KnowledgeBoat Logo
OPEN IN APP

History — Chapter 11

India's Struggle for Freedom — Phase 1

Class 8 - Effective History & Civics Solutions


Answer the following

Question 1

Give any two examples to indicate that the British followed the policy of economic exploitation in India.

Answer

Two examples to indicate that the British followed the policy of economic exploitation in India are:

  1. The British government took away a large part of the produce from the peasants in the form of land revenue and other taxes. These exorbitant taxes led the peasants into the clutches of landlords and moneylenders. In case of non-payment of taxes, they were evicted from their land.
  2. The British economic policies were against the interests of Indian trade and industry. India became a source of raw material for the British industries and a market for its finished products. This policy crippled the artisans and craftsmen as they were devoid of their sources of livelihood.

Question 2

Give two reasons for industrial stagnation during the British rule in India.

Answer

Two reasons for industrial stagnation during the British rule in India were:

  1. The British economic policies were against the interest of Indian trade and industry. The English East India Company used its political power to destroy Indian handicraft and industry. India became a source of raw materials for the industries of the company and a market for its finished products. This policy crippled the artisans and craftsmen as they were devoid of their sources of livelihood.
  2. The growth of modern industries led to the birth of a new social class in India — the working class. They were exploited by the factory owners, who were generally Englishmen.

Question 3

What role did the Press play in the National Movement?

Answer

The press played a significant role in developing a strong national sentiment:

  1. by reading the message of patriotism and modern liberal ideas of freedom, equality, home rule and independence.
  2. by making people aware of unjust policies of the British government and exposing the true nature of British rule in India through various articles in the newspapers.
  3. by allowing different groups of people belonging to different parts of the country to exchange views.
  4. by making Indians aware of the different happenings in the world and comparing them with Indian condition and thus arousing national awakening.

Question 4

Who passed the Vernacular Press Act? Why was it passed?

Answer

The Vernacular Press Act was passed by Lord Lytton, the Viceroy of India.

This act forbade vernacular papers to publish any material that might excite feelings of dissatisfaction against the British government.

Question 5

Name any two prominent newspapers of the 19th century which played a significant role in arousing national sentiment among the Indians.

Answer

Two prominent newspapers of the 19th century which played a significant role in arousing national sentiment among the Indians were Maharatta and Kesari.

Question 6

When and by whom was the Indian National Congress founded?

Answer

The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885 by A.O. Hume.

Question 7

Which period of the national movement is known as the period of the Early Nationalist?

Answer

The period from 1885 to 1905 is known as the period of the Early Nationalist.

Question 8

Name any three Early Nationalist leaders.

Answer

Three Early Nationalist leaders were:

  1. Sir Phirozshah Mehta
  2. Gopal Krishna Gokhale
  3. Surendranath Banerjee.

Question 9

What methods did the Early Nationalist use to achieve their objectives?

Answer

The early Nationalist used to put their demands in the form of three P's i.e., Petitions, Prayers and Protests to achieve their objectives. They discussed various problems at the Congress annual sessions and passed resolutions concerning them. Then they petitioned the British government to remove them and propagated its views among the people. They wrote articles in news papers to carry out a criticism of the government policies. Sometimes they protested against some policies but by remaining in constitutional limits.

Question 10

Who were Assertive Nationalists? Why were they so called?

Answer

The Assertive Nationalists were leaders who emerged by 1905 when the Early Nationalists had reached the limits of their political growth. They were so called because they were more assertive in their demands as they had no faith in the British sense of fair play and justice.

Question 11

Name three prominent Assertive Nationalist leaders.

Answer

The three prominent Assertive Nationalist leaders were:

  1. Lala Lajpat Rai
  2. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
  3. Bipin Chandra Pal

Question 12

What was the aim of the Assertive Nationalists as far as the national movement was concerned?

Answer

The aim of the Assertive Nationalist as far as the national movement was concerned was immediate attainment of 'Swaraj'. This meant complete independence and not just self government as existed in the colonies of Australia and New zealand.

Question 13

State two differences between the Early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists.

Answer

Sl. No.Early NationalistsAssertive Nationalists
1.The Early Nationalists wanted to achieve self-government and they strove for autonomy within the Empire and not for absolute independence.The Assertive Nationalists aimed at nothing short of Swaraj as it existed in the United Kingdom.
2.They believed in constitutional methods and worked within the framework of the law.They were assertive in their approach.

Question 14

What is meant by the terms: (i) Swadeshi (ii) Boycott?

Answer

(i) Swadeshi literally means of one's own country. It aimed at the promotion of indigenous industries for strengthening the nation.

(ii) Boycott meant 'abstaining from the purchase of British goods'.

Question 15

How did the idea of Swadeshi help Indians to be united against the British?

Answer

The idea of Swadeshi marked the beginning of a new era by helping Indians to be united against the British in the following way:

  1. It brought into politics new classes of people without any distinction of caste and creed. Many zamindars, women, students and Muslim leaders joined the movement.
  2. It encouraged the establishment of indigenous industries for strengthening the country. Many Swadeshi stores were also setup across the country. This gave employment to a number of people.
  3. It gave impetus to nationalist poetry, prose and journalism.
  4. It gave education a national orientation by drawing a scheme of National education.
  5. It brought nationalism from a realm of theory into the field of practical politics.

Picture Study

Question 1

Study the picture and answer the following questions:

Study the picture and answer the questions. Which movement is shown in this picture? Identify the event that triggered this movement. The British had a hidden agenda behind this event that triggered this movement. What was the hidden agenda? List the impact of the movement shown in this picture. India's Struggle for Freedom - Phase 1, Effective History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 8.

(a) Which movement is shown in this picture? Identify the event that triggered this movement.

(b) The British had a hidden agenda behind this event that triggered this movement. What was the hidden agenda?

(c) List the impact of the movement shown in this picture.

Answer

(a) The movement shown in this picture is Swadeshi movement.

The event that triggered this movement was partition of Bengal.

(b) The hidden agendas behind the Division of Bengal were:

  1. Bengal was the nerve centre of Indian nationalism at that time. So the British hoped to stop the rising tide of nationalism by partitioning Bengal.
  2. It was intended to curb Bengali influence by not only placing Bengalis under two administrations but by reducing them to a minority in Bengal itself.
  3. It was meant to foster division on the basis of religion. East Bengal would be predominantly a Muslim majority state and West Bengal would have a Hindu Majority.

(c) Impacts of Swadeshi movement were:

  1. It brought into politics new classes of people without any distinction of caste and creed. Many zamindars, women, students and Muslim leaders joined the movement.
  2. It encouraged the establishment of indigenous industries for strengthening the country. Many Swadeshi stores were also setup across the country. This gave employment to a number of people.
  3. It gave impetus to nationalist poetry, prose and journalism.
  4. It gave education a national orientation by drawing a scheme of National education.
  5. It brought nationalism from a realm of theory into the field of practical politics.
PrevNext