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Chapter 9

Natural Vegetation

Class 10 - Total Geography Morning Star


Answer the following questions

Question 1(a)

What is meant by natural vegetation?

Answer

Natural vegetation refers to the plant community which has grown naturally without any human assistance and has not been disturbed over a long time, so as to allow its individual species to adjust themselves fully to the climate and soil conditions.

Question 1(b)

Give two points of difference between vegetation and forests.

Answer

VegetationForests
Vegetation refers to the assemblage of plant species living in association with each other in a given environmental set-up.Forest refers to a large tract of land covered with trees and accompanying undergrowth of shrubs, herbs and sustaining thousands of life forms.
Vegetation includes only plant species.Forests sustain both plant and animals.

Question 1(c)

(i) Name one area where tropical rain forests are found.

(ii) Mention two main characteristics of tropical rain forests.

Answer

(i) Tropical rain forests are found on the western slopes of the Western Ghats.

(ii) Two main characteristics of tropical rain forests are-

  1. Trees reach great heights of more than 60 m.
  2. Since this region remains warm and wet throughout the year, it has a luxuriant vegetation of all kinds- trees, shrubs and creepers which give it a multi-layered structure.

Question 1(d)

Give a geographical reason for each of the following:

(i) The Western Ghats are covered with thick evergreen forests while the Eastern Ghats are coven by deciduous forests.

(ii) Tropical evergreen forests have tall trees and appear green all the year round.

(iii) Deciduous forests are commercially most exploited.

Answer

(i) Evergreen forests are found in areas of high temperature, having high annual rainfall. Western Ghats receive more than 200 cms. of annual rainfall with an average annual temperature between 25°C and 27°C. Similarly, deciduous forests are found in areas with moderate rainfall and the eastern ghats receive annual rainfall between 100 cm and 200 cm with mean annual temperature range of 24°C and 27°C. Hence, the Western Ghats are covered with thick evergreen forests while the Eastern Ghats are coven by deciduous forests.

(ii) Tropical evergreen forests have tall trees as this region remains warm and wet throughout the year. Since the trees do not have a fixed time to shed their leaves, to flower or for fruition, the forest appears green all the year round.

(iii) Deciduous forests are commercially most exploited because besides providing valuable timber, they provide various other valuable products, like sandalwood, which are in great demand in India and abroad.

Question 2(a)

Give two points of difference between Tropical Evergreen and Tropical Deciduous Forests.

Answer

Tropical Evergreen ForestsTropical Deciduous Forests
Tropical Evergreen forests are found in areas which receive more than 200 cms. of annual rainfall.Tropical Deciduous Forests are found in areas which receive annual rainfall between 100 cm and 200 cm.
Trees in tropical evergreen forests do not shed their leaves.Tress in deciduous forests shed their leaves from six to eight weeks during spring and early summer.

Question 2(b)

What are the climatic conditions under which Tropical Evergreen Forests develop?

Answer

The climatic conditions under which Tropical Evergreen Forests develop are-

  1. Annual rainfall of more than 200 cm
  2. Average annual temperature between 25°C and 27°C
  3. Average annual humidity exceeds 77 percent

Question 2(c)

(i) What are the characteristic features of deciduous forests?

(ii) Name the two types of deciduous forests.

Answer

(i) The characteristic features of deciduous forests are-

  1. The trees in these forests shed their leaves from six to eight weeks during spring and early summer.
  2. A particular species can be found over a large area.
  3. They are commercially most exploited.

(ii) The two types of deciduous forests are-

  1. Moist Deciduous Forests
  2. Dry Deciduous Forests

Question 2(d)

Give a geographical reason for each of the following:

(i) Tropical Evergreen Forests are difficult to exploit for commercial purposes.

(ii) Delta area of river Ganga is called Sunderbans.

(iii) Forests are grown in and around the cities having Iron and Steel Industries, and Thermal Power Plants.

