Answer the following questions
Name one state in North and one in South India where sugarcane is grown extensively.
In North India, sugarcane is grown extensively in Uttar Pradesh and in South India, sugarcane is grown extensively in Tamil Nadu.
Why is the sugarcane production increasing in Maharashtra?
Sugarcane production is increasing in Maharashtra because Maharashtra has a longer harvesting season and better quality of crop owing to the favourable maritime climate free from the effects of summer loo and winter frost, sufficient irrigation and new farming techniques.
Explain briefly the Sett method of planting sugarcane.
In Sett method, new canes are usually planted by taking cuttings from the old plants. These cuttings, known as setts, quickly become established and after a few days buds sprout to form new stalks. Four to five stalks grow from each cutting. The sugarcane takes anything from 8 months to a year to mature.
What is Ratooning? State two advantages of Ratooning.
Ratooning is a method of cultivation of sugarcane. In this method, during the first harvest, the sugarcane is cut leaving a little bit of the stalk in the soil with the roots. The stalk soon puts out new shoots or ratoons. The second or any other successive crop obtained from the roots of the leftover crop is called ratoon.
Two advantages of ratooning are-
- Crop need not be planted again, it saves labour.
- The ratoon matures early.
How does heavy rainfall affect the quality of sugarcane?
Heavy rainfall affects the quality of sugarcane adversely as the sucrose content decreases if heavy rains continue for long.
Why does the cultivation of sugarcane require cheap labour?
The cultivation of sugarcane requires plenty of cheap labour as most of the work is done by hand. The crop is cut by hand using a long curved knife.
Why do the stalks of sugarcane need to be cut as near as possible to the ground?
The stalks of sugarcane need to be cut as near as possible to the ground because the greatest accumulation of sucrose is in the base of the stem.
State any three problems faced by sugarcane cultivators.
Three problems faced by sugarcane cultivators are-
- Sugarcane is a soil exhausting crop and therefore, the cost of fertilizers increases the cost of production.
- It requires high input of irrigation means.
- The cost of transport increases the cost of production.
What extra care needs to be taken for soil health when sugarcane is cultivated?
Extra care needs to be taken for soil health when sugarcane is cultivated because sugarcane exhausts the fertility of the soil. Hence, the soil is supplemented with manures and nitrogenous fertilizers.
Mention the climate that is suitable for sugarcane cultivation.
The climate that is suitable for sugarcane cultivation is as follows-
- Temperature — Sugarcane grows best in areas with 20°C to 26°C temperature. Frost is fatal for the crop. Short cool dry winter season during ripening and harvesting is ideal.
- Rainfall — Sugarcane grows well in tropical regions with 100-150 cm of rainfall well distributed throughout the year. Irrigation is necessary in areas with lower rainfall or even in areas of higher rainfall during the long dry spells.
What advantage does South India have over the North with reference to sugarcane cultivation?
South India has a higher yield per hectare of sugarcane because of a longer harvesting season and better quality of crop owing to the favourable maritime climate free from the effects of summer loo and winter frost, sufficient irrigation and new farming techniques.
Mention two different ways in which sugarcane is propagated.
Two different ways in which sugarcane is propagated are-
- Sett method
What conditions of temperature and rainfall favour the growth of groundnut?
The climatic conditions that favour the growth of groundnut are-
- Temperature — Groundnut requires about 20°C to 25°C temperature. Dry weather is needed during the time of ripening.
- Rainfall — It requires light to moderate rainfall between 50 to 100 cm. Rainfall should be well distributed.
Which two states in India are the leading producers of groundnut? Why is groundnut mostly grown in Peninsular India?
Gujarat and Tami Nadu in India are the leading producers of groundnut.
Groundnut is mostly grown in Peninsular India because the red, yellow and black cotton soils of Peninsular India suit it well. Such light soils are essential as the nut ripens in the soil.
Give three uses of groundnut.
Three uses of groundnut are-
- It is used for the manufacture of hydrogenated oil.
- It is used for making margarine, medical emulsions and soap.
- Groundnut oil is used as a cooking medium and the nuts are eaten raw, roasted, salted or sweetened.
What is the residue after crushing oilseeds called? Give two of its uses.
The residue after crushing oilseeds is called oilcake.
Oilcake is used as a fodder for animals and also serves a good manure in the fields.
Name any two oilseeds grown in India. Which oilseed is grown as a rainfed crop?
Two oilseeds grown in India are groundnut and linseed.
Groundnut is grown as a rainfed crop.
State the conditions of temperature and rainfall necessary for the growth of mustard.
The climatic conditions necessary for the growth of mustard are-
- Temperature — Mustard grows best in cool climate. Ideal temperature ranges from 10°C to 20°C.
- Rainfall — The crop requires rainfall varying between 25 to 40 cm.
(i) Which soil type favours the growth of mustard? Name an area where it grows.
(ii) Mention two uses of mustard.
(i) Mustard can be grown on loams but slightly heavier soils are preferred.
Mustard is widely grown in the Sutlej-Ganga plain.
(ii) Two uses of mustard are-
- Its seeds are crushed for edible oil.
- The oilcake of mustard is an important cattle feed.
Mention the climatic conditions necessary to grow soya bean. State two uses of soya bean.
The climatic conditions necessary to grow soya bean are-
- Temperature — Soyabean requires temperature in the range of 13°C to 24°C. Temperature above 13°C is necessary for the normal growth of soyabean.
- Rainfall — It grows in regions with 40 cm to 60 cm rainfall. The rainfall should be well distributed throughout the growing season.
Two uses of Soyabean are-
- It is eaten as vegetable or made into soya sauce.
- Due to its high protein content, it is consumed as soya milk or tofu (cheese) as a substitute for animal protein.