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Chapter 2

Animal Tissues

Class 7 - Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar


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Question 1

............... epithelium lines the blood vessels and forms the epidermis of the skin.

Answer

Squamous epithelium lines the blood vessels and forms the epidermis of the skin.

Question 2

............... epithelium is found in the thyroid gland.

Answer

Cuboidal epithelium is found in the thyroid gland.

Question 3

Voluntary muscles are also called ............... muscles.

Answer

Voluntary muscles are also called striated muscles.

Question 4

............... muscles cells have only one nucleus and have no striations.

Answer

Involuntary muscles cells have only one nucleus and have no striations.

Question 5

............... muscles work continuously and do not get tired.

Answer

Cardiac muscles work continuously and do not get tired.

Tick the most appropriate answer

Question 1

Voluntary muscles are

  1. cylindrical and branched
  2. cylindrical and unbranched
  3. spindle-shaped
  4. spherical

Answer

cylindrical and unbranched

Reason — Voluntary muscles are cylindrical and unbranched.

Question 2

The short thread-like branches arising from the cell body of a nerve cell are called

  1. cytons
  2. axons
  3. neurons
  4. dendrons

Answer

dendrons

Reason — The short thread-like branches arising from the cell body of a nerve cell are called dendrons, which further divide to form dendrites.

Question 3

The white fibrous tissue present in tendons joins

  1. bone to a bone
  2. muscles to a bone
  3. muscles to a muscles
  4. all of these

Answer

muscles to a bone

Reason — The tendons join the muscles to the bones.

Question 4

Cartilage cells lie in fluid-filled spaces called

  1. plasma
  2. stroma
  3. lacunae
  4. matrix

Answer

matrix

Reason — The cartilage cells are found dispersed in the the ground substance called matrix.

Question 5

These are the most abundant component of the blood.

  1. Platelets
  2. RBCs
  3. WBCs
  4. Lymph

Answer

RBCs

Reason — RBCs are the most abundant component of the blood.

Fill in the blanks

Question 1

Epithelial tissue consists of cells without any ............... spaces.

Answer

Epithelial tissue consists of cells without any intercellular spaces.

Question 2

............... muscles help in the movement of the limbs.

Answer

Skeletal muscles help in the movement of the limbs.

Question 3

The ............... or nerve fibres constitute the nerves.

Answer

The neurons or nerve fibres constitute the nerves.

Question 4

A ............... connects one bone to another.

Answer

A ligament connects one bone to another.

Question 5

............... tissue cushions and insulates the body.

Answer

Adipose tissue cushions and insulates the body.

Question 6

............... is a fluid connective tissue without red blood cells.

Answer

Lymph is a fluid connective tissue without red blood cells.

Define the following terms

Question 1

Voluntary muscles

Answer

Voluntary muscles — The muscles that are under our control and help in the movement of the bones are called voluntary muscles. For Example - muscles of hands and legs.

Question 2

Cardiac muscles

Answer

Cardiac muscles — The special type of involuntary muscles, present in heart, that work continuously without getting tired are called cardiac muscles.

Question 3

Connective tissue

Answer

Connective tissue — Connective tissues join different parts of the body and provide support to them. They also fill up the space between various organs.

Question 4

Connective tissue proper

Answer

Connective tissue proper — Connective tissue proper connects various parts of the body, like muscles to bones or bones to other bones and gives support by filling up spaces between the organs.

Question 5

Adipose tissue

Answer

Adipose tissue — The type of connective tissue which is primarily located beneath the skin, and is also found around the internal organs, providing cushion and insulation to the body is called adipose tissue.

Question 6

Cartilage

Answer

Cartilage — The highly elastic skeletal tissue that consists of a ground substance called matrix with cells is called Cartilage.

Write true or false. Correct the false statements

Question 1

Voluntary muscles are present in the internal organs of the body.

Answer

False

Corrected statement — Involuntary muscles are present in the internal organs of the body.

Question 2

Cardiac muscles have dark and light bands.

Answer

True

Question 3

The yellow fibrous tissue, a type of connective tissue, is found in ligaments.