Answer

(i) Tropical Evergreen Forests are difficult to exploit for commercial purposes because of the tangled mass of canes, palms, bamboos, ferns and climbers along with the lack of means of transport.

(ii) Delta area of river Ganga is called Sunderbans because the forests in this area have sundari trees.

(iii) Forests are grown in and around the cities having Iron and Steel Industries, and Thermal Power Plants because the level of pollution is much higher in areas where industries are located and forests prevent pollution and act as a barrier for the dust and purify the air.

Question 3(a)

Mention the areas where Tropical Desert Vegetation thrives.

Answer

Tropical Desert Vegetation thrives in south-western Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, central and eastern Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

Question 3(b)

Under what climatic conditions do Littoral forests develop?

Answer

These forests thrive in areas where temperature remains between 26°C to 29°C and the rainfall is not more than 200 cm.

Question 3(c)

(i) State two characteristic features of tropical desert vegetation. Name two typical trees found here.

(ii) Why tropical deserts have stunted trees.

Answer

(i) Two characteristic features of tropical desert vegetation are-

  1. These forests have Xerophytic vegetation. Due to paucity of rainfall, the trees are stunted with large patches of coarse grasses.
  2. Plants remain leafless for most part of the year and look like scrub vegetation.

Two typical trees found here are babool and date palm.

(ii) Tropical deserts have stunted trees due to paucity of rainfall.

Question 3(d)

Give a geographical reason for each of the following:

(i) The forest area has greatly depleted in India.

(ii) The Tropical Evergreen forests are found on the western slope of the Western Ghats.

(iii) Acacia has long roots.

Answer

(i) The forest area has greatly depleted in India as forests have been cleared for the purpose of cultivation. Timber has become an important commercial resource. Rapid industrialization, urbanisation and expansion of cities has also led to the destruction of forest cover in the country.

(ii) The Tropical Evergreen forests are found on the western slope of the Western Ghats because evergreen forests are found in areas of high temperature and high annual rainfall. Western Ghats receive more than 200 cms. of annual rainfall with an average annual temperature between 25°C and 27°C.

(iii) Acacia has long roots so that the roots can reach deep, ground water resources and therefore, survive drought like conditions.

Question 4(a)

What are 'Tidal forests'? Name two typical trees found there.

Answer

Tidal forests are one of the most specialised tropical natural vegetation types. India has a variety of wetlands habitats. These lands are between terrestrial and aquatic system where the water table is usually at or near the surface of land.

Two typical trees found here are Keora and Amur.

Question 4(b)

Name the type of forests found in the western part of the Western Ghats. Give two reasons why these forests are so named.

Answer

Tropical Evergreen forests are found in the western part of the Western Ghats. They are named so because they remain green throughout the year as they do not have any particular season to shed their leaves and also because they grow in the regions receiving annual rainfall of more than 200 cm.

Question 4(c)

Describe the methods of protecting forests under the following heads:

(i) Afforestation.

(ii) Using alternative sources of energy.

Answer

(i) Afforestation means planting trees on lands which are not previously covered with forest vegetation.

(ii) To conserve forests, we can use non-conventional or renewable sources of energy like solar energy, tidal energy, hydel energy etc.

Question 4(d)

Give a geographical reason for each of the following:

(i) Forests constitute an important natural resource.

(ii) Agro forestry is not vulnerable to population stress.

(iii) Tidal forests have profuse growth with tangle of climbers.

Answer

(i) Forests constitute an important natural resource because trees provide us with products such as fruits, leaves, roots and tubers of plants. Wood is used for making furniture and as a source of energy. Wood and bamboo pulp is used to make paper. Forests also provide fibers, essential oils, edible plants etc.

(ii) Agro forestry is not vulnerable to population stress as agro forestry co-ordinates with the local population and reduces the pressure of population on traditional forestry.

(iii) Tidal forests have profuse growth with tangle of climbers to survive in soft and shifting mud.

