Choose the correct option
India is one of the top ............... industrialised countries.
The products of agro-based industries mostly consist of ............... .
- consumer goods
- medicinal goods
............... industries are also known as household industries.
Iron and steel industry and petroleum industry are the ............... industries.
............... are the industries which provide public utility based services.
- Basic Industries
- Cooperative Industries
- Ancillary Industries
- Tertiary Industries
Railways, Banking, Post and Telegraph industries are ............... industries.
............... is used for producing steam which is used as a source of power for sugar industry.
- Press mud
............... are used for the distillation of liquor and to produce some chemicals and synthetic rubber.
- Press mud
Which of the following is a by-product of sugar industry used for making cardboard, paper and insulation boards?
- Press mud
- All of the above.
Name the by-product of sugar industry used for making wax, carbon paper and shoe polish.
- Press mud
Which of the following cities account for nearly half of India's cotton mill cloth manufactured?
- Jaipur and Kanpur
- Ahmedabad and Mumbai
- Coimbatore and Chennai
- Panipat and Kolkata
Ahmedabad and Mumbai
The rearing of silkworm for silk production is called ............... .
Give the difference between the following
Micro Enterprise and Medium Enterprise
|In these enterprises, the investment in plant and machinery or equipment does not exceed one crore rupees.
|In these enterprises, the investment in plant and machinery or equipment does not exceed fifty crore rupees.
|Annual turnover does not exceed five crore rupees.
|Annual turnover does not exceed two hundred and fifty crore rupees.
Heavy and Light industries
|These industries produce capital goods and consumer durables which are quite bulky.
|These industries produce goods which are light in weight like cycles, sewing machines etc.
|They require huge capital, large quantity of raw material, scientific knowledge, sophisticated machinery, etc.
|They require less capital and less number of workers than the heavy industries.
Basic and Secondary industries
|These industries form the core industries on which other industries depend for their manufacturing.
|These industries process the basic raw materials into primary goods for direct use by the consumers.
|For example, iron and steel industry, petroleum industry.
|For example, textiles, sugar, paper making etc.
Answer the following questions
What is the difference between Agro-based and Mineral-based industry?
|This group of industries depends on the raw material produced by the agricultural sector.
|These industries use minerals, both metallic and non-metallic, as raw material.
|For example- cotton, jute and textile industries, sugar industry, tea industry, coffee industry, etc.
|For example- iron and steel, heavy engineering and machine tool, cement, basic and light chemicals, fertilisers, etc.
Classify industries on the basis of the nature of products. Give one example of each.
On the basis of the nature of products, industries can be classified as-
- Heavy industries like ship building industry.
- Light industries like electronic goods industry.
Give a geographical reason for each of the following:
(i) Sugar mills are located close to sugarcane growing areas.
(ii) Mumbai is known as the 'Cottonopolis of India'.
(iii) The silk industry has a small market.
(i) Sugar mills are located close to sugarcane growing areas because sugarcane is a weight losing crop, i.e., its sucrose content goes on decreasing with time. Therefore, it is necessary to crush sugarcane within 24 hours of harvesting.
(ii) Mumbai is known as the 'Cottonpolis of India' because Mumbai has become the most important centre of cotton textile in the country due to reasons like proximity to raw materials, favourable climatic conditions, good transport and port facilities, enough labour force, adequate capital, power and a huge market for cotton textiles.
(iii) The silk industry has a small market because silk industry faces competition from artificial silk which is cheaper and better in quality. Moreover, the changes in prices of raw silk badly affect both the weavers and the silk industry.
(i) Mention two advantages of setting up a small scale industry.
(ii) Give two points of difference between a public sector and a private sector industry.
(i) Two advantages of setting up a small scale industry are-
- Less capital is required.
- These industries make use of indigenous raw material.