Answer

True

Question 4

RBCs and WBCs are formed in the bone marrow.

Answer

True

Question 5

Most plant tissues are dead on maturity.

Answer

True

Differentiate between

Question 1

voluntary muscle and involuntary muscle.

Answer

Sl.
No.
Voluntary MuscleInvoluntary Muscle
1.These muscles are under our control.These muscles are not under our control.
2.They help in the movement of the bones of limbs.They are present in internal organs and help in movement of food, movement of urine from urinary bladder and so on.
3.The cells are long, cylindrical and unbranched.The cells are spindle shaped.
4.They are multinucleate.They are uninucleate.
5.They are striated.The are unstriated.

Question 2

tendon and ligament

Answer

Sl.
No.
TendonLigaments
1.They are white fibrous tissue.They are yellow fibrous tissue.
2.They connect muscles to the bones.They connect bone to another bone.
3.They are strong and elastic.They are strong but less elastic.

Question 3

adipose tissue and areolar tissue.

Answer

Sl.
No.
Adipose TissueAreolar Tissue
1.Located beneath the skin and around the internal organs.Forms a continuous layer under the skin.
2.Stores energy in form of fat.Binds the skin with underlying organs.
3.Cushions and insulates the body and provides protective padding around the organs.Fills up the space between various organs and act as a packing material around them.

Question 4

bone and cartilage

Answer

Sl.
No.
BoneCartilage
1.It consists of the ground substance or matrix that is filled with cells called osteocytes and various inorganic compounds.It consists of ground substance called matrix that contains cartilage cells.
2.It is hard tissue.It is highly elastic and less harder than bone.
3.It supports the body and help in the movement of body parts.It protects the bones from the shock and reduces friction between bones

Question 5

red blood cells and white blood cells

Answer

Sl.
No.
Red Blood CellsWhite Blood Cells
1.Red Blood Cells are red in colour due to presence of haemoglobin.White Blood Cells are colourless.
2.Red Blood Cells are produced in bone marrow.White Blood Cells are produced in bone marrow as well as lymph nodes.
3.Red Blood Cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from various parts of the body to the lungs.White Blood Cells fight against infections.
4.Red Blood Cells are disc shape and without nucleus.White Blood Cells are irregular and have large nucleus.
5.Red Blood Cells are small.White Blood Cells are larger.

Find the odd one out. Give reasons for your answers

Question 1

lymph, white fibrous tissue, yellow fibrous tissue, areolar tissue

Answer

lymph

Reason — Lymph is a fluid connective tissue while others are connective tissue proper.

Question 2

tendon, squamous epithelium, ligament, bone

Answer

Squamous epithelium

Reason — Squamous epithelium is epithelial tissue while others are connective tissue.

Question 3

thrombocytes, erythrocytes, epithelium, leucocytes

Answer

epithelium

Reason — Thrombocytes, erythrocytes and leucocytes are components of blood whereas epithelium is epithelial tissue.

Answer the following in short

Question 1

Write any two functions of epithelial tissues.

Answer

Two functions of epithelial tissues:

  1. They provide protection and prevent the entry of germs.
  2. They are specialized to secrete enzymes as in salivary gland.

Question 2

Explain the structure and function of a neuron.

Answer

Neuron has a central part called the cell body or cyton. Many thread-like branches extend from the cyton. These thread-like branches extending from all sides of the cell body are called dendrons. Dendrons further divide to form dendrites. One of these extensions is longer than the rest and is called the axon. Functions of neuron:

  1. Neuron help in the control and coordination of the body.
  2. The information or message is transmitted by a neuron in the form of impulses and in one direction only.
  3. Many neurons or nerve fibres bound together constitute a nerve.

Question 3

What is the difference between a white fibrous tissue and a yellow fibrous tissue?

Answer

Sl.
No.
White Fibrous TissueYellow Fibrous Tissue
1.White Fibrous Tissue are found in the tendons.Yellow Fibrous Tissue are found in the ligaments
2.White Fibrous Tissue connect muscles to the bones.Yellow Fibrous Tissue connect bone to another bone.
3.White Fibrous Tissue have considerable strength and high elasticity.Yellow Fibrous Tissue are strong but less elastic.

