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Chapter 9

Food Production

Class 8 - Concise Biology Selina


Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1

Which one of the following is an indigenous breed of dairy cows?

  1. Jersey
  2. Frieswal
  3. Sahiwal
  4. Dangi

Answer

Sahiwal

Reason — Sahiwal is an indigenous breed of dairy cows

Question 2

Which one of the following is the common breed of buffalo found in Gujarat?

  1. Surti
  2. Murrah
  3. Gir
  4. Mehsana

Answer

Mehsana

Reason — This is a breed common in Gujarat. Its average milk yield is about 1200-2500 litres.

Question 3

Identify the indigenous breed of poultry of India.

  1. White Leghorn
  2. HH-260
  3. Aseel
  4. B-77

Answer

Aseel

Reason — The most popular indigenous poultry breed of India is Aseel.

Question 4

Which one of the following is a rabi crop?

  1. Mustard
  2. Pea
  3. Rice
  4. Wheat

Answer

Wheat

Reason — Wheat is an important rabi crop of India as it is sown in October/early November.

Question 5

Identify the Kharif crop.

  1. Barley
  2. Mustard
  3. Rice
  4. Wheat

Answer

Rice

Reason — Rice is the most important Kharif crop of India.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1

Fill in the blanks:

(a) Cattle feed made from cereals and wheat is called ...............

(b) Rearing of birds for eggs and meat is called ...............

(c) Animal food is rich in ...............

Answer

(a) Cattle feed made from cereals and wheat is called concentrates.

(b) Rearing of birds for eggs and meat is called poultry.

(c) Animal food is rich in proteins.

Question 2

Name the following :

(a) The popular indigenous breed of poultry in india ...............

(b) Rearing of honey bees ..............

(c) Architect of white revolution in India ..............

(d) A kashmiri goat which gives expensive wool ..............

(e) Scientist responsible for green revolution in India ..............

Answer

(a) Aseel.

(b) Apiculture.

(c) Mr. Verghese Kurien.

(d) Kashmiri Pashmina.

(e) M. S. Swaminathan.

Question 3

Match the columns:

Column AColumn B
(a) Rabi crop(i) Transplantation
(b) Rice crop(ii) Winter crop
(c) Orchards(iii) Kharif crop

Answer

Column AColumn B
(a) Rabi crop(ii) Winter crop
(b) Rice crop(iii) Kharif crop
(c) Orchards(i) Transplantation

Question 4(a)

Name any four animals which provide us food.

Answer

Goat, Sheep, Pig, Hen

Question 4(b)

Name any two dual purpose breeds of cattle.

Answer

Dangi and Tharparkar

Question 4(c)

Give two examples of milch animals.

Answer

Cows, Goats

Question 4(d)

Name any two high-yielding indigenous breeds of cow .

Answer

Gir, Sahiwal

Question 4(e)

Name four varieties of edible fishes in India.

Answer

Bombay Duck, Eel, Hilsa, Salmon

Question 4(f)

Name two breeds of buffaloes.

Answer

Murrah, Surti

Question 5

Briefly explain the following terms :

(a) Animal Husbandry

(b) Sericulture

(c) Aquaculture

(d) Hatcheries

(e) Pisciculture

Answer

(a) Animal Husbandry — The branch of biology which deals with feeding, shelter, caring and breeding of domesticated animals is called animal husbandry.

(b) Sericulture — The technique of artificial rearing of silkworm for production of silk is called sericulture.

(c) Aquaculture — Aquaculture is the term used for production or farming of useful aquatic animals like fish, prawns, lobsters, molluscs, etc.

(d) Hatcheries — A hatchery is a facility where eggs are hatched under artificial conditions, especially those of fish or poultry.

(e) Pisciculture — Pisciculture is the production and management of fishes. It involves breeding and raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures mainly for food.

Question 6

What is organic farming?

Answer

Organic farming is the practice of raising crops without using synthetic fertilisers and pesticides. The main aim of organic farming is to enhance soil fertility, grow crops in an ecofriendly environment free from chemical pollution (pesticides) and thus produce crops with high nutritional value.

Long Answer Questions

Question 1

Differentiate between an egger and a broiler.

Answer

Difference between egger and a broiler.

EggerBroiler
The egg laying chickens are called EggersChickens reared for obtaining meat are called Broilers
Eggers need food rich in vitamins, minerals and micronutrients.Broilers require food rich in proteins, fats and vitamin A & K.
Eggers require enough space and adequate lighting for proper growth.Broilers require conditions to grow fast with low mortality.

Question 2

Name any two exotic breeds of fowl in India, and mention their usefulness.

Answer

Two exotic breeds of fowl in India are —

  1. White leghorn — Its size is small and it needs less feed for maintenance. Thus, its farming is more economical hence it is more popular.
  2. Rhode Island Red — It serves both the purposes as it is a good egg layer and also provides enough meat. It was raised on a farm in Rhode Island of USA so it is named as Rhode Island Red.

Question 3

What are "milch animals"? Give two examples each of exotic and cross breeds of cows.

Answer

Animals reared for producing milk like cows, buffaloes, goats, etc. are called milch animals.

Jersey and Brown Swiss are examples of exotic breeds of cows. Karan-Fries and Frieswal are cross breeds of cows.

Question 4

What is the meaning of term "aquaculture" ? Name any three animals which can be cultured by this method .

Answer

The term Aquaculture is used for the production or farming of useful aquatic animals in various types of water bodies.
Three animals cultured by this method are fish, prawns and lobsters.

Question 5

Differentiate between food crops and cash crops. Give two examples of each.

Answer

Food cropCash crop
Food crops are cultivated for the production of food.Cash crops are cultivated for commercial purposes.
Examples — Wheat, PulsesExamples — Cotton, Rubber

Question 6

What are Kharif crops ? Name the most important cereal plant of such crops.

Answer

Kharif crops (means "autumn crops") are raised in the rainy season (June to October). These crops are usually sown at the beginning of the monsoon season around June and harvested by September or October. Rice is the most important kharif crop of India.

Question 7

Name the two main crop seasons of India. Give three examples of the crops grown during each season.

Answer

The two main crop seasons of India are:

  1. Kharif Season — Kharif crops (means "autumn crops") are raised in the rainy season (June to October). Three kharif crops are Rice, Maize and Cotton.
  2. Rabi Season — Rabi crops (means "winter crops") are raised in the winters (October to March). Three rabi crops are Wheat, Barley, Mustard.

Question 8

List the uses of bacteria in the food industry.

Answer

Some of the uses of bacteria in the food industry are:

  1. Bacteria are used in making Curd, Cheese, Alcohol, Vinegar, etc.
  2. Curing of tea is done with the help of bacteria.
  3. Bacteria are used in agriculture to enrich the soil with nitrates.

Question 9

Name any one variety of edible mushrooms .

Answer

White button mushroom (agaricus bisporus) are edible mushrooms.

Question 10

Mention the benefits of "Green Revolution" in our country.

Answer

Following are the benefits of "Green Revolution" in our country:

  1. Green Revolution enabled the agriculture industry to produce much larger quantities of food grains making it possible to feed the growing population of the country.
  2. It made the country self sufficient in Wheat production.
  3. It improved the economic condition of the farmers.
  4. It enabled the agriculture industry to give employment to a large section of India's population.

Question 11

List out the benefits of "White Revolution" in our country.

Answer

Following are the benefits of "White Revolution" in our country:

  1. White Revolution resulted in India becoming the largest producer of milk and milk products in the world.
  2. It strengthened the dairy farmer’s income.
  3. It ensured easy availability of milk at a fair price to all.
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