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Section A — Chapter 15

Non-Aligned Movement

Class 10 - Total History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

What is meant by the term non-alignment?

Answer

Non-alignment is the international policy of a sovereign state according to which it does not align itself with any of the power blocs and at the same time actively participates in the world affairs to promote international peace, harmony and cooperation

Question 2

When did the concept of non-alignment emerge? Why?

Answer

The concept of non-alignment emerged during the Cold War. After the Second World War, the world was divided into two power blocs — one led by the USA and the other by the erstwhile Soviet Union. It was during this period that many newly independent countries in Asia and Africa decided not to join any of the two blocs and to remain non-aligned.

Non-alignment emerged because of the following reasons-

  1. Global tension caused by Cold War which might endanger world peace.
  2. Struggle against imperialism and neocolonisation.
  3. Right of independent judgement without the pressure of any power bloc.
  4. Use of moderation in relations to all big powers to explore and advance their mutual interests by establishing friendly relations with all the nations.
  5. Restructuring international economic order to boost their economic development from wherever they could without any strings attached with them.
  6. Formation of a collective force to maintain or promote world peace.

Question 3

Mention any four objectives of the Non-Aligned Movement.

Answer

Four objectives of the Non-Aligned Movement are as follows-

  1. To oppose colonialism, imperialism and racial discrimination.
  2. To advocate sovereign equality of all states,
  3. To encourage friendly relations among countries.
  4. To advocate peaceful settlement of international disputes.

Question 4

What are the basic principles of Panchsheel?

Answer

The basic principles of Panchsheel are as follows-

  1. Mutual non-interference in each other's internal affairs
  2. Mutual non-aggression
  3. Equality for mutual benefit
  4. Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty
  5. Peaceful co-existence

Question 5

Where was non-aligned movement formally launched?

Answer

The Non-Aligned Movement was formally launched at its first summit held in September 1961 at Belgrade in Yugoslavia.

Question 6

Name three founder members of NAM.

Answer

Three founder members of NAM were:

  1. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru of India
  2. President Joseph Broze Tito of Yugoslavia
  3. President Nasser of Egypt

Question 7

What was Nehru's view about non-alignment?

Answer

Pt. Nehru advocated mutual respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations. He strongly advocated the principles of democratic socialism. His policy of non-alignment was not meant to promote a third bloc, but to ensure freedom of decision-making of the recently decolonised states.

Question 8

What did Nehru do to curb the mad race for armaments?

Answer

Pt. Nehru was against the mad race for armaments and called for disarmament and abolition of stockpiles of nuclear weapons. It was in pursuance of his policy of disarmament that India signed a treaty in 1963 for banning atomic tests.

Structured Questions

Question 1

With reference to Non-Aligned Movement, answer the following:

(a) Explain how Non-alignment is neither neutrality, nor isolation nor non-commitment.

(b) State the five principles of Panchsheel.

(c) Give any four objectives of NAM.

Answer

(a) Non-alignment is neither neutrality, nor isolation nor non-commitment.

  1. Non-alignment is not neutral as it does not remain aloof from international problems. It actively participates in the politics among nations. So, non-alignment stands for 'action' rather than passivism.
  2. NAM is not aloof as it comes forward to help the underdeveloped and developing newly independent countries.
  3. NAM is not committed to any military blocs but maintains friendly relations with the countries of the First and the Second World.

(b) The basic principles of Panchsheel are as follows-

  1. Mutual non-interference in each other's internal affairs
  2. Mutual non-aggression
  3. Equality for mutual benefit
  4. Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty
  5. Peaceful co-existence

(c) Four objectives of the Non-Aligned Movement are as follows-

  1. To oppose colonialism, imperialism and racial discrimination.
  2. To advocate sovereign equality of all states,
  3. To encourage friendly relations among countries.
  4. To advocate peaceful settlement of international disputes.

Question 2

State the role of Jawaharlal Nehru under the following heads:

(a) Vision in starting the NAM.

(b) Curbing the mad race for armaments.

