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Civics — Chapter 4

United Nations

Class 8 - Effective History & Civics Solutions


Name the following

Question 1

Two leaders associated with the formation of the UN.

Answer

(a) Franklin D. Roosevelt

(b) Winston Churchill

Question 2

Two principal organs of the UN.

Answer

(a) General Assembly

(b) The Security Council

Question 3

Two permanent members of the UN.

Answer

(a) China

(b) France

Question 4

Two official languages of the UN.

Answer

(a) English

(b) French

Question 5

First two Secretary-Generals of the UN.

Answer

(a) Trygve Lie

(b) Dag Hammarskjoeld

Fill in the blanks

Question 1

The League of Nations was established in Geneva (switzerland) in 1920.

Question 2

24th October is celebrated every year throughout the world as the United Nations Day.

Question 3

Disarmament, Decolonisation and Development are the three new objectives set up by the UN.

Question 4

The General Assembly is like the International Parliament where all the important issues are discussed.

Question 5

The Secretary-General is the chief administrative officer of the UN.

Match the following columns

Question 1

Sl. No.Column AColumn B
1.Washington Declaration(a) Appointed by the General Assembly on the Security Council's recommendation.
2.Veto Power(b) New York.
3.UN Secretary-General(c) Declaration of the United Nations.
4.UN Headquarters(d) Last Trust Territory of the UN.
5.Palau(e) Five permanent members of the UN.

Answer

Sl. No.Column AColumn B
1.Washington Declaration(c) Declaration of the United Nations.
2.Veto Power(e) Five permanent members of the UN.
3.UN Secretary-General(a) Appointed by the General Assembly on the Security Council's recommendation.
4.UN Headquarters(b) New York.
5.Palau(d) Last Trust Territory of the UN.

Answer the following questions

Question 1

State the principles of the United Nations.

Answer

Following are the Principles of United Nations:

  1. Members have sovereign equality.
  2. Members must abide by the Charter.
  3. Members should settle international disputes by peaceful means.
  4. Members should abstain from threatening or use of force against any member state.
  5. Members should assist the United Nations in any action it takes.
  6. The United Nations should not interfere in the internal affairs of any member state.

Question 2

How can we say that the General Assembly is like an International Parliament?

Answer

The General Assembly takes decisions on important matters like the election of the non-permanent members of the Security Council, admission of new members, suspension of members, budgetary questions by a majority of members present and voting, etc. So, the General Assembly is like an International Parliament, where important issues are discussed and all the decisions are made by a majority vote.

Question 3

Name the permanent members of the security Council.

Answer

The permanent members of the security Council are — China, United Kingdom, United State of America, France and Russia.

Question 4

Why is Security Council an important organ of the United Nations?

Answer

The Security Council is the executive organ of the United Nations. It is primarily responsible for maintaining international peace and security. It recommends peaceful ways of settling disputes and also takes military action against an aggressor. The Security Council recommends the appointment of the Secretary-General and elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice. It also recommends admission of new members.

Question 5

In the context of the Veto Power, answer the following questions:

(a) What is the meaning of the right to veto?

(b) Who has got the veto power?

Answer

(a) The permanent members of the Security Council have a negative vote called 'veto'. When the permanent members use their veto power, the Council powerless or ineffective. This means that if any of the permanent members votes against a resolution, even if all the other members agree to it, the resolution cannot be adopted.

(b) The permanent members of Security Council — China, United Kingdom, United State of America, France and Russia; have the veto power.

Question 6

What is the primary function of the Economic and Social Council?

Answer

The main function of the Economic and Social Council is to promote economic and social co-operation among its members. It also coordinates the humanitarian and cultural activities of the United Nations.

Question 7

Why was the Trusteeship Council suspended?

Answer

The trusteeship Council was established after the Second World War to supervise administration and development of Trust territories. These territories were not totally self-governing and were prepared for self-government by nations designated as their trustees by the UN. There were 11 such territories. Gradually, these territories gained independence and formed their government. Thus the Council lost its significance and it was suspended on November 1, 1994.

Question 8

Enumerate the functions of the General Assembly.

Answer

The General Assembly is like an International Parliament, where important issues are discussed and all the decisions are made by a majority vote. Some of important functions of the General Assembly are:

  1. To discuss any matter relating to international peace and security.
  2. To make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of disputes.
  3. To receive and consider reports from the Security Council and other organs.
  4. To consider and approve the budget of the United Nations.
  5. To elect the non-permanent members of the Economic and Social Council and the judges of the international Court of Justice.
  6. To appoint the UN Secretary-General on the recommendation of the Security Council.

Question 9

State the composition and functions of the International Court of Justice.

Answer

Composition of the International Court of Justice— The International Court of Justice consists of 15 judges elected for a nine year term by the General Assembly and the Security Council. Five Judges retire every three years. No two judges can be from the same Country. The International Court of Justice elects its President and Vice-President for a three year term.

Functions of the International Court of Justice— It resolves disputes concerning border and territorial issues. It gives legal opinion on international disputes. It plays a significant role in the codification of international laws, international conventions and customs.

Picture Study

Question 1

Study the picture and answer the following questions:

Study the picture and answer the questions. Identify the organisation from the logo given in the picture. When did this organisation come into existence? What are the objectives of this organisation? What are the main functions of this organisation? United Nations, Effective History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 8.

(a) Identify the organisation from the logo given in the picture. When did this organisation come into existence?

(b) What are the objectives of this organisation?

(c) What are the main functions of this organisation?

Answer

(a) The given logo belongs to the United Nations. The United Nations came into existence on October 24, 1945.

(b) The objectives of the United Nations are mentioned in Article 1 of the UN Charter as:

  1. To maintain international peace and security.
  2. To develop friendly relations among nations.
  3. To promote and encourage respect for human rights and for fundamental freedom.
  4. To cooperate in solving collectively international problems of economic, social, cultural and humanitarian character.
  5. To be a centre for harmonising the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.

Besides these, three new objectives have been lined up by the UN. These include Disarmament, Decolonisation and Development.

(c) The main functions of the United nations are:

  1. To prevent wars and to maintain international peace.
  2. To make recommendations for peaceful settlements of disputes.
  3. To take military action against an aggressor.
  4. To promote economic and social co-operation among the countries.
  5. To promote and encourage respect for human rights and for fundamental freedom.
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