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Section A — Chapter 14

Major Agencies of the United Nations

Class 10 - Total History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

Give the full form of these agencies of the UN: WHO and UNICEF. In which type of countries do the above agencies of UN work?

Answer

The full form of WHO is World Health Organization and the full form of UNICEF is United Nations Children's Fund.

WHO and UNICEF especially work in developing countries.

Question 2

Which agency of the UN looks after the interest of the children in the world? What was the original purpose of setting up this agency?

Answer

UNICEF looks after the interest of the children in the world.

Its original purpose was to help the emergency needs of children in post-war Europe.

Question 3

How does UNICEF raise its funds?

Answer

For financing its projects, the UNICEF depends on voluntary contributions made by different Governments, donations made by private agencies, sale of greeting cards and through various fund-raising campaigns. Sale of UNICEF cards is an important source of income. Worldwide sale of these cards generates funds of more than $100 million, all of which is spent on programmes to benefit children.

Question 4

Where are the headquarters of UNICEF? Name two preventable diseases against which UNICEF organises its programmes.

Answer

The UNICEF has its headquarters in New York.

Two preventable diseases against which UNICEF organises its programmes are Malaria and Tuberculosis.

Question 5

Give any two functions of the UNICEF.

Answer

Two functions of the UNICEF are-

  1. It assists governments to plan, develop and extend community-based services in the fields of maternal and child health, nutrition, clean water and sanitation.
  2. It provides help to children and mothers in emergencies arising from natural calamities, civil strifes and epidemics.

Question 6

What is the role of UNICEF in modern times?

Answer

As the sole agency for children, it speaks on behalf of children and upholds the Convention on the Rights of the Child and works for its implementation.

UNICEF has been the driving force in almost all the programmes started by the government of India for providing people with low cost community-based services in maternal and child health, nutrition, clean drinking water, sanitation and immunisation.

Question 7

When was WHO established? Which day is celebrated as the World Health Day every year?

Answer

WHO was established on April 7, 1948.

April 7 is celebrated as the World Health Day every year.

Question 8

What has been the objective of WHO?

Answer

WHO's objective is the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all people. Health is defined in WHO's Constitution as a state of complete well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

Question 9

Why was UNESCO established? Where are the headquarters of UNESCO?

Answer

UNESCO was established with the objective of contributing to peace and security in the world by promoting collaboration among nations through education, science, culture and communication. This is undertaken to further respect for justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights for all human beings.

The headquarters of the UNESCO are in Paris.

Question 10

Describe any two of the functions of UNESCO in the field of scientific development.

Answer

Two functions of UNESCO in the field of scientific development are-

  1. It promotes basic research in fields like Geology, Mathematics, Physics and Oceanography. As a result, it finances engineering and technology schemes in a number of developing countries.
  2. It helps in correcting the imbalance in scientific and technological manpower that exists, because 90% of trained manpower is concentrated in the industrialised countries.

Structured Questions

Question 1

With reference to UNICEF, answer the following questions:

(a) What was the purpose of setting up of UNICEF?

(b) Briefly mention the functions of UNICEF.

(c) Mention some of the UNICEF programmes followed in India.

Answer

(a) The purpose of setting up of UNICEF was to help the emergency needs of children in post-war Europe.

(b) The functions of UNICEF are as follows-

  1. It works for the protection of children in respect of their survival, health, and well-being.
  2. It provides funds for training personnel, including health and sanitation workers, teachers and nutritionists. Universal Child Immunisation against preventable diseases was one of the leading goals of UNICEF.
  3. It provides technical supplies, equipment and other aids, ranging from paper for textbooks, to equipment and medicines to health clinics, to pipes and pumps for bringing clean water to villages.
  4. It assists governments to plan, develop and extend community-based services in the fields of maternal and child health, nutrition, clean water and sanitation.
  5. It provides help to children and mothers in emergencies arising from natural calamities, civil strifes and epidemics.
  6. It makes effort to prevent diseases like tuberculosis (T.B.), malaria, eye diseases, skin diseases, etc.
  7. UNICEF performs various other functions. As the sole agency for children, it speaks on behalf of children and upholds the Convention on the Rights of the Child and works for its implementation.

