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Chapter 4

Ethics and Safety Measures in Computing

Class 7 - APC Understanding Computer Studies


Choose the correct option

Question 1

Which of the following stops unwanted traffic on internet?

  1. Reinforce
  2. Firewall
  3. Phishing
  4. Protector

Answer

Firewall

Reason — Firewall is a network security device designed to filter incoming traffic and to protect unauthorised access to unknown network.

Question 2

Which of the following is an unethical practice?

  1. Protecting Password
  2. Using original software
  3. Hacking
  4. Passing encrypted message

Answer

Hacking

Reason — Hacking refers to the act of gaining unauthorised access to computer or network resources. Hence, it is an unethical practice.

Question 3

Which of the following is a safeguard against Intellectual Property Rights?

  1. Hacking
  2. Malicious code
  3. Spamming
  4. Copyright

Answer

Copyright

Reason — Copyright prohibits the user of a software program from making copies of it without the permission of the person/company concerned which issues the license for the program. Hence, it acts as a safeguard against Intellectual Property Rights.

Question 4

Which of the following does not represent unauthorised access to computer or network resources?

  1. Sharing
  2. Phishing
  3. Hacking
  4. Bullying

Answer

Sharing

Reason — Sharing is authorised access to computer or network resources.

Question 5

Which of the following is not concerned with Digital Footprint?

  1. Information related to visited websites
  2. Information related to watching videos on the internet
  3. Listening to songs stored in your computer system
  4. Any information submitted online.

Answer

Listening to songs stored in your computer system

Reason — Digital footprint is the trail of data showing activities performed by the user on the internet. As listening to songs stored in the computer system doesn't require internet, hence, it is not concerned with Digital Footprint.

State whether the following statements are True/False

Question 1

It is advised to view age appropriate web sites.
True

Question 2

The people who are involved in the cyber crime are called 'Hackers'.
True

Question 3

Always share your password among your friends.
False

Question 4

It is advised to comment on any social networking site.
False

Question 5

You can always open mail from unknown source.
False

Question 6

Don't try to download unknown software and e-mail attachments that may contain viruses.
True

Question 7

You should always use strong antivirus software in your computer system.
True

Question 8

Firewall is defined as a network security device that allows or rejects network access between the Internet and a private network.
True

Question 9

Whatever activity we perform online becomes our digital footprint.
True

Question 10

It is advised to make and distribute copies of a software.
False

Fill in the blanks

Question 1

Computer ethics is a set of moral values, which regulates the use of computers.

Question 2

The process of making duplicate copy of the original software illegally is known as software piracy.

Question 3

Unwanted emails are called spam.

Question 4

A program which may corrupt the files/documents in your computer is known as virus.

Question 5

Intellectual property means 'Ownership of Ideas', created by using skills and mental ability of the person.

Question 6

In Cyber bullying an aggressive behaviour is shown through text messages, chatting or video communication.

Question 7

It is advised to have antivirus software to protect system from viruses.

Question 8

Phishing is a new kind of cybercrime and method of committing online financial fraud.

Question 9

Firewall is defined as a network security device that allows or rejects network access between an untrusted zone and a trusted zone.

Question 10

Password can be used to protect any document on the Internet.

Case-Study Based Questions

Question 1

Intellectual Property Rights defines the ownership rights given to the people concerned such as artists, scholars, inventors, etc. who use their skill and mental ability in their creations. Trademark, patent and copyright are some tools for protecting intellectual property rights.

Based on the above case, answer the following questions:

(a) Which tool provides the protection to ownership?

  1. Trademark
  2. Ownership
  3. Copyright
  4. Patent

(b) Which protective tool does not allow to make, use, distribute, import or sale a creation commercially?

  1. Copyright
  2. Patent
  3. Plagiarism
  4. Trademark

(c) Which protective tool is the symbol used on the product of a company that can't be used by another company?

  1. Trademark
  2. Patent
  3. Copyright
  4. Firewall

(d) What is the term given to the ownership of original creation?

  1. Private Creation
  2. Intellectual property
  3. Ethical ownership
  4. Public creation

Answer

(a) Patent

(b) Copyright

(c) Trademark

(d) Intellectual property

Write short notes on

Question 1

Software Piracy

Answer

When we purchase a software, we become a licensed user and have a right to use the software on a single computer. But we cannot put copies on other machines or pass the software among our colleagues.

Piracy refers to illegal distribution. The process of making copies of software without buying the appropriate license or copyright is known as software piracy.

Question 2

Spam

Answer

When we open our mailbox, we find a number of unwanted mails have come into our inbox from different parts of the world organizations. Sometimes, the titles of these messages are very fascinating and compel us to read the mails. These unwanted messages of mailbox are called spam.

Spam is an attempt to force the message on people who would not otherwise choose to receive it. Spams not only waste the time of the user but also occupy memory space of the system. Spams may also contain viruses.

Question 3

Phishing

Answer

In the cyber-world, phishing is a form of illegal act where fraudulently, sensitive information is acquired like passwords, debit or credit card details by a person posing as a trustworthy or a business communication.

Question 4

Hacking

Answer

Hacking can be defined as unauthorized use of computer and network resources. Unfortunately these skills are applied in illegal activities.

Hacking is a technique by which some computer experts can access the data from confidential areas of the system.

Question 5

Cyber bullying

Answer

Cyberbullying is a form of bully using digital technology such as internet, emails, social networking sites, mobile phones, personal computers, etc. With the digitisation and easy access to technology, it has become increasingly common, especially among teenagers. Some of the common ways through which cyber bullying takes place are:

  1. Threatening messages by email, text or through comments on a social networking page.
  2. Trapping someone and then sharing personal information widely with others.
  3. Hacking email account to get into their social networking accounts and posting embarrassing or offensive contents.
  4. Spreading embarrassing rumours, secrets or gossip about another person through social networking sites, email or texts.
  5. Posting an embarrassing picture or video of someone to others without their knowledge or permission.

