Like human beings, animals also migrate. Animals migrate over long distances in search of food, a suitable climate or to mate. Read the clues and identify these migrating animals. Then fill in the blanks with correct answers from the box.
Arctic tern, red crab, wildebeest
- This animal migrates from the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania to the Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya, between July and August in search of green pastures.
- This bird migrates from the northern polar region to the Antarctic coast and back to escape the harsh winters.
- This crustacean migrates from the forest to the coasts of Christmas Island in Australia between October and November to breed.
- Arctic tern
- Red crab
Quick Quiz 1
The movement of people for the purpose of tourism is considered as migration.
True or false?
Reason — The movement of people for the purpose of settling down is called migration.
What is internal migration?
The migration that takes place within the same country is called internal migration.
Give an example of urban to rural migration in the context of developing countries.
Migration of retired personnel to settle in their native village.
A person who has migrated from India to Canada is called an ............... in Canada.
The factors that attract migrants to new areas are called the (push/pull) factors.
Fill in the blanks
Migration from ............... to ............... areas is common in developing countries.
Migration from rural to urban areas is common in developing countries.
Unemployment and poverty are the ............... factors for migration.
Unemployment and poverty are the push factors for migration.
The proportion of elderly population in places of out-migration is ............... .
The proportion of elderly population in places of out-migration is high.
Kerala receives ............... from the international migrants.
Kerala receives remittances from the international migrants.
Shortage of skilled professionals in the country of origin is an impact of ............... .
Shortage of skilled professionals in the country of origin is an impact of emigration .
Match the columns
|Column A||Column B|
|1.||migration for business||a person who leaves her/his country to settle elsewhere|
|2.||refugees||inhabited by French immigrants|
|3.||emigrant||human capital flight|
|4.||Quebec||migrate due to war|
|5.||brain drain||urban to urban migration|
|Column A||Column B|
|1.||migration for business||urban to urban migration|
|2.||refugees||migrate due to war|
|3.||emigrant||a person who leaves her/his country to settle elsewhere|
|4.||Quebec||inhabited by French immigrants|
|5.||brain drain||human capital flight|
Give reasons for the following
The movement of nomads is not considered migration.
The movement of nomads is not considered migration because their movement is in search of food for their families and cattle. They have no intention to settle down in the new place.
High sex ratio is found in the place of origin of migrants.
High sex ratio is found in the place of origin of migrants because generally young male population migrate in search of employment resulting in decrease of male population as compared to female population.
Answer these questions
Migration is the movement of people from one territory to another or within the same territory with the intention to settle down.
Distinguish between internal and external migration.
|Internal migration||External migration|
|1.||The migration that takes place within the same country is called internal migration.||The migration of people from one country to other is called external migration.|
|2.||Types of Internal migration are: rural to urban, urban to rural, rural to rural and urban to urban area.||Types of External migration are emigration and immigration|
|3.||For example: migration of labourers from Bihar to Mumbai.||For example: migration of people from India to USA.|
Name the different types of internal migration.
Types of Internal migration are:
- Rural to urban migration
- Urban to rural migration
- Rural to rural migration
- Urban to urban migration
Why do people migrate from rural to urban areas?
People migrate from rural to urban areas in search of better job opportunities, better education facilities, health services and basic amenities.
What is meant by push factors in migration?
The factors that force people to move to other areas leaving their native place are called push factors in migration. For example, unemployment and shortage of food are the push factors that cause migration of people.
State three push factors responsible for migration.
Three push factors responsible for migration are:
- Religious or social oppression
Mention two impacts of migration on social structure.
Two impacts of migration on social structure are:
- Migration leads to a change in the racial and cultural composition of the population in the place of destination. The migrants are good agents of social change as they bring new ideas related to technologies, family planning, girl child education and other social issues.
- In some areas, the different ethnic groups are not able to adjust with each other and may often engage in conflict.
Explain how the migrants impact the political system.
The migrants are often an important factor in deciding the political future of a country. The presence of migrants can help in improving the relations between the sending and the receiving countries. Migrants also constitute an important vote bank for the political parties.
Define brain drain.
Brain drain refers to a situation when highly qualified and skilled people emigrate to work and settle permanently in another country that provides them better employment opportunities.
Mention three pull factors that cause brain drain.
Three pull factors that cause brain drain are:
- High level of industrial development.
- Availability of high quality jobs.
- High salary.
How are remittances useful?
The remittances that the migrants send home adds to the economic prosperity of their families. They are also a major source of foreign exchange for the source countries.