(ii) The differences are-
|These industries are owned and managed by the Central Government or the State Government. They include public utility industries like railways, post & telegraph, oil refineries, heavy engineering industries, defence establishments, etc.
|These industries are owned and managed by an individual or group of individuals.
|For example, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL), etc.
|For example, Reliance Industries Limited (RIL), Infosys, etc.
Name two by-products of the sugar industry. Give one use of each.
Two by-products of the sugar industry are-
- Bagasse, the leftover cane after crushing, is used for producing steam which is used as a source of power for sugar industry.
- Press mud is used for making wax, carbon paper and shoe polish.
Why is the sugar industry highly dispersed in India?
The sugar industry is highly dispersed in India because sugarcane is cultivated throughout the country. Hence, sugarcane industries are spread in the country near to the sugarcane fields.
Also, the area under sugarcane cultivation is limited due to the pressure of food crops. Thus, the sugar factories are highly dispersed even in areas which have large percentage of land under sugarcane cultivation.
Give a geographical reason for each of the following:
(i) India produces very little cane-sugar though it is one of the largest producers of sugarcane in the world.
(ii) Higher output of sugar in South India.
(iii) Sericulture flourishes in Karnataka.
(i) India produces very little cane sugar though it is one of the largest producer of sugarcane in the world because the quality of sugarcane produced in the country is low. Besides, most people in rural areas prefer to use 'gur' and 'khandasari' instead of white sugar. So much of sugarcane that is grown is used for making 'gur' and 'khandasari'.
(ii) There is higher output of sugar in South India because the yield per hectare is high is southern India. The sucrose content in sugarcane is high in southern India as compared to that in northern India. Moreover, the southern states have installed new mills where productivity is high and cost of production is low.
(iii) Sericulture flourishes in Karnataka because Karnataka has favourable climate for rearing silkworms. Karnataka has established nurseries, silk farms and has licensed seed distributors to promote Sericulture.
Give three important reasons which have made Maharashtra the leading producer of sugar in India.
Three important reasons which have made Maharashtra the leading producer of sugar in India are-
- The maritime climate of Maharashtra is ideal for the cultivation of sugarcane.
- Availability of excellent transport facilities in relation to export markets.
- The sugarcane farms are managed by co-operative societies which have access to better facilities like better seeds, fertilisers, irrigation etc.
Mention any two features of the cotton textile industry in India.
Two features of the cotton textile industry in India are-
- Cotton textile industry directly or indirectly supports more than nearly 40% of the country's labour force.
- It is the oldest and the largest industry which is found in almost all the states of India.
Why have Mumbai and Ahmedabad emerged as the important cotton manufacturing centres?
Mumbai and Ahmedabad have emerged as the important cotton manufacturing centres because of the following reasons-
- Climatic conditions — The humid coastal climate favours the textile making without breaking the thread.
- Transport facilities — These states are well connected through rail and road links with cotton growing areas of Maharashtra and Gujarat and also through sea routes with the foreign markets.
- Proximity to raw material — The supply of raw cotton for the mills is supplied by the cotton producing areas of the Deccan Plateau that lie close to these mills.
- Port Facilities — Good port facilities facilitate import of capital goods, chemicals etc. and the export of finished goods.
- Labour — The states have enough labour force from within or nearby states.
- Capital — Both the states have easy access to capital and financial resources.
- Power — Power is supplied in Mumbai by the Tata Hydroelectric system while Ahmedabad gets its power from Ukai and Kakrapara hydroelectric projects.
- Market — There is a huge market for the cotton cloth in these states and in the southern states of the country because of the hot climate which prevails in these areas.
State any three problems faced by the cotton industry in India.
Three problems faced by the cotton industry in India are-
- Shortage of Raw Material — There is a shortage of raw material, particularly of long staple cotton.
- Shortage of Power — The mills are facing acute shortage of power. This leads to loss of man hours, low productivity and loss in the mills.
- Sick Industrial Units — The industry faces constant threat of sickness and consequent closure. These sick units require heavy financial investments for replacement and modernisation purposes.
