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Chapter 1

Plant Tissues

Class 7 - Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar


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Question 1

Meristematic tissues responsible for lateral growth are called cambium.

Answer

True

Question 2

A permanent tissue is a group of cells that are capable of active cell division.

Answer

False

Corrected statement — A meristematic tissue is a group of cells that are capable of active cell division.

Question 3

Collenchyma tissue provides structural support to growing stems and leaves.

Answer

True

Question 4

Phloem parenchyma is the only living component of xylem.

Answer

False

Corrected statement — Xylem parenchyma is the only living component of xylem.

Question 5

Xylem and phloem together are called the vascular bundle.

Answer

True

Tick the most appropriate answer

Question 1

Meristematic tissues have

  1. actively dividing cells
  2. dead cells
  3. cells that divide for a short period
  4. cells that do not divide at all

Answer

actively dividing cells

Reason — Meristematic tissues consist of actively dividing cells and are present at the root and shoot tips and on the lateral sides of the root and stem.

Question 2

Which of the following is not a characteristic of meristematic tissues?

  1. Cells are small in size
  2. Vacuoles are mostly present
  3. Cell wall is thin
  4. Cells actively divide to form new cells

Answer

Vacuoles are mostly present

Reason — Vacuoles are mostly absent in meristematic tissues.

Question 3

This causes increase in length of the plant

  1. protective tissue
  2. lateral meristematic tissue
  3. apical meristematic tissue
  4. complex permanent tissue

Answer

apical meristematic tissue

Reason — Apical meristematic tissue is present at the root and shoot tips. It increases the length of the plant.

Question 4

Which of the following is a protective tissue?

  1. cork
  2. chlorenchyma
  3. phloem
  4. xylem

Answer

cork

Reason — Cork is a protective tissue located at the periphery of the roots and stem.

Question 5

Which of the following cells have lignin?

  1. parenchyma
  2. chlorenchyma
  3. collenchyma
  4. sclerechyma

Answer

sclerechyma

Reason — Cells of sclerenchyma are dead and have cell walls thickened with lignin.

Question 6

Xylem consists of

  1. vessels, collenchyma and xylem fibres
  2. tracheids, xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma
  3. sieve cells, xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma
  4. vessels, tracheids, fibres and xylem parenchyma.

Answer

vessels, tracheids, fibres and xylem parenchyma.

Reason — Xylem is the water-conducting tissue of plants. It is composed of vessels, tracheids, fibres and xylem parenchyma.

Question 7

Which of the following tissues are made up of dead cells?

  1. collenchyma
  2. phloem
  3. parenchyma
  4. xylem

Answer

Xylem

Reason — All the parts of xylem are dead except xylem parenchyma.

Question 8

Phloem consists of

  1. vessels, collenchyma and phloem fibres.
  2. tracheids, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma.
  3. sieve cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma.
  4. vessels, sieve tubes, xylem fibres and phloem parenchyma.

Answer

sieve cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma

Reason — Phloem consists of sieve cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma.

Question 9

These are elongated cells with minute pores.

  1. phloem parenchyma
  2. sieve cells
  3. phloem fibres
  4. companion cells

Answer

sieve cells

Reason — Sieve cells are elongated cells with minute pores.

Question 10

Vascular bundle consist of

  1. parenchyma and sclerenchyma
  2. collenchyma and xylem
  3. phloem and vessels
  4. xylem and phloem

Answer

xylem and phloem

Reason — Phloem and xylem together are called the vascular bundle.

Fill in the blanks

Question 1

A group of actively dividing cells forms the ............... tissue.

Answer

A group of actively dividing cells forms the meristematic tissue.

Question 2

............... meristematic tissue increases the length of the plants.

Answer

Apical meristematic tissue increases the length of the plants.

Question 3

............... meristematic tissue increases the thickness of roots and stem.

Answer

Lateral meristematic tissue increases the thickness of roots and stem.

Question 4

Simple permanent tissue provides ............... and ............... .

Answer

Simple permanent tissue provides support and protection.

Question 5

Complex permanent tissue transports ............... and ............... .

Answer

Complex permanent tissue transports nutrient and water.

Question 6

The outer walls of the epidermis are usually thick and covered with ............... .

Answer

The outer walls of the epidermis are usually thick and covered with cutin.

Question 7

In leaves, the epidermis has special cells called ............... .

Answer

In leaves, the epidermis has special cells called guard cells.

Question 8

The fibres of jute and husk of coconut is made up of ............... tissue.

Answer

The fibres of jute and husk of coconut is made up of sclerenchyma tissue.

Question 9

A ............... vessel is not one cell but a series of cells.

Answer

A xylem vessel is not one cell but a series of cells.

Question 10

............... is located on the outer side of the vascular bundle.

Answer

Phloem is located on the outer side of the vascular bundle.

Define the following

Question 1

Meristematic Tissue

Answer

Meristematic Tissue — The tissue that consists of actively dividing cells present at root and shoot tips and lateral sides of root and stem is called Meristematic Tissue.

