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Chapter 16

Pollution — A Rising Environmental Problem

Class 10 - Selina Concise Biology Solutions


Multiple Choice Type

(Select the most appropriate option in each case)

Question 1

Which one of the following is an example of pollutant?

  1. A rat entering your kitchen
  2. CO₂ given out by the respiring organism
  3. The heat given out while cooking food
  4. The dust raised during road-cleaning ✓

Question 2

One of the examples of radiation pollutants is

  1. Sulphur dioxide
  2. Ozone
  3. Iodine - 131 ✓
  4. Discarded fused electric bulbs

Question 3

The BS emission norms enforced for the entire country on April 1st 2017 were -

  1. BS III
  2. BS IV ✓
  3. BS V
  4. BS VI

Very Short Answer Type

Question 1

Name the following pollutants:

(i) A pollutant which is mainly responsible for causing acid rain.

(ii) Any two chemicals leading to the formation of ozone holes.

Answer

(i) SO2

(ii) Bromochlorodifluoromethane and chlorofluoromethane.

Question 2

Match the items in column I with the closely related ones in column II.

Column IColumn II
(i) Chlorofluocarbons (CFCs)(a) Global warming
(ii) Flyash(b) Biodegradable
(iii) Cow dung(c) Nuclear radiation pollutant
(iv) CO2 and methane(d) Acid rain
(v) Sulphur dioxide(e) Industrial waste
(vi) Iodine - 131(f) Ozone depletion

Answer

Column IColumn II
(i) Chlorofluocarbons (CFCs)(f) Ozone depletion
(ii) Flyash(e) Industrial Waste
(iii) Cow dung(b) Biodegradable
(iv) CO2 and methane(a) Global Warming
(v) Sulphur dioxide(d) Acid Rain
(vi) Iodine - 131(c) Nuclear Radiation Pollutant

Question 3

Fill in the blanks:

(i) Rubber particles and dust raised by running motor vehicles are examples of .................. pollutants.

(ii) Too frequent exposure to ................ in a medical diagnostic technique may damage chromosomes.

(iii) Thermal power plants give out a lot of ............... waste water.

(iv) Sewage is a liquid waste from .................

Answer

(i) Rubber particles and dust raised by running motor vehicles are examples of vehicular air pollutants.

(ii) Too frequent exposure to X-ray in a medical diagnostic technique may damage chromosomes.

(iii) Thermal power plants give out a lot of hot waste water.

(iv) Sewage is a liquid waste from domestic activities.

Question 4

Identify biodegradable waste from the following: peels of vegetables and fruits, metallic cans, broken plastic toys, broken glass cover, grass, paper, ball point pen refill.

Answer

Biodegradable wastes — peels of vegetables and fruits, grass, paper.

Short Answer Type

Question 1

List two major harmful effects of each of the following:

(i) Rivers contaminated with sewage.

(ii) Too much gaseous exhausts containing CO2 and SO2

(iii) Pesticides such as DDT used in agriculture.

(iv) Prolonged noise such as the one produced by crackers

Answer

(i) Two major harmful effects of Rivers contaminated with sewage are:

  1. Sewage disposed of into rivers cause diseases such as diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, typhoid, and jaundice.
  2. The flora and fauna of rivers, sea and oceans is adversely affected.

(ii) Two major harmful effects of Too much gaseous exhausts containing CO2 and SO2 are:

  1. Excess emissions of CO2 and SO2 will increase the temperature of earth i.e global warming would increase.
  2. SO2 emissions would lead to severe lung and respiratory diseases.

(iii) Two major harmful effects of Pesticides such as DDT used in agriculture are:

  1. Pesticides kill soil microbes which are responsible to recycle the nutrients in the soil.
  2. Pesticides can cause short-term adverse health effects, and can enter the food chain and affect the health of humans as well as animals.

(iv) Two major harmful effects of Prolonged noise such as the one produced by crackers are:

  1. Prolonged exposure to the high decibel noise damages eardrums and can bring permanent hearing impairment.
  2. Interrupts concentration of thought and disturbs peace of mind.

Question 2

List the three major constituents of sewage.

Answer

Three major constituents of sewage are:

  1. Kitchen wastes
  2. Sanitary waste
  3. Waste from agricultural lands

Question 3

What are the common sources of oil spills, and how do they affect sea life.

