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Section A — Chapter 13

United Nations

Class 10 - Total History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

Why did world leaders decide to set up a world organisation to maintain peace?

Answer

The world leaders decided to set up a world organisation to maintain peace for the following reasons-

  1. The destruction caused by the two World Wars.
  2. The failure of the League of Nations to prevent wars and maintain peace.
  3. The fear of a Third World War.
  4. The division of the world into two power blocs led by the US and the USSR, respectively.
  5. The invention of weapons of mass destruction like the atom bomb.

Question 2

When was the name "The United Nations" used for the first time? Where was the UN established?

Answer

The name "The United Nations" was used for the first time on January 1, 1942.

The United Nations was established in New York, USA.

Question 3

State the most important reason for the formation of the UN. Which day is celebrated as the UN Day every year?

Answer

The most important reason for the formation of United Nations is to maintain international peace and security, protect human rights, deliver humanitarian aid, promote sustainable development and uphold international law.

October 24 is celebrated every year throughout the world as the United Nations Day.

Question 4

Where are the headquarters of the UN? Who can become the member of the UN?

Answer

The headquarters of the UN are based in New York, USA.

Membership of the UN is open to all peace-loving nations who believe in the principles of the UN and accept the obligations of the UN Charter.

Question 5

Who appoints the Secretary-General of the UN? Who is the present Secretary-General of the UN?

Answer

The General Assembly appoints the Secretary-General of the UN on the recommendation of the Security Council.

António Guterres is the current Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Question 6

Name the six principal organs of the United Nations.

Answer

The six principal organs of the United Nations are-

  1. The General Assembly
  2. The Security Council
  3. The International Court of Justice
  4. The Economic and Social Council
  5. The Trusteeship Council
  6. The Secretariat

Question 7

What are the functions of the General Assembly?

Answer

The functions of the General Assembly are as follows-

  1. To consider and make recommendations on the principles of cooperation, in the maintenance of international peace and security.
  2. To discuss any question relating to international peace and security and to make recommendations on it.
  3. To discuss and make recommendations on any question within the scope of the Charter or affecting the powers and functions of any organ of the United Nations.
  4. To initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political, social, and economic cooperation.
  5. To make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of disputes.
  6. To receive and consider reports from the Security Council and other organs of the United Nations.
  7. To consider and approve the budget of the United Nations and to apportion the contributions among members.
  8. To elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and the Trusteeship Council, and to elect the judges of the International Court of Justice.
  9. To appoint the Secretary-General on the recommendation of the Security Council.

Question 8

What can the General Assembly do if the Security Council fails to act in a case where there appears to be a threat to peace?

Answer

Under the "Uniting for Peace" resolution adopted by the General Assembly in November 1950, the Assembly may take action if the Security Council, because of a lack of unanimity of its permanent members, fails to act in a case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression.

The Assembly is empowered to consider the matter immediately with a view to making recommendations to members for collective measures, including the use of armed force.

Question 9

Name the permanent members of the Security Council.

Answer

The Security Council has five permanent members —

  1. China
  2. France
  3. Russia
  4. Britain
  5. The United States of America

Question 10

What is meant by 'Veto Power'?

Answer

Each member of the Security Council has one vote. Decisions on procedural matters are made by an affirmative vote of nine members, including the concurring votes of all five permanent members. The negative vote of a permanent member is called a veto. The Council is powerless to act if any of the five permanent members uses the veto power. However abstinence from voting does not amount to a negative vote or veto.

Question 11

State any two functions of the Security Council.

Answer

Two functions of the Security Council are as follows-

  1. To maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations.
  2. To investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction and to take military action against an aggressor.

Question 12

Name the judicial organ of the United Nations.

Answer

The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations.

Question 13

Where is the permanent headquarters of the International Court of Justice located? What is the composition of the International Court of Justice?

Answer

The permanent headquarters of the International Court of Justice is located at The Hague (Netherlands).

The Court is composed of 15 judges elected to nine-year terms of office by the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council sitting independently of each other. It may not include more than one judge from any nationality. Elections are held every three years for one-third of the seats, and retiring judges may be re-elected.

The Court elects its President and Vice-President for a three-year term. They may, when their term expires, be re-elected. The Court has the power to appoint its Registrar.

Question 14

What is the importance of the International Court of Justice?

Answer

The Court has played a significant role in the codification of international law. It examines international conventions, international customs, judicial decisions and general principles of law in the process of codification.

