and 4 is mentioned below:
- Part 2 (Testes) — They produce the sperm cells or sperms by the process of spermatogenesis.
- Part 4 (Uterus) — It's function is to nourish and house a fertilized egg until the fetus, or offspring, is ready to be delivered.