Answer

The common sources of oil spills are the overturned oil tankers, offshore oil mining and oil refineries.
Oil pollution kills a lot of marine life (fish, birds, etc.) The sea birds and sea animals sometimes get thick, greasy coating on their bodies due to oil spills.

Question 4

Mention any two measures to minimise noise pollution.

Answer

Measures to minimise noise pollution are:

  1. Prohibiting blowing of horns.
  2. Restriction on loud speakers, specially during night.

Question 5

Briefly mention about 'Swachh Bharat Abhiyan'. When was it launched and what are its objectives?

Answer

'Swachh Bharat Abhiyan' is a significant cleanliness campaign started by the Government of India. It was officially launched on 2nd October 2014 with a dream of a clean and hygienic India. It emphasized upon people to neither litter nor let others litter. Millions of people from different sections of the society came forward and joined this mass movement of cleanliness. Following are some objectives of the campaign:

  1. To clean the streets, roads and infrastructure of the country's cities and towns.
  2. To eliminate open defecation through the construction of individual, cluster and community toilets.
  3. To establish accountable mechanisms of monitoring latrine use
  4. To achieve efficient solid and liquid waste management systems.

Descriptive Type

Question 1

Define the following terms:

(a) Pollution

(b) Waste

(c) Air pollution

(d) Oil spills

(e) Pesticides

(f) Sanitary landfills

(g) Noise

Answer

(a) PollutionPollution is the addition of any such constituent to air, water or land which deteriorates the natural quality of the environment.

(b) WasteWaste is any unwanted or undesired material or substance resulting from industrial, commercial mining, and agricultural operations, and from community activities.

(c) Air pollutionAir pollution means degradation of the air quality which harmfully affects the living organisms as well as certain objects.

(d) Oil spillsOil spills are accidental discharges of petroleum in oceans or estuaries.

(e) PesticidesPesticides are substances used to kill, repel, or control certain forms of plant or animal life that are considered to be pests.

(f) Sanitary landfillsSanitary landfills are the places where the wastes are dumped in a ground depression and covered with dirt every day.

(g) NoiseNoise is defined as any unpleasant/loud undesired sound interfering with one's hearing and concentration.

Question 2

Distinguish between the following pairs:

(a) Sewage and effluents

(b) Biodegradable and Non-biodegradable waste

(c) Smoke and smog

Answer

(a) Difference between sewage and effluents —

SewageEffluents
Sewage is the liquid waste from domestic activities.Effluents are the liquid wastes produced by factories.

(b) Difference between biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste —

Biodegradable wasteNon-biodegradable waste
Biodegradable wastes are substances which can be broken down by microorganisms into harmless and non-toxic substances.Non-biodegradable wastes are substances which cannot be broken down by microorganisms.
Examples: Leaves, dung.Examples: Plastic, glass.

(c) Difference between smoke and smog —

SmokeSmog
Smoke contains a lot of particulate pollutants which pollute the air.Smoke mixed with dust particles and small drops of fog is called smog.

Structured / Application / Skill Type

Question 1

A lot of fish are dying near a sea shore. Describe any two possible causes.

Answer

Two possible causes of the death of many fishes near a sea shore can be:

  1. Industrial Waste — Large number of industries produces waste water which contains various types of chemical pollutants. Such wastes are commonly discharged into the rivers. These chemicals cause irritation to the body systems of fish.
  2. Thermal Pollution — Many industries such as thermal power plants, oil refineries, nuclear plants use water for cooling their machinery. This hot waste water may be 8-10°C warmer than the intake water. This hot water is released into the nearby streams, rivers or the sea and causes warming. The sudden fluctuation in the temperature of water kills the fishes and harms the plant life growing in it.

Question 2

Look at the cartoonist's presentation of a kind of pollution given below.

Look at the cartoonists presentation of a kind of pollution given below. Name the kind of pollution. List the sources of pollution. Mention any two harmful effects of this pollution. Pollution A Rising Environmental Problem, Concise Biology Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(i) Name the kind of pollution.

(ii) List the sources of pollution.

(iii) Mention any two harmful effects of this pollution.

Answer

(i) Noise Pollution

(ii) Industrial machines, workshops, trains, automobiles on the streets, jet aircrafts landing and taking off in the air, loud conversation and the radio or television inside houses, the loudspeakers and musical bands in public places, etc.