(c) The major programmes launched with the aid and assistance of UNICEF in India are as follows:

  1. The government of India has launched in collaboration with UNICEF — the National Mission on Immunisation, the National Mission for Drinking Water and the National Literacy Mission.
  2. Community Development Programme has been started in the rural areas of India with UNICEF's assistance, aimed at maternal and child health.
  3. The government's efforts to reduce infant and child mortality due to diarrhoeal diseases supported by UNICEF for the production of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT).
  4. UNICEF is a partner of the Indian government in the accelerated rural water supply programme.
  5. Since the 1990s, the government of India, UNICEF and other UN agencies have been working together for the promotion of iodised salt as the best way of preventing iodine deficiency disorders.
  6. UNICEF seeks to advance the fulfillment of the rights of all women and children in India to survival, development, participation and protection by reducing social inequalities based on gender, caste, ethnicity or region.

Question 2

With reference to WHO, answer the following questions:

(a) Where are the headquarters of WHO located? What methods does WHO adopt to fulfil its objectives?

(b) Mention any three functions of WHO.

(c) Mention any two achievements of WHO.

Answer

(a) The headquarters of WHO are at Geneva in Switzerland.

Methods adopted by WHO to fulfil its objectives are as follows:

  1. It helps countries to improve their health system by building up infrastructure especially manpower, institutions and services for the individual and community.
  2. WHO launched a programme to immunise children against six major diseases—Measles, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Tuberculosis, Polio and Whooping Cough.
  3. It promotes research to cure and prevent diseases.
  4. It organises conferences, seminars and training for health care personnel from different countries.
  5. It defines standards for the strength and purity of medicines including biological products.
  6. It publishes health journals like the 'Bulletin of the World Health Organization' and 'Public Health Panorama' to create health consciousness among people.

(b) Three functions of WHO are as follows:

  1. It helps countries to improve their health system by building up infrastructure especially manpower, institutions and services for the individual and community.
  2. It gives important drugs needed for medical care. The WHO launched a programme to immunise children against six major diseases—Measles, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Tuberculosis, Polio and Whooping Cough.
  3. It promotes research to cure and prevent diseases. For example, it arranged for the investigation of cancer and heart diseases in laboratories in many countries to identify disease-causing organisms, to improve vaccines and to train research workers.

(c) Two achievements of WHO are as follows:

  1. Globally, a reduction of 40% in cases of undernutrition among children.
  2. Child mortality under the age of five years has declined from 90 deaths per 1000 live births to 46 deaths per 1000 live births.

Question 3

The United Nations apart from its main organs also work through its allied agencies. In this context, answer the following questions:

(a) Write the expanded form of UNESCO. Mention two of its functions in the field of education.

(b) Explain three vital roles that the WHO plays in combating diseases.

(c) Mention any two functions of the UNICEF.

Answer

(a) The expanded form of UNESCO is United Nations Educational, Scientific And Cultural Organization. Two functions of UNESCO in the field of education are-

  1. Removal of illiteracy by encouragement to adult education, distance-education and the open school system.
  2. Emphasis on education of women and girls.

(b) Three vital roles that the WHO plays in combating diseases are as follows:

  1. It gives important drugs needed for medical care. The WHO launched a programme to immunise children against six major diseases — Measles, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Tuberculosis, Polio and Whooping Cough.
  2. It promotes research to cure and prevent diseases.
  3. It defines standards for the strength and purity of medicines including biological products:

(c) Two functions of the UNICEF are as follows:

  1. It works for the protection of children in respect of their survival, health, and well-being. This is done in cooperation with individuals, civic groups, governments and the private sector.
  2. It provides funds for training personnel, including health and sanitation workers, teachers and nutritionists. Universal Child Immunisation against preventable diseases was one of the leading goals of UNICEF.

Question 4

With reference to UNESCO, answer the following questions:

(a) What were the objectives of the formation of UNESCO?

(b) How is the development of education, science and culture related to peace?

(c) What efforts have been made by UNESCO to preserve cultural heritage?

Answer

(a) The main objective of UNESCO is to contribute to peace and security in the world by promoting collaboration among nations through education, science, culture and communication. This is undertaken to further respect for justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights for all human beings.