Question 2

Permanent Tissue

Answer

Permanent Tissue — The tissue that consists of cells that get differentiated to perform specific function and do not grow or produce new cells are called Permanent Tissue.

Question 3

Protective tissue

Answer

Protective Tissue — The permanent tissue which forms the outer protective covering of the plant and protects it from external influence is called protective tissue. For example - Epidermis, cork.

Question 4

Supporting tissue

Answer

Supporting Tissue — The tissue that comprises the bulk of the plant body and provides support to it is called supporting tissue.

Question 5

Complex permanent tissue

Answer

Complex permanent tissue — Complex permanent tissue are the tissues that are made up of two or more types of cells that are specialized to perform a common function. For example - Xylem and Phloem.

Question 6

Conducting tissue

Answer

Conducting tissue — The complex permanent tissues that transport food and water to different parts of plants are called conducting tissue. Xylem and Phloem are two conducting tissues in plants.

Write true or false. Correct the false statements

Question 1

The lateral meristematic tissue is also called cambium.

Answer

True

Question 2

Supporting tissue consists of epidermis.

Answer

False

Corrected statement — Protective tissue consists of epidermis.

Question 3

Sclerenchyma cells are dead cells and do not contain any protoplasm

Answer

True

Question 4

Xylem is made up of living cells.

Answer

False

Corrected statement — Xylem is made up of dead cells.

Question 5

Xylem fibres provide strength to the tissue.

Answer

True

Differentiate between

Question 1

meristematic and permanent tissues

Answer

Sl.
No.
Meristematic tissuePermanent tissue
1.They are actively dividing cells.They specialize and do not divide further.
2.They are present at root and shoot tip.They are found in different parts of plant.
3.They build up plant body in length and thickness.They perform specific function.
4.The cells are small in size, cell wall is thin, nuclei are prominent.The cells are fully matured and are bigger in size with thick cell wall.
5.Vacuoles are absent.Vacuoles are present.

Question 2

apical and lateral meristematic tissues

Answer

Sl.
No.
Apical Meristematic TissueLateral Meristematic Tissue
1.They are present on root and shoot tips.They are present on lateral sides of roots and shoots.
2.They increase the length of plant.They increase the thickness of roots and stem.

Question 3

parenchyma and sclerenchyma

Answer

Sl.
No.
ParenchymaSclerenchyma
1.The cells are thin walled.The cells are thickened all around due to lignin.
2.The cells are living.The cells are dead.
3.Parenchyma is present in almost all parts of the plants.Sclerenchyma is present in stem and veins of leaves.
4.Parenchyma tissues store food.Sclerenchyma provides mechanical strength to the stem.

Question 4

collenchyma and chlorenchyma

Answer

Sl.
No.
CollenchymaChlorenchyma
1.Collenchyma are present below the epidermis in young stems and petioles of leaves.Chlorenchyma are found in leaves.
2.Collenchyma have thick walls.Chlorenchyma have thin walls.
3.Collenchyma cells contain cellulose and pectin.Chlorenchyma cells contain chloroplasts.
4.Collenchyma provides structural support to growing stems and leaves.Chlorenchyma helps in photosynthesis.

Question 5

xylem and phloem

Answer

Sl.
No.
XylemPhloem
1.Transports water and minerals absorbed by the roots to other plant parts.Transports food manufactured in the leaves to other plant parts.
2.Consists mainly of dead cells.Consists mainly of living cells.
3.Conduction is unidirectional i.e. only upwards from the roots.Bidirectional conduction i.e. both upwards and downwards from the leaves.
4.Located on the inner side of the vascular bundle.Located on outer side of the vascular bundle.

Find the odd one out. Give reasons for your answers

Question 1

parenchyma, collenchyma, vascular bundle, sclerenchyma

Answer

vascular bundle

Reason — Complex permanent tissues Xylem and Phloem together are called the vascular bundle whereas parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma are simple permanent tissue.

Question 2

sieve cells, phloem fibres, xylem parenchyma, phloem parenchyma

Answer

xylem parenchyma

Reason — Xylem parenchyma is a part of xylem, rest all are part of phloem tissue

Question 3

companion cells, sieve tubes, collenchyma, vessels

Answer

collenchyma

Reason — Collenchyma is a simple permanent tissue whereas companion cells and sieve tubes are part of Phloem and vessels are part of Xylem.

Answer the following in short

Question 1

What is a tissue?

Answer

The group of cells that are similar in structure and functions are called Tissue.

Question 2

What is meristematic tissue? Where is it located?

Answer

The tissue that consists of actively dividing cells is called Meristematic Tissue. They are present at root and shoot tips and lateral sides of root and stem.

Question 3

What is the function of the sclerenchyma?

Answer

Sclerenchyma tissue provides mechanical strength to the stem.

Question 4

What constitutes the vascular system of the plant?

Answer

The vascular system of the plant consists of Xylem tissue and phloem tissue.

Question 5

Name the tissue that helps in conduction of (a) water and (b) food in plants.

