Tick the correct option
The process of urbanisation usually occurs when a nation is
- still developing ✓
- all of the above
In rural area, people have to depend on .......... for their livelihood
- agriculture ✓
- all of the above
Which of these is not a positive effect of urbanisation
- individual life ✓
- social integration
- exploitation of resources
Urban life is characterised by
- nuclear families
- all of the above ✓
Which is the satellite city of Kolkata?
- Salt Lake City ✓
- None of the above
Fill in the blanks
Growth of industries have expanded employment opportunities.
The number by which the birth rate exceeds the death rate gives the natural growth rate.
Urbanisation gives access to education, health, social services, etc. in cities.
Satellite city is a planned city in the natural growth path of a nearby larger city.
Singapore was crowned as the smartest city on earth.
Barcelona is the capital of Catalonia region in North Eastern Spain.
Give the satellite cities of the following
|Brisbane||Gold Coast, Queensland|
Answer the questions briefly
What is meant by urbanisation?
Urbanisation refers to a process in which an increasing proportion of an entire population lives in cities and the suburbs of the cities.
State the main features of urbanisation.
The main features of urbanisation are-
- Rapid economic growth
- Good employment opportunities
- Good transport network
- Easily available commercial services
- Education facilities
- Medical facilities
- Communication network
- Infrastructural facilities
- Improved standard of living
State and explain any three causes of urbanisation.
Three causes of urbanisation are-
- Industrialisation — Growth of industries has expanded the employment opportunities. As a result, rural people have migrated to cities due to better employment opportunities.
- Search for better job — Agriculture depends on climate and rainfall. Therefore, in drought conditions or natural calamities, rural people have to migrate to cities and towns.
- Modernisation — Rural people get attracted to towns and cities in order to have a comfortable life with better infrastructure, sophisticated technology, better transport and communication facilities, etc.
Explain any five positive effects of urbanisation briefly.
Five positive effects of urbanisation are-
- Creation of employment opportunities — As more and more people migrate to cities, more employment opportunities are created in urban centres, which leads to further development.
- Convenience — Urbanisation gives more access to education, health, social services and cultural activities to people in cities than in villages. Cities have more advanced transport and communication facilities.
- Concentration of educational facilities — In cities, more schools, colleges and universities are established to train and develop human resources. Thus, students have a wide choice for their future career.
- Better social integration — In case of urbanisation, people of many castes and religious groups, live and work together. This creates better understanding among people and helps break down social and cultural barriers in the society.
- Exploitation of resources — Many settlements are established where the natural resources are available.
Explain any four negative effects of urbanisation briefly.
Four negative effects of urbanisation are-
- Problem of overpopulation — Concentration of population becomes a major problem in cities and towns due to overcrowding. This leads to accommodation problem and growth of slums.
- Disintegration of joint family— Due to high cost of living in the cities, it becomes difficult to maintain joint families. People prefer to live in nuclear families.
- High cost of living — It becomes difficult for the lower income groups to maintain a decent standard of living.
- Increase in crime rates — Due to higher concentration of population the crime rate also increases. This creates unrest in the society.
State the basis of ranking the smartest cities in the world.
The basis of ranking the smartest cities in the world are-
- Adoption of smart grid technologies
- Intelligent lighting
- Use of information technology to improve traffic
- Wi-fi access points
- Smartphone penetration
- App landscape, etc.
What is meant by satellite cities? Name any five.
Satellite cities are smaller cities that are near a large city which is the centre of a metropolitan area. Satellite cities are different from suburbs, subdivisions, etc., because they have their own centres.
Five satellite cities are-
- Noida - Satellite of Delhi
- Gurugram - Satellite of Delhi
- Panchkula - Satellite of Chandigarh
- Navi Mumbai - Satellite of Mumbai
- HITEC City - Satellite of Hyderabad
Give reasons for the following
In urban areas, the growth rate is higher than the rural areas.
In urban areas, the growth rate is higher than the rural areas due to better health and medical facilities.
Compared to villages, life in cities is more comfortable.
Compared to villages, life in cities is more comfortable as urban areas have the advantage of better infrastructure, sophisticated technology, better transport and communication facilities, better education and medical facilities.
In cities, urban life is highly monotonous.
In cities, urban life is highly monotonous because the concept of neighbourhood and community life are almost absent. People have no concern for the other human beings as they are more self-centred.
Singapore is one of the world's major smart cities.
Singapore is one of the world's major smart cities because of its smart mobility policies and technology as well as its wireless connectivity. It has made substantial investments in road sensors, phased traffic lights and smart parking. It uses information technology to improve traffic. It has high smartphone penetration and scores well in broadband availability.