Answer the following in detail

Question 1

Name the various types of animal tissues and state their functions.

Answer

The animal tissues are of following types:

  1. Epithelial Tissue— They are further classified as follows:
    1. Squamous epithelium — It protects the body and the organs from injury and entry of germs.
    2. Columnar epithelium — They are present in the linings of the stomach, intestines and pharynx. They are specialized to absorb nutrients.
    3. Cuboidal epithelium — They are found in thyroid gland, kidney tubules, salivary gland, pancreas and liver. They are specialized to secrete enzymes and hormones and remove waste (as in kidneys).
  2. Muscular tissue— They are of following types:
    1. Voluntary muscles — These muscles help in the movement of the bones.
    2. Involuntary muscles — These muscles are not under our control or will. They help in movement of food, movement of urine from urinary bladder and so on.
    3. Cardiac muscles — Cardiac muscles cause the rhythmic movement of the heart resulting in circulation of blood in the body.
  3. Nervous tissues— Nervous tissues help in the control and coordination of the body. The information or message is transmitted by a neuron in the form of impulses and in one direction only.
  4. Connective tissue— They are further classified into following types:
    1. Connective tissue proper — This tissue connects various parts of the body. It connects muscles to bones, bones to other bones and gives support by filling up spaces between the organs.
    2. Skeletal tissue — It is solid connective tissue which provide support to the body. It constitutes of bone and cartilage.
    3. Fluid connective tissue — It is the liquid connective tissue consisting of blood and lymph. It has functions like transportation of oxygen and nutrients and fighting infection.

Question 2

Explain the structure and functions of various types of epithelial tissue.

Answer

On the basis of shape of the cells, epithelial tissues are classified into three types :

  1. Squamous epithelium — The cells of squamous epithelium are flat, hexagonal or irregular in shape. These cells line the inner walls of the blood vessels, lungs, heart and oesophagus. They also form the epidermis of the skin, where they provide protection and prevent the entry of germs.
    Below diagram shows the structure of Squamous epithelium:
Explain the structure and functions of various types of epithelial tissue. Animal Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.
  1. Columnar epithelium — The length of the cells of Columnar epithelium appears much more than their width. The cells are placed side by sides like columns. The nucleus is present towards the base of the cell. They are present in the linings of the stomach, intestines and pharynx. They are specialized to absorb nutrients.
    Below diagram shows the structure of Columnar epithelium:
Explain the structure and functions of various types of epithelial tissue. Animal Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.
  1. Cuboidal epithelium — The cells of Cuboidal epithelium have almost equal height and width. The nucleus is centrally located. They are found in thyroid gland, kidney tubules, salivary gland, pancreas and liver. They are specialized to secrete enzymes and hormones and remove waste (as in kidneys).
    Below diagram shows the structure of Cuboidal epithelium:
Explain the structure and functions of various types of epithelial tissue. Animal Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.

Question 3

Describe the types of muscular tissue with examples.

Answer

Based on the structure and functions performed muscular tissues are of three types — Voluntary muscles, Involuntary muscles and Cardiac muscles.

  1. Voluntary muscles — These muscles are under our control or will. For example, we can control the muscles in our arms and legs when we run, walk or jump. These muscles are also called skeletal muscles as they are attached to the bones. These muscles help in the movement of the bones. The cells of these muscles are long and cylindrical with many nuclei and dark and light bands called striations. Hence, they are also called striated muscles.
  2. Involuntary muscles — They are present in the internal organs of our body like stomach, intestine, bladder etc. They are not under our control. The cells of these muscles are spindle-shaped and have only one nucleus. They do not have any bands or striations, hence these are also called unstriated muscles.
  3. Cardiac muscles — The heart is made up of special type of involuntary muscles called cardiac muscles. Cardiac muscles works continuously without getting tired. Structurally, these muscles resemble voluntary muscles . However, cardiac muscles are similar to involuntary muscles in their function.

Question 4

Describe connective tissue. How is it different from other tissues?

