Answer the following questions
What are fibre crops? Give two examples of plant fibre crops.
Fibre crops are crops that are primarily grown for obtaining fibre. The fibre is traditionally used to make paper, cloth, or rope.
Two fibre crops are cotton and jute.
What conditions of soil favour the growth of cotton? Why?
Cotton grows well in the well-drained clayey soils containing lime and phosphates. The deep and medium black soils are considered ideal for cotton cultivation since black soil has a high level of clay and good water holding capacity that makes it suitable for the growth of cotton.
Since cotton crops exhaust the fertility of soil rapidly, regular application of manures and fertilizers to the soil is necessary.
(i) Name the two chief cotton-growing areas in India.
(ii) Which climatic conditions favour the cultivation of cotton?
(i) Two chief cotton-growing areas in India are-
- The north western Deccan on the fertile Black cotton soil
- The central and southern Deccan of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu
(ii) The climatic conditions that favour the cultivation of cotton are:
- Temperature — Cotton requires uniformly high temperatures between 21°C and 30°C. A long growing period of at least 200 frost-free days is required for the plant to mature.
- Rainfall — Rainfall should be moderate, ranging between 50 to 75 cm. Sufficient rainfall is required during the early stages of the growth, but a sunny and dry weather is required after flowering.
(i) How is frost harmful for the growth of cotton plant?
(ii) Why is dry weather necessary at the time of harvesting cotton?
(i) The cotton plant is extremely sensitive to frost and late spring or early autumn frosts can kill the plant and destroy the crop. The soil temperature below 20°C reduces root growth thus retarding plant growth.
(ii) Dry weather is necessary at the time of harvesting cotton as rainfall during boll-opening and harvesting periods is harmful for the plants as it makes them vulnerable to pests and diseases.
What advantages does Long Staple Cotton have?
The advantages of Long Staple Cotton is that the longer the cotton fiber, the stronger, softer, and more durable the resulting fabric. Long staple cotton is long, fine and shiny. It is used for making fine and superior quality cloth.
Fabrics made of long-staple cottons fray less, pill less, wrinkle less, and even fade less than fabrics made with their short-staple counterparts.
Why Gujarat and Maharashtra are the leading producers of Cotton?
Gujarat and Maharashtra are the leading producers of Cotton because the moist climate of both the states is well suited for cotton cultivation and the temperature is ideal for the cotton industries as the cotton threads tend to break in dry climate while they rarely break in moist and humid climate.
Describe the process or stages in Ginning of Cotton.
The stages in Ginning of Cotton are-
- The cotton first goes through the dryers to reduce moisture content.
- Then, it goes through the cleaning equipment to remove foreign matter.
- The cotton is then air conveyed to gin stands where its circular saws pull the lint through closely spaced ribs that prevent the seed from passing through.
- The lint is removed from the saw teeth by rotating brushes and then compressed into bales.
What are the problems associated with the growing of cotton?
The problems associated with the growing of cotton are-
- Lack of financial facility
- Shortage of labour
- Inadequate water supply
- Severity of diseases
- Lack of technology
- High cost of inputs
- Low quality of fertilizers and pesticides
- Poor quality of seeds
State the soil conditions that favour the growth of jute.
Jute grows best on the soil enriched by new alluvium brought by river inundation. Loamy soils are most suitable for jute production as the clay particles of loam help to hold the plant nutrients preventing them from getting washed away by water.
The clayey soil gives the heaviest yield. Sandy soils produce coarse fibres.
In what way is Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta suitable for jute cultivation?
Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta has loamy soil which is most suitable for jute production as the clay particles of loam help to hold the plant nutrients preventing them from getting washed away by water.
(i) Why is jute retted?
(ii) How is this done?
(i) Jute is retted because retting softens the outer bark and facilitates the early removal of the fibre within.
(ii) Retting was once done by submerging the jute into ponds and streams but is now done in special tanks. Chemical additives help in the retting operation.
Describe briefly the processing of jute.
Jute is harvested by hand, by pulling up the stem. It is dried and striped of unwanted leaves and is put in water and allowed to rot. This process is known as retting.
Retting was once done by submerging the jute into ponds and streams but is now done in special tanks. Chemical additives help in the retting operation.
The fleshy part of the stem is eventually decomposed and the fibres are then scraped to remove any remaining pieces of soft vegetable matter. After drying, the fibres are loosely spun and woven, and are used in making sacks and bags, carpet, upholstery, etc.
Why is mesta an inferior substitute for jute? Where is it grown?
Mesta is an inferior substitute for jute as the fibre is more coarse and not as strong as jute fibre.
