Multiple Choice Questions
The kidneys are made up of tiny tubular units called:
Reason — Nephrons are the microscopic tubular structures, inside the kidney. they are also known as renal tubules.
In human beings, urea is produced in:
- Urinary bladder
Reason — Breakdown of excessive amino acids in liver results in formation of urea.
Besides water, the urine mainly contains:
- Nitric acid
- Bile pigments
Reason — Urea and water are the major constituents of urine.
Filtration of excretory wastes from the blood occurs in:
- Collecting tubule
- Urinary bladder
Reason — The Nephrons remove the waste substances by filtering it from the blood.
Short Answer Questions
Fill in the blanks:
- Nitrogenous wastes in urine are in the form of ............... and ............... .
- The unit of human kidney is called ............... .
- Evaporation of sweat from skin surface has ............... effect.
- Nitrogenous wastes in urine are in the form of urea and uric acid .
- The unit of human kidney is called nephrons .
- Evaporation of sweat from skin surface has cooling effect.
Define the following:
- Excretory organs
- Excretion — The process of removal of unwanted and toxic metabolic waste products from the body is called Excretion.
- Excretory organs — The organs that remove the unwanted waste and toxic substance from the body are known as Excretory organs.
- Dialysis — The process of filtration of blood with the help of machine, if both kidneys fail, is called Dialysis.
- Nephron — Nephron is the structural and functional unit of kidney. It filters the blood, purifies it and produces urine.
Write True or False for the following statements in the spaces provided. Rewrite the false statements in correct form.
- Removal of solid undigested food is excretion.
- Medulla of kidney passes urine into urinary bladder.
- Excess sugar in blood is a symptom of diabetes.
- Urine is devoid of blood cells.
Corrected statement — Removal of all kind of unwanted and toxic metabolic wastes is called excretion.
Corrected statement — The medulla drains the urine into a funnel-shaped structure called the renal pelvis which further passes it to the urinary bladder through ureters.
Name the blood vessel that brings blood to the kidneys.
Renal Vein brings blood to the kidneys.
Where in the urinary system do the following processes take place?
- Urine formation
- Transport of urine away from kidney
- Temporary storage of urine
- Urine formation — Nephrons
- Transport of urine away from kidney — Ureter
- Temporary storage of urine — Urinary bladder
Long Answer Questions
Define excretion. Write the four organs of human urinary system in their correct sequence.
The process of removal of unwanted and toxic metabolic waste products from the body is called Excretion.
The four organs of human urinary system in their correct sequence are:
- Urinary bladder
Why is excretion necessary in living beings?
The body produces many substances of which some are useful while the others are useless. If retained in the body, unwanted and toxic metabolic waste substances may become poisonous and cause much harm and in severe cases, even death. That is why excretion is necessary in living beings.
What is meant by osmoregulation?
The process of maintaining or regulating the water and salt concentration in the body is called osmoregulation. Kidneys help in osmoregulation in our body.
Describe the structure of kidney with the help of a labelled diagram.
Internally, each kidney is composed of an outer darker region called cortex and an inner lighter region called medulla. The medulla drains the urine into a funnel-shaped structure called the renal pelvis. Inside the kidney, there are millions of microscopic tubular structures called renal tubules or nephrons. The nephron is also called unit of kidney. Each nephron starts as a cup-like Bowman's capsule which continues behind as a narrow tubule. The tubule is convoluted and opens into a collecting duct. All the collecting ducts then open into the renal pelvis which leads into the ureter.
Below diagram shows the structure of the kidney:
What are the two ways by which a person can get relief in case of kidney failure?
The two ways by which a person can get relief in case of kidney failure are:
- Kidney transplant
Draw a diagram of human excretory system and label the following parts:
Kidney, ureter, urinary bladder and urethra.
Below diagram shows the human excretory system with kidney, ureter, urinary bladder and urethra labelled:
How are kidney stones formed?
Kidney stones are formed when crystal forming substances such as calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid are more than the fluid in the urine. When these chemicals start sticking together, they form crystals, called kidney stones. They may be formed in any area of the excretory system and cause severe pain.
What are the symptoms of a urinary tract infection?
Following are the symptoms of urinary tract infection:
- Strong and frequent urge to urinate.
- Painful urination.
- Burning sensation while urinating.