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Civics — Chapter 2

The Union Executive

Class 8 - Effective History & Civics Solutions


Fill in the blanks

Question 1

The Union Executive comprises the President, the Vice-President, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers.

Question 2

The Electoral College for electing the President consists of the elected members of both the Houses of the Parliament and the elected members of the legislative assemblies of the State.

Question 3

The President appoints the leader of the majority party as the Prime minister.

Question 4

The candidates for the post of Vice-President should be qualified for the membership of Rajya Sabha.

Question 5

The Council of ministers is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha.

Match the following columns

Question 1

Sl. No.Column AColumn B
1.President(a) Breakdown of constitutional machinery in a State.
2.Prime Minister(b) Policy framing body.
3.State Emergency(c) Ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
4.The Cabinet(d) Power to grant pardon or reduce the punishment of an offender.
5.Vice-President(e) Distributes portfolios among the Ministers.

Answer

Sl. No.Column AColumn B
1.President(d) Power to grant pardon or reduce the punishment of an offender
2.Prime Minister(e) Distributes portfolios among the Ministers.
3.State Emergency(a) Breakdown of constitutional machinery in a State.
4.The Cabinet(b) Policy framing body.
5.Vice-President(c) Ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

Answer the following questions

Question 1

What are the qualifications necessary to be elected as the President of India?

Answer

To contest for election to become the President of India, one must:

  1. be a citizen of India.
  2. have completed the age of 35 years.
  3. have qualifications necessary to be a member of the Lok Sabha.
  4. must not hold any office of profit under the government of India.

Question 2

On what grounds can the President be removed from his office?

Answer

The President can be removed from his office for the violation of the Constitution by the process of impeachment. The resolution to impeach may be moved in any of the Houses and has to be passed by a two-third majority of that House.

Question 3

What are the financial powers of the President?

Answer

The financial powers of the President are:

  1. Money-bills can be introduced in the Parliament only on the recommendation of the President.
  2. The President can authorise withdrawal of Money in advance from the Contingency Fund of India to meet unforeseen expenditure.
  3. The President appoints a Finance Commission after every five years to make recommendations on financial matters.

Question 4

Discuss the circumstances under which the President can declare emergency in the country.

Answer

The President can declare emergency in the country under the following circumstances:

  1. When the security of the country or any part of it is threatened by war or external aggression or armed rebellion, National or General Emergency is declared.
  2. If there is a breakdown of the Constitutional machinery in a State, the President can declare emergency in that State.
  3. If there is a threat to the financial stability of the country, the President can declare financial emergency.

Question 5

Discuss the role of the Prime Minister as the real head of the executive.

Answer

The Prime Minister acts as the link between the Council of Ministers and the President. He informs the President about the decisions of the Cabinet and the matters of the government. Cabinet Ministers are appointed by the President on his advice. The Prime Minister distributes portfolios among the Council of ministers. He presides over the meetings of the Cabinet and coordinates the working of various departments. He makes all the important announcement on national policies on the floor of the House. He advices the President on summoning the house and dissolving the Lok Sabha. He recommends appointments of Chief Justice, judges of Supreme court, Governors of the State, etc. Thus we can say that the Prime Minister is the real head of the executive.

Question 6

What are the powers and functions of the Cabinet?

Answer

The powers and functions of the Cabinet are as follows:

  1. The Cabinet makes both the external and internal policies of the government on such matters as defence and security needs, energy requirements, savings for future, health projects, President's rule in the State, formation of new States, electoral reforms, etc.
  2. It is a policy-framing body. It determines policies which are followed by the ministers of the concerned department.
  3. The Cabinet coordinates the working of various departments.
  4. It is responsible for the expenditure of the Government and raising the necessary revenues to meet it.
  5. It prepares the President's Special Address to the Parliament.
  6. It advices the President while issuing Ordinances.
  7. The Cabinet decides the foreign policy of the nation, directs how to negotiate agreements and choose ambassadors.
  8. The President declares emergency on the recommendation of the Cabinet.

Picture Study

Question 1

Study the picture and answer the following questions:

Study the picture and answer the questions. Identify the building in the picture. Where is it located? List the executive powers of the person who resides here. List the functions of the President of India. The Union Executive, Effective History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 8.

(a) Identify the building in the picture. Where is it located?

(b) List the executive powers of the person who resides here.

(c) List the functions of the President of India.

Answer

(a) The building in the picture is the Rashtrapati Bhavan. It is located in New Delhi.

(b) The President of India resides here. Following are the executive powers of the President:

  1. The President appoints the leader of the majority party as the Prime Minister and other ministers are appointed by him on the advice of the Prime Minister.
  2. The President appoints the Attorney-General of India, the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India, members of the Finance Commission, the Union Public Service Commission, the Election Commission, the judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts, the Governors of the States, Ambassadors and diplomatic representatives. He can also remove them from office.
  3. The administration of the Union Territories is under the President.
  4. The executive power of the Union is vested in the President. All executive orders are issued in the name of the President.

(c) The President is the head of the Executive. He is also the head of state, but he is only a nominal head. Following are the functions of the President:

  1. Executive Functions — The President appoints the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Attorney-General, Comptroller and Auditor-General etc. The administration of Union Territories is under President.
  2. Military Functions — The President is the Chief Commander of the armed forces. He appoints the Chiefs of the Army, Navy and Air Force. He can declare war and make peace treaties.
  3. Legislative Functions — The President calls for joint session, nominates 12 members of Rajya Sabha, gives assent to bills and issues ordinance. He can summon and prorogue both the houses of the Parliament and dissolve the Lok Sabha.
  4. Financial Functions — The President appoints a Finance Commission after every five years, recommends money bills to be introduced in the Parliament and authorises the withdrawal of money from the Contingency Fund of India.
  5. Judicial Functions — The President can grant pardon and is not answerable to any Court of Law for the exercise of his powers and duties of his office.
  6. Diplomatic Functions — The President represents the country in international conference, receives and appoints ambassadors and all international treaties are conducted on his name.
  7. Emergency related Functions — The President has the power to declare emergency in country or state whenever the situation of aggression, armed rebellion, financial instability, etc. arises.
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