It also gives advisory opinion on legal matters to the organs and special agencies of the UN and decides the disputes between Member States if they refer the case to it.

Structured Questions

Question 1

The United Nations Organisation was established to maintain peace and promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom. With reference to this, explain the following:

(a) The composition of the Security Council.

(b) The functions of the Security Council related to maintaining world peace.

(c) The role of UNESCO in the development of Science and Technology.

Answer

(a) The Security Council consists of 15 members.

  1. It has five permanent members —
    1. China
    2. France
    3. Russia
    4. Britain
    5. The United States of America
  2. The regional representation of the ten non-permanent members is:
    • Afro-Asian countries — 5
    • Latin American countries — 2
    • West European and other countries — 2
    • East European countries — 1.
  3. The ten non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly by a two-third majority for a term of two years.
  4. A retiring member is not eligible for immediate re-election.
  5. The Presidency of the Council rotates monthly, according to the English alphabetical listing of its member States.

(b) The functions of the Security Council related to maintaining world peace are as follows:

  1. To maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations.
  2. To investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction and to take military action against an aggressor.
  3. To recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement.
  4. To formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments.
  5. To determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken.
  6. To call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression.
  7. To take military action against an aggressor.

(c) The scientific activities undertaken by the UNESCO are:

  1. UNESCO organises seminars and conferences of scientists of various countries and circulates information through journals, press and exhibitions. Courier' is the official monthly magazine of UNESCO. Its Hindi and Tamil editions are available in India.
  2. It promotes basic research in fields like Geology, Mathematics, Physics and Oceanography. As a result, it finances engineering and technology schemes in a number of developing countries.
  3. It helps in correcting the imbalance in scientific and technological manpower that exists, because 90% of trained manpower is concentrated in the industrialised countries.
  4. It encourages the study of social sciences in order to focus attention on combating all forms of discrimination, improving the status of women and helping the youth in solving their problems.

Question 2

With reference to the functioning of the United Nations, briefly answer the following:

(a) State the objectives of the UN.

(b) Mention the principles of the UN for its members.

(c) State any four functions of the UN.

Answer

(a) The objectives of the United Nations are as follows-

  1. To maintain international peace and security, to take collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to peace, to suppress acts of aggression or other breaches of peace.
  2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of people.
  3. To achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms.
  4. To be a centre for harmonising the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.
  5. Disarm, decolonise and develop are the three new objectives set by the UN.

(b) In order to fulfil the purposes for which UNO was established, the members shall act in accordance with the following principles:

  1. To respect the sovereign equality of all its members.
  2. All members should fulfil in good faith the obligations assumed by them.
  3. They should settle their international disputes by peaceful means.
  4. They would refrain from the threat or use of force against any State.
  5. They should give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes.
  6. The Organisation should ensure that States which are not members of the United Nations act in accordance with these principles.
  7. The United Nations shall not intervene in the domestic, i.e., internal affairs of any State.

(c) Four functions of the United Nations are as follows-

  1. Maintain international peace and security.
  2. Protect human rights and deliver humanitarian aid.
  3. Support sustainable development and climate action.
  4. Uphold international law.

Question 3

With reference to the General Assembly, explain the following:

(a) Composition of the General Assembly.

(b) Its role in the promotion of international cooperation.

(c) Any four of its functions.

Answer

(a) All members of the United Nations are members of the General Assembly.

  1. Each State has five representatives in the General Assembly, but each State has one vote.
  2. At the start of each regular session, the Assembly elects a new President, 21 Vice-Presidents and the Chairmen of the Assembly's six Main Committees.
  3. To ensure equitable geographical representation, the presidency of the Assembly rotates each year among five groups of States: Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America and Caribbean, and Western Europe and other States.
  4. Decisions on important matters are made by a two-third majority.
  5. These matters include: the election of the non-permanent members of the Security Council, admission of new members, the suspension or expulsion of members, budgetary issues, etc.
  6. Decisions on other questions are made by a majority of members present and voting.

(b) The role of the General Assembly in the promotion of international cooperation are as follows-

  1. To consider and make recommendations on the principles of cooperation, in the maintenance of international peace and security.
  2. To discuss any question relating to international peace and security and to make recommendations on it.
  3. To initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political, social, and economic cooperation.
  4. To make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of disputes.