Answer

The tissue that helps in conduction of

(a) water — Xylem tissue

(b) food — Phloem tissue

Answer the following in detail

Question 1

Name the various types of plant tissues and state their functions.

Answer

Plant tissues are divided into two types:

  1. Meristematic tissue — They divide rapidly and continuously as a result of which the plant gains height. Based on their location in the plant body, they are of two types:
    1. Apical meristematic tissue — It is present at the root and shoot tips. It increases the length of the plant.
    2. Lateral meristematic tissue — This meristematic tissue is present on the lateral sides of the root and stem. This tissue is called the lateral meristematic tissue or cambium. It is responsible for the increase in the thickness of the roots and stem.
  2. Permanent tissue — These tissues perform specific functions. They are classified into two types:
    1. Simple permanent tissue — This tissue provides support and protection to plants and is further classified into two types:
      1. Protective tissue — Epidermis and Cork are two protective tissues in plants.
      2. Supporting tissue — Supporting tissue comprises of Parenchyma, Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma.
    2. Complex permanent tissue — The main function of these tissues is to transport water and food materials. Therefore, these tissues are also called conducting tissues. It comprises of Xylem and Phloem.

Question 2

State the differences between parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma tissues with diagrams.

Answer

Sl.
No.
ParenchymaCollenchymaSclerenchyma
1.Cells are thin walledCells are thick walledCells have walls thickened with lignin
2.Cells are livingCells are livingCells are dead
3.Cells are oval, spherical or cylindrical in shapecells are circular, oval or polygonalCells are elongated and have tapering ends
4.Present in all parts of plant bodyFound below epidermis in young stems and petiolesFound in stems and veins of leaves
5.Intercellular spaces are presentIntercellular spaces are generally absent.Intercellular spaces are absent
6.Participate in photosynthesis and store foodProvide structural support to growing stems and leaves.Provide mechanical strength to stem.

The diagrams are shown below:

Parenchyma

State the differences between parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma tissues with diagrams. Plant Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.

Collenchyma

State the differences between parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma tissues with diagrams. Plant Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.

Sclerenchyma

State the differences between parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma tissues with diagrams. Plant Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.

Question 3

Explain the structure and functions of various types of conducting tissue.

Answer

The Conducting tissue has two elements:

  1. Xylem — Xylem is the water-conducting tissue of plants. It is composed of vessels, tracheids, fibres and xylem parenchyma.
    1. A xylem vessel is not one cell but a series of cells joined from end to end to form a long tube.
    2. Tracheids are usually long and narrow cells that taper at the ends. Both tracheids and vessels do not have living protoplasm at maturity. They are involved in the transportation of water from the roots to the upper parts of the plant.
    3. Fibres provide strength to the tissue. They also lack living protoplasm at maturity.
    4. Xylem parenchyma is the only living component of xylem. It helps in the conduction of water and also stores food.

The below diagram shows the lateral section of Xylem tissue:

Explain the structure and functions of various types of conducting tissue. Plant Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.
  1. Phloem — Phloem is the food-conducting tissue of plants. It is composed of different types of cells namely, sieve cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma. It consists of living cells with protoplasm in them.
    1. Sieve cells are elongated cells with minute pores. They do not have a nucleus at maturity. They help in the transportation of food prepared in the leaves to other parts of the plant.
    2. Phloem fibres provide mechanical strength to the plant.
    3. Phloem parenchyma cells are involved in the storage of reserve substances. Certain specialized parenchyma cells, closely associated with sieve cells are known as companion cells.

The below diagram shows the lateral section of Phloem tissue:

Explain the structure and functions of various types of conducting tissue. Plant Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.

Question 4

What are the various types of cells present in xylem? Write their functions.

Answer

The various types of cells present in xylem are

  1. Xylem vessels — A xylem vessel is not one cell but a series of cells joined from end to end to form a long tube. Its function is transportation of water.
  2. Tracheids — Tracheids are usually long and narrow cells that taper at the ends. Both tracheids and vessels do not have living protoplasm at maturity. They are involved in the transportation of water from the roots to the upper parts of the plant.
  3. Fibres — Fibres provide strength to the tissue. They also lack living protoplasm at maturity.
  4. Xylem parenchyma — Xylem parenchyma is the only living component of xylem. It helps in the conduction of water and also stores food.

Given below is a table

Question 1

Given below is a table showing plant tissues. Identify them, give their location and write one important function of each.

Answer

The completed table is given below:

StructureNameLocationFunction
Apical Meristematic Tissue Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7Apical Meristematic TissueRoot and shoot tipIncreases the length of the plant
Parenchyma Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7ParenchymaAll parts of the plantHelps in photosynthesis and store food
Collenchyma Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7CollenchymaBelow epidermis in young stem and petiolesStructural support to growing stems and leaves
Sclerenchyma Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7SclerenchymaStems and veins of leavesProvides mechanical strength to the stem
Xylem Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7Xylem tissueStem and rootsTransportation of water and minerals
Phloem Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7Phloem tissueStem and rootsTransportation of food.
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