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Civics — Chapter 1

The Union Legislature

Class 8 - Effective History & Civics Solutions


Fill in the blanks

Question 1

The Union Legislature comprises the President and the two houses of Parliament.

Question 2

The President of India can nominate twelve members to the Rajya Sabha from the fields of art, literature, science and social service.

Question 3

The Presiding officer of the Lok Sabha is the Speaker

Question 4

The Rajya Sabha is a permanent body which is not dissolved.

Question 5

A Bill is a draft of a proposed law.

Match the following columns

Question 1

Sl. No.Column AColumn B
1.Concurrent List(a) ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha.
2.Rajya Sabha(b) Has to pass through three stages.
3.Lok Sabha(c) Both the Union and the State government can make laws on its subjects.
4.Bill(d) Council of States.
5.Vice-President of India(e) House of People.

Answer

Sl. No.Column AColumn B
1.Concurrent List(c) Both the Union and the State government can make laws on its subjects
2.Rajya Sabha(d) Council of States.
3.Lok Sabha(e) House of People.
4.Bill(b) Has to pass through three stages.
5.Vice-President of India(a) ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha.

Answer the following questions

Question 1

Discuss the composition of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.

Answer

Composition of Lok Sabha — The Lok Sabha is composed of the representatives of the people. Its maximum permissible numerical strength is 550 members. The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people of India. Of these, 530 members are directly elected from the States and upto 20 from the Union territories.

Composition of Rajya Sabha — The numerical strength of the Rajya Sabha is 250. The 238 members represent the States and the Union Territories, while 12 members are nominated by the President from the fields of art, literature, science and social service. The 238 members are indirectly elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of each State and by the members of the Electoral College for that Union Territory, as the case may be, in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote.

Question 2

What are the qualifications necessary to be a member of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha?

Answer

To become a member of Lok Sabha, a person must:

  1. be a citizen of India.
  2. be 25 years of age.
  3. not hold any office of profit under the Government of India.
  4. possess sound mental health.
  5. not be a proclaimed criminal, insolvent or bankrupt.

To become a member of Rajya Sabha, a person must:

  1. be a citizen of India.
  2. be 30 years of age and above.
  3. possess sound mental health.
  4. not hold any office of profit under the Government of India.
  5. not be a criminal or insolvent.

Question 3

Why is the Rajya Sabha called a permanent house?

Answer

The Rajya Sabha is called a permanent house because it is never dissolved. One-third of its members retire every two years. Each member is elected for a term of six years.

Question 4

State any two functions of the Speaker of Lok Sabha.

Answer

Two functions of the Speaker of Lok Sabha are:

  1. The Speaker presides over the proceedings of the Lok Sabha and maintains order in the house.
  2. He does not exercise his vote, but in case there is a tie, he exercises his casting vote (deciding vote) and helps one side to win.

Question 5

Name the three lists used to categorise the Legislative subjects. Also state the number of subjects in each list and two examples of subjects in each list.

Answer

The three lists used to categorise the Legislative subjects are:

  1. The Union List — It contains 100 subjects. Two examples are defence and finance.
  2. The State List — It contains 61 subjects. Two examples are public health and sanitation, drainage.
  3. The Concurrent List — It contains 47 subjects. Two examples are social planning and education.

Question 6

Discuss the functions of the Union Legislature.

Answer

Following are the functions of the Union Legislature:

  1. Law Making Function — It can make laws on any subject contained in the Union and the Concurrent List. To amend a part of the Constitution, a bill can be introduced only in the Parliament.
  2. Passing the Budget — Union Budget is passed by the Parliament. The budget shows the details of the expected income of the government and how it plans to spend it. The Parliament has the power to accept or reject the Budget.
  3. Judicial Functions — It has power to impeach the President, Vice-President and judges of the Supreme Court and High Court, in case they do not abide by the Constitution or misuse their power.
  4. Electoral Functions — It plays a significant role in the election of the President and the Vice-President of India.
  5. Passing a Bill — A law is introduced in the Parliament in the form of a Bill. A Bill is a draft of the proposed law. After the bill is passed by both the Houses of the Parliament and gets the assent of the President, it becomes a law.
  6. Miscellaneous Powers — The Parliament can make laws regarding the composition, jurisdiction and powers of the Supreme Court. It may establish a common High Court for two or more states. It may also alter the name or boundaries of any State.

Question 7

What is a bill? Name the different kinds of bills. When does a bill become a law?

Answer

A Bill is a draft of the proposed law. A law is introduced in the Parliament in the form of a Bill. There are three kinds of Bills:

  1. Ordinary Bill
  2. Money Bill
  3. Constitution Amendment Bill

The Process of considering a bill is called reading. A bill has to pass through three stages called First, Second and Third Reading. First reading refers to introduction, Second reading refers to discussion and Third reading refers to it's final rejection or acceptance. If passed, the Bill is sent to the other house where it again undergoes all the three stages.

When a Bill is passed by both the Houses of the Parliament, it is assented to by the President and then it becomes a law, known as the Act.

Picture Study

Question 1

Study the picture and answer the following questions:

Study the picture and answer the questions. Name the two houses, whose sessions are  held in the building given in the picture. State the numerical strength of each house. What are the necessary qualifications for becoming members of these two houses? Which of the two houses is a permanent House? State any three functions of the Union Legislature. The Union Legislature, Effective History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 8.

(a) Name the two houses, whose sessions are held in the building given in the picture. State the numerical strength of each house.

(b) What are the necessary qualifications for becoming members of these two houses?

(c) Which of the two houses is a permanent House? State any three functions of the Union Legislature.

Answer

(a) The building shown in the picture is the Parliament building. Sessions of Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha are held here.

The numerical strength of Lok Sabha is 550 and that of Rajya Sabha is 250.

(b) To become a member of Lok Sabha, a person must:

  1. be a citizen of India.
  2. be 25 years of age.
  3. not hold any office of profit under the Government of India.
  4. possess sound mental health.
  5. not be a proclaimed criminal, insolvent or bankrupt.

To become a member of Rajya Sabha, a person must:

  1. be a citizen of India.
  2. be 30 years of age and above.
  3. possess sound mental health.
  4. not hold any office of profit under thr Government of India.
  5. not be a proclaimed criminal, insolvent or bankrupt.

(c) Rajya Sabha is permanent house.

Following are the three functions of the Union Legislature:

  1. Law Making Function — It can make laws on any subject contained in the Union and the Concurrent List. To amend a part of the Constitution, a bill can be introduced only in the Parliament.
  2. Passing the Budget — Union Budget is passed by the Parliament. The budget shows the details of the expected income of the government and how it plans to spend it. The Parliament has the power to accept or reject the Budget.
  3. Judicial Functions — It has power to impeach the President, Vice-President and judges of the Supreme Court and High Court, in case they do not abide by the Constitution or misuse their power.
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