(c) Four functions of the General Assembly are as follows-

  1. To receive and consider reports from the Security Council and other organs of the United Nations.
  2. To consider and approve the budget of the United Nations and to apportion the contributions among members.
  3. To elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and the Trusteeship Council, and to elect the judges of the International Court of Justice.
  4. To appoint the Secretary-General on the recommendation of the Security Council.

Question 4

The Security Council is the most important and effective organ of the UN. In this context describe:

(a) Composition of the Security Council.

(b) Veto power.

(c) Four of its functions.

Answer

(a) The Security Council consists of 15 members.

  1. It has five permanent members —
    1. China
    2. France
    3. Russia
    4. Britain
    5. The United States of America
  2. The regional representation of the ten non-permanent members is:
    • Afro-Asian countries — 5
    • Latin American countries — 2
    • West European and other countries — 2
    • East European countries — 1.
  3. The ten non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly by a two-third majority for a term of two years.
  4. A retiring member is not eligible for immediate re-election.
  5. The Presidency of the Council rotates monthly, according to the English alphabetical listing of its member States.

(b) The negative vote of a permanent member is called a veto. The Council is powerless to act if any of the five permanent members uses the veto power. However abstinence from voting does not amount to a negative vote or veto.

(c) Four functions of the Security Council are as follows:

  1. To maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations.
  2. To investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction and to take military action against an aggressor.
  3. To recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement.
  4. To formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments.

Question 5

With reference to the International Court of Justice, explain the following:

(a) Its Composition.

(b) Its Compulsory Jurisdiction.

(c) Its Advisory Jurisdiction.

Answer

(a) Composition of the International Court of Justice is as follows:

  1. It is composed of 15 judges elected to nine-year terms of office by the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council sitting independently of each other.
  2. It may not include more than one judge from any nationality.
  3. Elections are held every three years for one-third of the seats, and retiring judges may be re-elected.
  4. The Court elects its President and Vice-President for a three-year term. They may, when their term expires, be re-elected.
  5. The Court has the power to appoint its Registrar.

(b) The International Court of Justice has compulsory Jurisdiction in the following areas:

  1. Against the background that a large number of treaties provide that disputes are submitted to the Court.
  2. Disputes pertaining to the interpretation of international law.
  3. Reparation, i.e., compensation to be made for the breach of an international obligation.

(c) The advisory procedure of the International Court of Justice is open solely to international organisations.

  1. The only bodies at present authorised to request advisory opinions of the Court are five organs of the United Nations and 16 specialised agencies of the United Nations family.
  2. Since 1946 the Court has given 24 Advisory Opinions, concerning reparation for injuries suffered in the service of the United Nations, territorial status of South-West Africa and Western Sahara, etc.

Picture Study

Question 1

Study the given picture and answer the questions:

Identify the Organisation associated with the emblem. Mention any three principles of this organisation. Where is the headquarters of this organisation located? Which is the main deliberative organ of the UN? State any three of its functions. Name the principal judicial organ of this organisation and explain its composition. United Nations, Total History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Identify the Organisation associated with the emblem. Mention any three principles of this organisation.

(b) Where is the headquarters of this organisation located? Which is the main deliberative organ of the UN? State any three of its functions.

(c) Name the principal judicial organ of this organisation and explain its composition.

Answer

(a) The picture shows the emblem of United Nations Organisation.

Three principles of this organisation for its Member States are as follows-

  1. To respect the sovereign equality of all its members.
  2. All members should fulfil in good faith the obligations assumed by them.
  3. They should settle their international disputes by peaceful means.

(b) The headquarters of this organisation is located at New York City, USA.

The General Assembly is the main deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the UN. Three functions of the General Assembly are as follows-

  1. To consider and make recommendations on the principles of cooperation, in the maintenance of international peace and security.
  2. To discuss any question relating to international peace and security and to make recommendations on it.
  3. To initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political, social, and economic cooperation.

(c) The principal judicial organ of United Nations Organisation is the International Court of Justice. It's composition is as follows:

  1. It is composed of 15 judges elected to nine-year terms of office by the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council sitting independently of each other.
  2. It may not include more than one judge from any nationality.
  3. Elections are held every three years for one-third of the seats, and retiring judges may be re-elected.
  4. The Court elects its President and Vice-President for a three-year term. They may, when their term expires, be re-elected.
  5. The Court has the power to appoint its Registrar.
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