Question 5(a)

What is social forestry?

Answer

Social forestry refers to the management and protection of orests and afforestation on barren lands with the purpose of helping in the environmental, social and rural development.

Question 5(b)

Give two points of difference between agro-forestry and traditional forestry.

Answer

Agro-forestryTraditional forestry
Agro forestry provides a combined produce of forest and agricultural crops.Traditional forestry only provides the produce of forest products.
It is not vulnerable to population stress.It is vulnerable to population stress.

Question 5(c)

Mention any three methods for the conservation and development of forests in India.

Answer

Three methods for the conservation and development of forests in India are-

  1. Increasing the area under forests
  2. Afforestation around industrial units
  3. Using alternative sources of energy

Question 5(d)

State three objectives of agro-forestry.

Answer

Three objectives of agro-forestry are-

  1. To reduce pressure on natural forests for obtaining timber as well as non-timber forest produce.
  2. To check soil erosion and to maintain the natural fertility of the soil.
  3. To maintain ecological balance along with proper utilisation of farm resources.

Question 6(a)

Why does the vegetation in the Himalayas vary with altitude?

Answer

The vegetation in the Himalayas vary with altitude because in the mountain regions, temperature decreases with altitude.

Question 6(b)

Why does Tropical Evergreen forests appear dark inside the forests.

Answer

Tropical Evergreen forests appear dark inside the forests because of the dense canopy of trees which do not allow enough sunlight to reach the ground.

Question 6(c)

Explain how is man responsible for the reduction of forest cover in India.

Answer

The felling of the trees for the purpose of obtaining timber is an important cause of reduced forest cover in India. Rapid industrialization, urbanisation and expansion of cities has also led to the destruction of forest cover in the country.

Question 6(d)

Give a geographical reason for each of the following:

(i) Nilgiri region has variety of vegetation type.

(ii) Sundari trees are used for boat making and construction purposes.

(iii) Littoral forest is also called tidal forest.

Answer

(i) In mountain regions, temperature decreases with increase in altitude. This has a corresponding effect on the natural vegetation of the mountain region. Thus, vegetation in lower regions of Nilgiri is sub tropical and vegetation in upper regions of Nilgiri is temperate.

(ii) Sundari trees are used for boat making and construction purposes because these trees provide hard durable timber.

(iii) Littoral forest is also called tidal forest because they are found in tidal zone, an area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide.

Question 7(a)

Name two areas where Tropical deciduous vegetation is found.

Answer

Tropical deciduous vegetation is found in north-eastern part of the peninsula and along the foothills of the Himalayas.

Question 7(b)

Why do the Coniferous trees of mountain forests have conical shape?

Answer

Since coniferous trees are found in cold regions, they are well adapted to the cold climate. Their leaves are conical in shape so that the snow slides off easily from the branches without causing any damage to them.

Question 7(c)

What is meant by 'farm forestry'? State two of its advantages for farmers.

Answer

Farm forestry is the practice of growing trees on the farm land to produce saleable products like timber, tannin, charcoal, etc. and to provide shade and shelter for stock and crops.
Two advantages of farm forestry are-

  1. It increases farm income.
  2. It supports community development.

Question 7(d)

Give a geographical reason for each of the following:

(i) Littoral forest vegetation has breathing roots.

(ii) Forests are often compared to human lungs.

(iii) Van Mahotsav is celebrated in our country every year.

Answer

(i) Littoral forest vegetation has breathing roots because these root enable the plants to breathe during the waterlogged conditions which occur when high tide comes.

(ii) Forests are compared to human lungs as the trees which make up a forest act as the compartment of lungs which help in inhalation and exhalation of the air. But in lungs, Oxygen is taken in and Carbon dioxide is given out whereas in trees carbon dioxide is inhaled and oxygen is exhaled.

(iii) Van Mahotsav is celebrated in our country every year to create awareness about the importance of trees and encourage community participation in planting trees.

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