(iii) Two harmful effects of noise pollution are:

  1. It lowers efficiency of work.
  2. It disturbs sleep and leads to nervous irritability.

Question 3

The following picture depicts a certain phenomenon.

The following picture depicts a certain phenomenon. Name the phenomenon and explain it. Enlist the sources that are responsible for the above mentioned phenomenon. List out the effects of the above phenomenon on humans. Pollution A Rising Environmental Problem, Concise Biology Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(i) Name the phenomenon and explain it.

(ii) Enlist the sources that are responsible for the above mentioned phenomenon.

(iii) List out the effects of the above phenomenon on humans.

Answer

(i) The phenomenon depicted in the picture is Ozone layer depletion. It is a phenomenon in which certain gaseous compounds such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) break down into chlorine atoms which in turn break down ozone (O3) into oxygen (O2) and O.

(ii) The sources responsible for ozone layer depletion are gaseous compounds such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) released from refrigerators, aerosol spray cans and packaging material styrofoam.

(iii) Effects of ozone layer depletion on humans are:

  1. Sun burn
  2. Genetic disorders
  3. Skin cancer

Question 4

The picture below shows a campaign recently started by the Indian Government.

The picture below shows a campaign recently started by the Indian Government. When was this campaign launched? Mention the chief objectives of this campaign. Pollution A Rising Environmental Problem, Concise Biology Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(i) When was this campaign launched ?

(ii) Mention the chief objectives of this campaign.

Answer

(i) This campaign was launched on 2nd October 2014.

(ii) Chief objectives of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan are:

  1. To clean the streets, roads and infrastructure of the country's cities and towns.
  2. To eliminate open defecation through the construction of individual, cluster and community toilets.
  3. To establish accountable mechanisms of monitoring latrine use.
  4. To achieve efficient solid and liquid waste management systems.

Question 5

The figure given below shows a kind of pollution. Study the figure and answer the following questions.

The figure given below shows a kind of pollution. Study the figure and answer the following questions. Define the kind of pollution shown here. Name two types of the kind of pollution shown here. Write two main sources of above mentioned pollution with one example each. Write two points to control the given pollution. Pollution A Rising Environmental Problem, Concise Biology Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Define the kind of pollution shown here.

(b) Name two types of the kind of pollution shown here.

(c) Write two main sources of above mentioned pollution with one example each.

(d) Write two points to control the given pollution.

Answer

(a) Air pollution is shown in the figure. Air pollution means degradation of the air quality which harmfully affects the living organisms as well as certain objects.

(b) Two types of Air pollution are:

  1. Gaseous pollution
  2. Particulate pollution

(c) Gaseous pollution — The exhaust given out by vehicles is the source of gaseous pollution, e.g., cars or vehicles running on petrol or diesel.

Particulate pollution — The smoke released by the factory chimneys into the air are the main sources of particulate pollution, e.g., factory chimneys, brick kilns.

(d) Two ways to control air pollution are:

  1. Use of unleaded petrol and CNG in automobiles.
  2. Installation of tall chimneys in factories and fitting them with filters and electrostatic precipitators.

Question 6

Study the figure shown here and answer the following questions.

Study the figure shown here and answer the following questions. Identify the kind of pollution and define it. Mention four main sources of the pollution. Write two harmful effects of the above-mentioned pollution for the living organisms. Pollution A Rising Environmental Problem, Concise Biology Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Identify the kind of pollution and define it.

(b) Mention four main sources of the pollution.

(c) Write two harmful effects of the above-mentioned pollution for the living organisms.

Answer

(a) Acid rain. Gases such as CO2, SO2 and oxides of nitrogen get dissolved in rain drops falling on the earth as rain. This constitutes acid rain.

(b) Four main sources of acid rain are:

  1. Exhaust from vehicles contains CO2, SO2 and CO.
  2. Smoke released by factory chimneys contain CO2, SO2 and oxides of nitrogen.
  3. Burning of garbage releases CO2 and other harmful gases.
  4. Brick kilns produce ash which mixes with air to contribute to acid rain.

(c) Two harmful effects of acid rain on the living organisms are:

  1. Damage to vegetation by pollution of the soil.
  2. Fish and other aquatic organisms are harmed due to increased acidity of water in lakes and rivers.
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