(c) As the spokesman for the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa.

Answer

(a) India was the first country to initiate the policy of non-alignment, under the leadership of Nehru.

  1. Pt. Nehru was a visionary.
  2. He realised that the greatest danger to the sovereignty and integrity of India and the other newly independent nations of Asia and Africa lay in their joining any of the two power blocs.
  3. He called upon these countries to keep themselves away from the politics of two opposing camps, which had already brought about two world wars.
  4. He advocated mutual respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations.
  5. It was Nehru, who gradually led the countries of Asia and Africa towards the concept of non-alignment.
  6. He convinced these countries that they had great moral force and with their collective efforts could exert pressure on the issues of war and peace.
  7. It was in confirmation of his views that he along with Joseph Broze Tito of Yugoslavia, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Chou En Lai of China, Ho Chi Minh of Vietnam and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana led the Bandung Conference.
  8. The decisions taken at the Bandung Conference were given a final shape at Belgrade in 1956.
  9. Here, it was decided to form an organisation of the newly independent countries.

(b) Pt. Nehru was against the mad race for armaments.

  1. He called for disarmament and abolition of stockpiles of nuclear weapons.
  2. It was in pursuance of his policy of disarmament that India signed a treaty in 1963 for banning atomic tests.

(c) Nehru was acknowledged as the greatest spokesman for neutrality of Asian and African States in the Cold War era.

  1. Opposing the policy of alignment, Nehru said, "By aligning ourselves with any one power, you surrender your opinion, give up the policy you would normally pursue because somebody else wants you to pursue another policy. I do not think that it would be a right policy for us to adopt."
  2. Though Nehru was committed to western concept of liberalism and democracy, he did not approve of the military or economic alliances. He opposed these alliances as he believed that they encouraged colonialism and imperialism and were likely to produce a race for armaments.
  3. Nehru was against the philosophy advocated by the two power blocs.
  4. He was influenced by socialism. He therefore, strongly advocated the principles of democratic socialism.
  5. His policy of non-alignment was not meant to promote a third bloc, but to ensure freedom of decision-making of the recently decolonised states.
  6. Under the stewardship of Nehru, India played an important role in spreading the message of NAM. India promoted the cause of freedom of many countries of Asia and Africa which were still under foreign domination.

Picture Study

Question 1

Study the picture and answer the following questions:

Identify the persons in the picture. Name the organisation with which these persons were associated. Where was this organisation formed? State any three objectives of this organisation. Has this organisation been able to achieve its objectives? Give reasons for your answer. Non-Aligned Movement, Total History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Identify the persons in the picture. Name the organisation with which these persons were associated.

(b) Where was this organisation formed? State any three objectives of this organisation.

(c) Has this organisation been able to achieve its objectives? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer

(a) The picture shows the founders of Non-Aligned Movement — Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru of India, President Joseph Broze Tito of Yugoslavia and President Nasser of Egypt.
They are associated with the Non-Aligned Movement.

(b) The Non-Aligned Movement was formally launched at its first summit held in September 1961 at Belgrade in Yugoslavia.

Three objectives of NAM are as follows:

  1. To oppose colonialism, imperialism and racial discrimination.
  2. To advocate sovereign equality of all states.
  3. To encourage friendly relations among countries.

(c) Yes, NAM has achieved its objectives as can be seen by the following achievements:

  1. NAM has helped in easing of tension between the two power blocs and ultimately in bringing about the end of the Cold War.
  2. NAM acted against the arms race of the superpowers during the Cold War years.
  3. NAM has supported the cause of international peace, justice and freedom.
  4. NAM has advocated New International Economic Order (NIEO) based on greater economic cooperation and justice. In fact, the first UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) held in 1964 was largely the outcome of the efforts made by the non-aligned countries.
  5. NAM has made the developed countries realise that the continued deprivation of the third world would affect the economy of the world and their own prosperity.

NAM still continues to be positive, dynamic and constructive movement aimed at achieving universal peace, disarmament and development.

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