What is sericulture? State any two problems faced by the silk industry.
The rearing of Silkworms for Silk production is known as Sericulture.
Two problems faced by the silk industry are-
- Competition from artificial silk which is cheaper and better in quality.
- The changes in prices of raw silk badly affect both the weavers and the silk industry.
State any two geographical features favourable for setting an industry.
Two geographical features favourable for setting an industry are-
- Raw materials — The location of the industry is guided by the availability of raw material in a particular area.
- Transport — Good transport facilities are required to carry raw materials to the manufacturing units and finished products to the market.
Name two major silk producing centres in Karnataka and West Bengal.
Two major silk producing centres in Karnataka are Bengaluru and Mysore.
Two major silk producing centres in West Bengal are Malda and Murshidabad.
Give a geographical reason for each of the following:
(i) Sugarcane is a weight losing commodity.
(ii) Uttar Pradesh has been relegated to second place in terms of sugar production.
(iii) Ahmedabad is known as the 'Manchester of India'.
(i) Sugarcane is a weight losing commodity because its sucrose content goes on decreasing with time. Therefore, it is necessary to crush sugarcane within 24 hours of harvesting.
(ii) Uttar Pradesh has been relegated to second place in terms of sugar production because of old mills, management and labour problems and shorter crushing period.
(iii) Ahmedabad is known as the 'Manchester of India' because it is the second largest cotton manufacturing city in India.
(i) Name the state having the largest production of non-mulberry silk.
(ii) Name the type of silk available in these states: Assam and Bihar.
(i) Assam is the largest producer of non-mulberry silk in the country.
(ii) Assam provides non-mulberry silk (tasar, eri and muga). Assam is also the only muga producing region of the country. Bihar provides tasar silk.
Ramesh lived in a town far away from the city. He inherited a fortune from his uncle and started an agro-based manufacturing unit in his town. His manufacturing plant had all the modern equipment and produced quality products. Still his unit ran into losses. What could be the reasons for it?
Possible reasons for Ramesh's agro-based manufacturing unit running into losses despite having modern equipment and producing quality products could be:
- Insufficient Market Demand — The products may not have had enough demand in the market, leading to low sales and revenue.
- Distance from city — As Ramesh's manufacturing unit is located far away from the city and the market for his products maybe mainly in the cities so he might be incurring high transportation costs due to which his unit ran into losses.
- Intense Competition — Strong competition from established players in the industry could have made it challenging for Ramesh's unit to gain market share.
- High Cost Structure — Inefficient cost management, including high production costs and overhead expenses, could have impacted profitability.
Your cousin who lives in Lakhimpur Kheri in Uttar Pradesh wants to start a sugar mill. He wants you to advice him on the feasibility of starting a sugar mill in the area, based on the location, availability of resources, transport and market for selling the manufactured products. What would you suggest to your cousin?
To assess the feasibility of starting a sugar mill in Lakhimpur Kheri, Uttar Pradesh, I would suggest the following:
- Location Advantage — Lakhimpur Kheri is known for its sugarcane cultivation, making it a favorable location for a sugar mill due to proximity to the raw material source.
- Availability of Resources — The area has abundant supply of raw material for the mill. Additionally, availability of water, electricity, and skilled labour should be considered.
- Transport Infrastructure — Evaluate the existing transport infrastructure to ensure smooth transportation of sugarcane and manufactured products to the market.
- Market Potential — Assess the demand and competition in the sugar industry. Consider factors like pricing, customer preferences and potential buyers.
- Government Policies and Support — Research the government policies, subsidies, and incentives available for the sugar industry in Uttar Pradesh.
- Financial Viability — Conduct a thorough financial analysis to determine initial setup costs, working capital requirements and profitability margins.
- Risk Assessment — Evaluate potential risks such as fluctuations in sugarcane prices, changes in government policies, market volatility, and environmental factors like weather conditions affecting crop yields.