(b) Promotion of education, scientific spirit and enriching culture help in spreading peace and harmony in the world in the following ways:

  1. Education provides people with knowledge and inspires them to make a better world.
  2. Education results in increased economic growth and stability.
  3. It is also an instrument for promoting international understanding and peace.
  4. Sciences helps humans to always question superstitions.
  5. It teaches not to follow any custom or practice blindly.
  6. Social Sciences focus attention on combating all forms of discrimination.
  7. Culture enriches the lives of individuals.
  8. It makes people appreciate variety of customs and traditions and make them tolerant.
  9. UNESCO works towards the cultural development through the medium of fine arts. It sends cultural missions to various countries.
  10. This helps in promoting peace and prosperity

(c) UNESCO encourages modernisation without the loss of cultural identity and diversity.

  1. UNESCO provides technical advice and assistance, equipment and funds for the preservation of monuments and other works of art. It has prepared a World Heritage List to identify the monuments and sites which are to be protected.
  2. It aims to protect the world inheritance of books, works of art and rare manuscripts.
  3. It gives encouragement to artistic creations in literature and fine arts.
  4. It pays attention towards the cultural development through the medium of films.
  5. It sends cultural missions to different countries so that there would be development of contacts which may promote peace and prosperity. In the past it has provided travel grants to writers and artists under a project named Mutual Appreciation of Eastern and Western Cultural Values. Under this scheme, India's talented exponents of classical music and dance travelled to Europe and America.

Picture Study

Question 1

Study the picture and answer the following questions:

Identify the organisation associated with the given emblem. Where are its headquarters located? Name two sources from where this organisation gets its funds. What is the main objective of this organisation? State any two functions of this organisation. Mention any two achievements of this organisation. Major Agencies of the United Nations, Total History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Identify the organisation associated with the given emblem. Where are its headquarters located? Name two sources from where this organisation gets its funds.

(b) What is the main objective of this organisation? State any two functions of this organisation.

(c) Mention any two achievements of this organisation.

Answer

(a) The picture shows the emblem of UNICEF. Its headquarters are located at New York.
The UNICEF depends on voluntary contributions made by different Governments, donations made by private agencies, sale of greeting cards and through various fund-raising campaigns.

(b) The main objective of UNICEF is to look after children's welfare especially in developing countries by providing people with low cost community-based services in maternal and child health, nutrition, and immunisation, etc.

Two functions of UNICEF are as follows-

  1. It works for the protection of children in respect of their survival, health, and well-being.
  2. It provides funds for training personnel, including health and sanitation workers, teachers and nutritionists. Universal Child Immunisation against preventable diseases was one of the leading goals of UNICEF.

(c) Two achievements of this organisation are as follows:

  1. In 1982, the Child Survival and Development Revolution was launched by UNICEF as an effort to save more children through the implementation of four primary techniques — monitoring growth, supplying immunization, promoting breastfeeding, and providing oral rehydration therapy.
  2. UNICEF’s global distribution of immunization to the underprivileged resulted in the complete eradication of polio in India in 2012.

Question 2

Study the emblem and answer the following question:

Name the organisation associated with the emblem. Mention any three functions of the organisation named by you. Mention any two programmes of this organisation in India. Major Agencies of the United Nations, Total History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Name the organisation associated with the emblem.

(b) Mention any three functions of the organisation named by you.

(c) Mention any two programmes of this organisation in India.

Answer

(a) The picture shows the emblem of World Health Organization.

(b) Three functions of WHO are as follows:

  1. It helps countries to improve their health system by building up infrastructure especially manpower, institutions and services for the individual and community.
  2. It gives important drugs needed for medical care. The WHO launched a programme to immunise children against six major diseases—Measles, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Tuberculosis, Polio and Whooping Cough.
  3. It promotes research to cure and prevent diseases. For example, it arranged for the investigation of cancer and heart diseases in laboratories in many countries to identify disease-causing organisms, to improve vaccines and to train research workers.

(c) Two programmes of WHO in India are as follows:

  1. The WHO launched a programme to immunise children against six major diseases—Measles, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Tuberculosis, Polio and Whooping Cough.
  2. It works towards providing safe drinking water and adequate waste disposal. The decade 1981-1990 was declared as the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade.
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