Answer

The connective tissue consists of cells with spaces between them. These spaces are filled with a matrix or ground substance. The living cells produce the non-living matrix, which could be a liquid (in blood), semi-solid (connective tissue proper) or solid (bone). The connective tissues join different parts of the body and provide support to them. They also fill up the space between various organs. They are further classified into following types:

  1. Connective tissue proper — This tissue connects various parts of the body. It connects muscles to bones, bones to other bones and gives support by filling up spaces between the organs.
  2. Skeletal tissue — It is solid connective tissue which provide support to the body. It constitutes of bone and cartilage.
  3. Fluid connective tissue — It is the liquid connective tissue consisting of blood and lymph. It has functions like transportation of oxygen and nutrients and fighting infection.

The connective tissue is different from other tissues because it has cells that are separated from each other. The space between the cells is composed of different intercellular substances that form the matrix or ground substance.

Table showing animal tissues

Question 1

Given below is a table showing animal tissues. Identify them, give their location and write one important function of each.

Answer

StructureNameLocationFunction
Voluntary Muscles Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7Voluntary MusclesPresent in hands, legs, tongue, jaws, body (trunk) and so onHelp in the movement of the bones
Areolar Connective Tissue Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7Areolar Connective TissueForms a continuous layer under the skinBinds the skin with the underlying organs, fills the spaces between various organs and acts as a packing material around them
Squamous Epithelium Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7Squamous EpitheliumInner wall of blood vessels, lungs, heart and oesophagusProvide protection and prevent the entry of germs
Cardiac Muscles Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7Cardiac MusclesHeartPump blood to various parts of our body, work non-stop throughout our lifetime
Cuboidal Epithelium Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7Cuboidal EpitheliumThyroid gland, kidney tubules, pancreas, liver, salivary glandSecrete enzymes and hormones, remove waste products from our body
Adipose Tissue Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7Adipose TissueBeneath the skin and around the internal organsStores energy in the form of fat, cushions and insulates the body and provides protective padding around the internal organs
Involuntary Muscles Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7Involuntary MusclesPresent in the walls of stomach, intestines, urinary bladder and arteriesHelp in movement of food, movement of urine from urinary bladder and so on.
Columnar Epithelium Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7Columnar EpitheliumFound in lining of stomach, intestine and PharynxSecretes enzymes that help in the digestion of food, absorb nutrients from the digested food.

Identify diagrams and label parts

Question 1

Identify the following diagrams and label the parts marked.

Identify the following diagrams and label the parts marked. Animal Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.
Identify the following diagrams and label the parts marked. Animal Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.
Identify the following diagrams and label the parts marked. Animal Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.

Answer

The labelled diagrams are shown below:

Ligament and tendons at a joint. Animal Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.
Adipose Tissue. Animal Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.
Transverse Section of Mammalian Bone. Animal Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.

Correctly label nerve cell

Question 1

Some of the parts of the nerve cell are marked incorrectly. Write the correct names in the space provided.

Some of the parts of the nerve cell are marked incorrectly. Write the correct names in the space provided. Animal Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.

Answer

The correctly labelled nerve cell is shown below:

Some of the parts of the nerve cell are marked incorrectly. Write the correct names in the space provided. Animal Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.

Identify blood cells

Question 1

Identify the types of cells present in the blood.

Identify the types of cells present in the blood. Animal Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.
Identify the types of cells present in the blood. Animal Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.
Identify the types of cells present in the blood. Animal Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.

Answer

Identify the types of cells present in the blood. Animal Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.

Red Blood Cells

Identify the types of cells present in the blood. Animal Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.

White Blood Cells

Identify the types of cells present in the blood. Animal Tissues, Living Science Biology Ratna Sagar Solutions ICSE Class 7.

Blood Platelets

Think and answer

Question 1

On the basis of the clues given, identify the following tissues in humans:

  1. The length of the cells of this tissue appears much more than their breadth. These cells are found in the lining of the stomach and intestines.
  2. It is a special type of involuntary muscle. These muscles work continuously and do not get tired.
  3. This tissue is primarily located beneath the skin, but also found around internal organs. Its main function is to store energy and provide protective padding around organs.

Answer

  1. Columnar epithelium tissue
  2. Cardiac Muscles
  3. Adipose tissue
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