Question 6

Plagiarism

Answer

If we create or develop something on the Internet, then we are the absolute owner of our creation. It comes under intellectual property right. In case, someone uses our creation and produces as his own creation then it is the violation of copyright act.

An act of copying other's creation and producing as own creation in same form or other is known as plagiarism.

Question 7

Firewall

Answer

Firewall is defined as a network security device that allows or rejects network access between an untrusted zone and a trusted zone. It acts as a two way traffic system and protects the computer system as well.

Whenever a message is received, it is passed through Firewall for authentication. If it is from an authorised source then allowed entering your computer system otherwise, blocked.

Question 8

Digital Footprint

Answer

Internet is a very useful tool for getting information and sharing messages. Sometimes, it may happen that we leave information while accessing a site or passing messages through e-mail. We may also leave our account logged-in unknowingly. Leaving used site or mail ID online is said to be digital footprint.

Digital footprint is trailing information online about accessing a site or mail ID left unclosed or undeleted.

Long Answer Questions

Question 1

What do you understand by Ethics? Mention at least five ethical values related to computers.

Answer

Ethics is a set of moral principles that govern the behaviour of a group or individual. Computer ethics regulate the use of computers.

Five ethical values related to computers are as follows:

  1. While accessing Internet, always work in a healthy environment so that the objective is fulfilled.
  2. Do not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid.
  3. Do not try to steal the secret information of any other computer.
  4. You must protect your document by using password and note it in a diary in case you forget it.
  5. If you are working on Internet, you should not browse any unwanted website or open any type of mails of others by any means.

Question 2

What are the advantages of using Internet? Explain.

Answer

The advantages of using Internet are as follows:

  1. Internet can be used for searching any information through various search engines.
  2. The messages can be sent and received through e-mail on internet.
  3. It plays a significant role in research and development work.
  4. It also allows video conversation with the relatives or friends through Skype or Facebook.
  5. It promotes 24 X 7 online shopping.
  6. It keeps a track of share and stock marketing.
  7. Online banking can be used to purchase railway, flight or movie tickets.

Question 3

What is cyberbullying? Explain how some internet users carry it out.

Answer

Cyberbullying is a form of bullying using digital technology such as internet, emails, social networking sites, mobile phones, personal computers, etc. Some of the common ways through which cyber bullying takes place are:

  1. Threatening messages by email, text or through comments on a social networking page.
  2. Trapping someone and then sharing personal information widely with others.
  3. Hacking email account to get into their social networking accounts and posting embarrassing or offensive contents.
  4. Spreading embarrassing rumours, secrets or gossip about another person through social networking sites, email or texts.
  5. Posting an embarrassing picture or video of someone to others without their knowledge or permission.

Question 4

What do you understand by Intellectual Property Rights? Explain.

Answer

Intellectual property means 'Ownership of Ideas' which is created by using skills and mental ability of the person. The softwares originally developed by the persons become the intellectual property of the developers.

Intellectual property rights are the rights given to persons over the creations of their minds. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time. These rights can be exercised in the form of software patents, software copyright or trademark.

Question 5

Enlist some parental assistance for minors while accessing Internet.

Answer

Some parental assistance for minors while accessing Internet are as follows:

  1. By viewing age appropriate web sites.
  2. By using strong password that cannot be cracked so easily.
  3. By not sharing password with any person.
  4. On frequent changing password.
  5. Responding to known email messages or attachments only.
  6. By protecting computer with antivirus software. The antivirus must be latest such as 'Quick Heal' or 'Firewall' that recognizes most of the viruses.

Question 6

What are the different ways to stop Spam?

Answer

The different ways to stop Spam are as follows:

  1. Installing good antivirus software in our computer system.
  2. Avoid reading unwanted email messages and delete them to keep inbox empty

Question 7

What are the disadvantages of using the Internet? Explain.

Answer

The disadvantages of using the Internet are:

  1. Internet is a place to offer so much to its users and hence becomes the biggest factor in distracting one from his/her task.
  2. People actively using internet can face cases of internet bullying and crimes.
  3. Hacking of personal profile and account has become another cause of concern.
  4. Safety of personal data and information also worries the users.
  5. Attack of viruses is also a threat of using internet.
  6. Over-reliance on internet activities can make the user lethargic and irresponsible.

Question 8

How will you avoid Software Piracy? Explain.

Answer

Some guidelines to avoid software piracy are as follows:

  1. Always buy your software from a reputed organization.
  2. Make sure that your software comes with a license agreement, original disk and authentic packaging with copyright.
  3. Avoid buying of multiple software titles from different publishers on a single disk.
  4. If the seller provides the direction to obtain a serial number, it indicates that the software is not authentic.

Question 9

What are the different steps must be taken to avoid hacking?

Answer

The following measures must be taken to avoid hacking:

  1. Don't share your personal information with unknown or suspicious sources.
  2. Don't create a password based on your personal information like last name, telephone number, etc.
  3. Don't share your password with anyone even although he/she is your close friend.
  4. Don't access and download material from illegitimate sites.
  5. Don't try to open and download unknown software and email attachments that may contain viruses.
  6. Use strong antivirus software for your computer.
  7. Don't get tempted towards unknown advertisement.
  8. Don't share sensitive information such as card details, OTP, CVV number, etc. with anyone.

Question 10

Explain how firewall protects a computer system.

Answer

Firewall is defined as a network security device that allows or rejects network access between an untrusted zone (such as the internet) and a trusted zone (a private network). It is designed to filter incoming traffic and to protect unauthorised access from an unknown network.

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