Mesta is cultivated in some parts of Assam, Bihar, Odisha and Kerala.
By what other name is jute referred to? Why?
Jute is also called 'Golden fibre' as it provides huge revenue to the government.
(i) Why are floods beneficial for the growth of jute?
(ii) Mention one advantage and one disadvantage of delay in jute harvest.
(i) Floods are beneficial for the growth of jute because plenty of water is needed for the process of retting and a new soil cover is available.
(ii) One advantage of delay in jute harvest is that it adds to the yield and one disadvantage of delay in jute harvest is that it usually produces coarse fibre.
State any three uses of jute.
Three uses of jute are-
- It is used for manufacturing rough quality cloth, sacks and other packaging material.
- It is used for making many utility products like carpets, rugs, etc.
- It provides a huge revenue to the government.
State any two conditions that favour the growth of tea in the Nilgiris.
Two conditions that favour the growth of tea in the Nilgiris are-
- The slopes protect the crop from annual inundations and stagnant water during the rains.
- The high altitude provides the required climatic conditions- temperature ranging from 24°C to 30°C and annual rainfall of atleast 150 cm, well distributed throughout the year.
State the advantages of growing tea plants on hill slopes.
Tea plantations require even distribution of water without any water logging. Hill slopes provide proper drainage and prevents water logging problems. This is the reason why tea plantations are usually grown on hill slopes.
(i) Name the different varieties of tea grown in India.
(ii) Why is blending necessary for tea?
(i) The different varieties of tea grown in India are-
- Black tea
- Green tea
- Oolong tea
- Brick tea
(ii) Blending is necessary for tea to give it a special aroma and make many proprietary brands.
(i) Name the leading producer of tea in India. State two factors that have helped it to become the leading state in tea production.
(ii) Define the following terms:
- Clonal Planting
(i) Assam is the leading producer of tea in India.
Two factors that have helped Assam to become the leading state in tea production are-
- No stagnant water due to hilly terrain
- Availability of cheap labor
(ii) The definitions of Clonal Planting & Pruning are given below:
- Clonal Planting — Tea shrubs can be grown in nurseries from cuttings of high yielding varieties. This is known as clonal planting.
- Pruning — Pruning means plucking of tea leaves. Frequent pruning encourages the rapid production of fresh leaves and shoots. Pruning of tea bush starts after two years in order to maintain the height and diameter of the plant limited to one metre.
Give two climatic factors that favour the cultivation of coffee.
Two climatic factors that favour the cultivation of coffee are-
- Temperature — Coffee plant requires warm climate with temperature ranging from 15°C to 28°C and a moderate supply of moisture.
- Rainfall — During the period of growth, the plant requires 150 - 200 cm of annual rainfall.
Name the three varieties of coffee plants grown on commercial scale in India. Name one state where coffee is grown extensively.
The three varieties of coffee plants grown on commercial scale in India are-
- Coffee Robusta
- Coffee Liberica
- Coffee Arabica
Coffee is grown extensively in Karnataka.
Describe briefly the Dry Parchment method of processing of coffee.
In the Dry Parchment method of processing of coffee, the following process is followed-
- The harvested cherries are sorted and cleaned to separate the unripe, overripe and damaged cherries and remove dirt, soil, twigs and leaves.
- The coffee cherries are then spread out in the sun to dry.
- The beans are then fermented by drying in the sun for a week.
- After drying, the machines peel off the two layers of inner husks.
- They are sorted according to size and quality and then packed in sacks for use.
- The beans are roasted at temperatures of about 99°C and then grounded into coffee powder which is used to make beverage. Roasting gives it brown colour and characteristic aroma and taste.
Give a geographical reason for each of the following:
(i) Coffee is grown on the slopes of the hills in Peninsular India.
(ii) Coffee estates have coffee inter-planted with orange trees, cardamom and pepper vines.
(iii) Tea bushes are pruned at regular intervals.
(i) Coffee is grown on the slopes of the hills in Peninsular India to avoid water logging and to supply even water to the plants. Soils are also fertile in this area with sufficient amount of rainfall of about 150 cm on average, necessary for the growth of coffee plantations.
(ii) Coffee plant is susceptible to direct sunrays. So, Coffee estates have coffee inter-planted with orange trees, cardamom and pepper vines to provide shade to the coffee plant and at the same time generate extra income for the farmers.
(iii) Tea bushes are pruned at regular interval to maintain the height and diameter of the plant limited to one metre. Frequent pruning encourages the rapid production of fresh leaves and shoots.