Study Map 2.1 (given below). Then write True or False against these statements.
- The population distribution of the world is not uniform.
- India has less population than Australia.
- Canada and Australia have low population.
- Japan has more population than Brazil.
- More people live in South America than in Europe.
Quick Quiz 1
The number of all the people who live in a particular area is referred to as the population of that area.
What is the total population of India as per the Census of India 2011?
The total population of India as per the Census of India 2011 is 1.21 billion.
The (distribution/density) of population is referred to as the number of persons living on one square kilometre area.
............... cultivation is practised in the thickly populated areas.
The Deccan Plateau of India is moderately populated. True or False?
Quick Quiz 2
The mountainous regions have more population than the plains. True or False?
The (gold mines/soil) attracted people to the desert land of Australia.
Mention two causes of overpopulation.
Two cause of overpopulation are:
- Increase in birth rate.
- Decrease in death rate.
The available resource of a country remain underutilized, when there is ............... .
State two negative impacts of under-population.
Two negative impacts of under-population are:
- There is shortage of labour and this hampers the production of goods and services.
- The available resource of the country remain underutilized.
The underlined word is incorrect. Write the correct word.
In 2011, the total population of the world was five billion.
Extreme climate favours human habitation.
Under population is a state of balance between population and the available resources of an area.
The rural population live in towns and cities.
The population pyramid with a broad base indicates low birth rate.
Tick the correct answers
Which of these regions is not sparsely populated?
- Amazon river basin
- Sahara Desert
- Deccan Plateau
Which of these factors has led to human settlement in the deserts?
- availability of water
- government policy
availability of water
Industrial pollution is an impact of
- optimum population
- under population
- negative population
Which of these factors is not the cause of change of population?
- death rate
- birth rate
People in which age group are economically active?
- above 70 years
Give reasons for the following
Eastern and Southern Asia are densely populated.
Eastern and Southern Asia are densely populated because the warm climate and fertile soil favour the cultivation of crops almost throughout the year. As a result, intensive cultivation is practised here. Moreover, labour-intensive industries have also developed in most of the countries in these regions.
The countries with high population may need not be considered overpopulated.
The countries with high population may need not be considered overpopulated as these countries may have enough resources to support its high population with a good quality of life.
Answer these questions
Distinguish between distribution of population and density of population.
|Distribution of population
|Density of population
|The number of persons living in a particular area or state is called distribution of population
|The number of persons living on one square kilometre area is called density of population.
|It can be expressed as absolute numbers or in percentage.
|It is expressed in number of individuals per square kilometre.
|Distribution of population may not be even for a place.
|Density of population has a fixed value for a given place at a given time.
Where are the moderately populated areas of the world found?
The moderately populated areas are mostly found between the densely and the sparsely populated areas. Most of these areas have developed new industries, facilities for irrigation and mining. Central USA, tropical west Africa, southern parts of Russia, eastern Europe, Deccan Plateau of India, central China and parts of South America are moderately populated.
Why have people settled in such areas?
The moderately populated areas have developed new industries, facilities for irrigation and mining. Hence, in these regions, people have migrated from other areas due to favourable natural and economic factors.
Name five physical factors that affect distribution of population.
Five physical factors that affect distribution of population are:
- Natural vegetation
- Availability of water
Why do urban areas have more population?
The urban areas have diverse economic activities and provide better living conditions than the villages. Thus, people migrate to cities in search of work. That's why urban areas have more population.
Mention two impacts of overpopulation.
Two impacts of overpopulation are:
- Overpopulation puts pressure on natural resources such as cultivable land, freshwater and mineral resources, and result in their degradation and depletion.
- The increase in number of factories to meet the needs of the people results in industrial pollution.
When the population of an area is less than what the available resources of that area can support, the condition is called underpopulation.
What are the causes of underpopulation?
The causes of underpopulation are:
- Decrease in birth rate
- Increase in death rate
- Migration of people out of the area.
Define birth rate and death rate.
Birth rate — The number of live births per thousand persons in a year is called birth rate.
Death rate — The number of deaths per thousand persons in a year is called death rate.
What will happen if the death rate in a year is less than the birth rate?
If death rate in a year is less than the birth rate then their will be increase in population which may lead to overpopulation.
What is a population pyramid?
A population pyramid is a graphical representation which shows the distribution of females and males in different age group, at a place. It is also known as age-sex pyramid. It is useful to understand the composition of population of any country.
What does a population pyramid with broad base tell us about the birth and death rates?
When the population pyramid is broad at the base and tapering towards the top, it depicts that the death rate as well as the birth rate are high. This type of population pyramid represents the population of underdeveloped countries. The population pyramid shows that although the birth rates are high, still many children die in their infancy, and thus very few people reach old age.
Mention two causes for the imbalance in sex ratio.
Two causes for the imbalance in sex ratio are:
- Migration — As mostly the young male population migrate in search of jobs, this creates an imbalance in sex ratio with high sex ratio in the place of origin and low sex ration in the place of destination.
- Female Infanticide — Due to poverty, illiteracy, dowry system and desire for male child, Female Infanticide is practiced in some regions which creates an imbalance in sex ratio.